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  • 1. Music and Theater From Japan By: Mr. Benoit
  • 2. History of Japanese Music  Japanese music began to be performed with festivals and ceremonies  Originally performed on drums and flutes  Music was imported from Korea and China
  • 3. Gagaku  Meaning “Court Music”, Gagaku was a general name for music performed in a court, or formal, setting  It is one of the oldest orchestral styles of music still performed today, lasting for over 1300 years
  • 4. Instruments - Sho  The Sho is made of reeds, and is played upright with the performer blowing through the reeds
  • 5. Instruments - Hichiriki  Another wind instrument from the flute family, the Hichiriki resembles a recorder, but is also made of reeds
  • 6. Instruments - Biwa  Resembling a lute, or small guitar, the Biwa is a pear-shaped instrument made with silk strings and played with a large pick called a Bachi
  • 7. Instruments - Koto  A long instrument with many strings, the Koto uses movable bridges to create different pitches
  • 8. Instruments - Taiko  A large drum used in Gagaku  Multiple drums use the name Taiko, but are characterized mostly by their large size
  • 9. Gagaku Orchestra
  • 10. Gagaku Orchestra
  • 11. Gagaku Today  Much like our orchestral music, the works of great musicians from the past 1300 years are often performed  Although Gagaku has changed throughout history, many efforts have been made to keep the music as close to tradition as possible  Almost 50 years ago, Gagaku musicians decided to include modern influences, and Gagaku has continued to change
  • 12. Dance and Theater  Music is closely tied to the popular classical theater styles in Japan  The three types of theater in Japan are Noh, Kabuki, and Bunraku  Each features different musical accompaniment, but the music remains important through each performance  We will examine the two most popular and distinct: Kabuki and Bunraku
  • 13. Kabuki  Kabuki is a Japanese stage play involving music accompaniment and very intricate, dance-like movements  Actors wear elaborate costumes and make-up in order to create a greater experience for the audience  Stages usually include large sets with movable floors and trick doors
  • 14. Kabuki Music  Kabuki music is often played on a guitar-like instrument called the Shamisen  The Shamisen is similar to the Biwa, but with a smaller body
  • 15. Kabuki Music  Pictured here is a Kabuki ensemble: the shamisen players sit on the top right side, with the chorus on the left and percussionists in the bottom row
  • 16. Bunraku  Bunraku is Japanese puppet theater  Each puppet is half the size of a real person, and is operated by three people  All puppets are voiced by one person, who also provides the narration for the story
  • 17. Bunraku Music  Bunraku is also accompanied by the Shamisen, used in Kabuki  The pace of the music directly reflects the action seen on stage  Pictured here is a shamisen player with the narrator keeping pace with the music
  • 18. Bunraku Puppets  Three masked puppeteers work to bring this puppet to life
  • 19. References  Kabuki and Bunraku. (2013). Retrieved from: http://www.japan-guide.com/  Institute for Medieval Japanese Studies. (2013). Gagaku Japanese Classical Music. Retrieved from: http://www.medievaljapanesestudies.org/current- activities-programs/gagaku-classical-japanese- music.html  Web Japan. (n.d.). About Japanese Music. Retrieved from: http://web- japan.org/museum/music/about_mu.html
  • 20. Images  Jyoshiki. (2006). Kabuki Theater. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/jyoshiki/2275354382/  TANAKA Juuyoh. (2010). Japanase Free Reed Musical Instrument (Sho). Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tanaka_juuyoh/439991889  Carolien Coenen. (2010). Kitanodai Gagaku Kai concert in Leuven. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/carolienc/5214200322/  Peter Roan. (2008). Heike Biwa. Retreived from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterjr1961/2302728119/
  • 21. Images cont.  Timothy Takemoto. (2009). Koto (Japanese Harp). Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nihonbunka/3352647159/  Marshall Astor. (2006). Koto – Front View. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lifeontheedge/246580811/  Karan J. (2005). Taiko. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/karanj/31869475/  Mapemono. (2003). Taiko. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/10218436@N00/51136061
  • 22. Images cont.  Bladsurb. (2009). gagaku à pleyel. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bladsurb/3942666278/  Juha Uitto. (2012). Tenri Gagaku. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/12810816@N08/72898442  Chris Lewis. (2008). Kosaka Kabuki. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrissam42/2644359816/  Susan Renee. (2002). Bunraku (Puppets). Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/susanrenee/426972395/
  • 23. Images cont.  Wexner Center. (2007). Kerry James Marshall Japan Visit. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/wexnercenter/1285355971  Dalbera. (2008). Fumie Hihara, au shamisen (danse du Kabuki / musée Guimet). Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dalbera/3052313015/  Carolien Coenen. (2010). Kitanodai Gagaku Kai concert in Leuven. Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/carolienc/5214203812/