Utility and neuroscience: a mechanistic approach of decision-making and rationality

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How neuroeconomics can lead to mechanistic explanations

How neuroeconomics can lead to mechanistic explanations

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  • Hello Benoit, thanks for sharing this presentation! It helped me a lot to understand some questions about consumer behaviour. I was wondering if I could use the model of emotional management in neuroeconomics to evaluate (or create) experiences of players while interacting to games that contain brand messages (advergames). It could be very interesting! Do you have any reference that could include game mechanics? I will research more about it. Thanks for sharing! Cheers!
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  • teşekkürler
    http://www.sinealem.net http://www.muhabbeti.com
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  • Thanks
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  • Great infomation - Pl. mail me at bharat_sanofi@yahoo.co.in
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  • 1. Utility and neuroscience: a mechanistic approach of decision-making and rationality Benoit Hardy-Vallée Department of Philosophy University of Waterloo
  • 2. Neuroeconomics: Definition Methods Results Discussions
  • 3. Definitions • “an emerging transdisciplinary field that uses neuroscientific measurement techniques to identify the neural substrates associated with economic decisions” (Zak, 2004, p. 1737) • “the program for understanding the neural basis of the behavioral response to scarcity”. (Ross 2005, p. 330) • “to understand the processes that connect sensation and action by revealing the neurobiological mechanisms by which decisions are made". (Glimcher & Rustichini, 2004, p. 447)
  • 4. in a nutshell... The study of the neural mechanisms of decision- making and their economic significance
  • 5. Psychology Economic Psychology Neuropsychology Neuroeconomics Economics Neuroscience Computational Neuroscience Bioeconomics Neuroethology Behavioral Ecology
  • 6. 1881 1926 1952 1994 2003 Ramsey’s Hayek Damasio Glimcher Edgeworth’s psychogalvanometer The Sensory Order Descartes’ Error Decisions, uncertainty, hedonimeter and the brain
  • 7. Damasio: emotional rationality orbitofrontal cortex Dolan, R. J. (2002). Emotion, cognition, and behavior. Science, 298(5596), 1191-1194.
  • 8. Neuroeconomic Method model of a decision task Behavioral test Comparison theory/data Mechanisms Neural studies Single-cell recording, Imaging, Hyperscanning, Lesion studies, Neuropsychological patients, Animal models, Computational models
  • 9. a few examples...
  • 10. neuro-shopping Knutson, B., Rick, S., Wimmer, G. E., Prelec, D., & Loewenstein, G. (2007). Neural predictors of purchases. Neuron, 53(1), 147-156.
  • 11. Product Price Choice “mmm... the price is right Chocolate BUY anterior insula < Medial Prefrontal Cortex the price is not right Nucleus DON’T anterior insula > Medial Prefrontal Cortex Accumbens
  • 12. Risk vs. ambiguity greater activation in response to risk than in response to ambiguity. reward computation greater activation in response to ambiguity than in response to risk. fear/vigileance “Affective forecasting” Hsu, M., Bhatt, M., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., & Camerer, C. F. (2005). Neural systems responding to degrees of uncertainty in human decision-making. Science, 310(5754), 1680-1683.
  • 13. Ultimatum Game Proposer $9/$1 $8/$2.... ... ...$1/$9 Responder Accept/reject
  • 14. ‘unfair’ offers trigger moral disgust and cognitive conflict
  • 15. the ‘warm glow’ of cooperation
  • 16. Trust Game 1. x$ 3x$ A. B. x$ x 3= (Y$) (Y$) A. 2. B. (Y-x $) (Y + 3x$)  Z$ 3. A. B. (Y-x)+Z $) (Y + 3x) –Z $)
  • 17. the ‘sweet taste’ of revenge: Punishment is predicted by activity in the striatum
  • 18. Cold machines? Humans do not cooperate with computers Human and computer partners do not elicit the same neural-affective reactions
  • 19. the mechanisms of decision-making
  • 20. Nomological-Deductive Model explanation prediction Universal Law or Nash Equilibrium lawlike principle Conditions Prisoner’ Dilemma Phenomenon Mutual Defection
  • 21. Mechanistic model “A mechanism is a structure performing a function in virtue of its component parts, component operations, and their organization. The orchestrated functioning of the mechanism is responsible for one or more phenomena” Bechtel, W., & Abrahamsen, A. (2005). Explanation: A mechanist alternative. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, C:, 36(2), 421-441.
  • 22. ex: memory mechanisms Craver, C. F. (2002). Interlevel experiments and multilevel mechanisms in the neuroscience of memory. Philosophy of Science, 69, S83–S97.
  • 23. Trust: Culture, norms, institutions Trust behavior Cognitive heuristics Neural basis Molecular interactions
  • 24. advantages of mechanistic models: causal entities ‘carve nature at its joints’ better integration with other domains can be simulated by computational neuroscience (partly) immune against pessimism (bounded rationality) and optimism (ecological rationality) “Inferring preferences from a choice does not tell us everything we need to know”(Camerer et al., 2004, p. 563). Camerer, C. F., Loewenstein, G., & Prelec, D. (2004). Neuroeconomics: Why economics needs brains. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 106(3), 555-579.
  • 25. Rationality?
  • 26. maximizing utility as “emotional management”
  • 27. [Regret forecasting] Counterfactual Utility [regrets] [Affective forecasting] [Regret /rejoicing] Predicted Utility Remembered Experienced Utility Utility [prediction error] Decision [Hedonic affect] Utility [Valuation] 27
  • 28. Irrationality?
  • 29. Miswanting: misevaluating future experienced. utility Misprediction of regret ‘irrational pursuit’: Decision utility > Predicted Utility
  • 30. Thanks ! benoithv@gmail.com http://decisis.net   Natural Rationality Blog:  http://naturalrationality.blogspot.com