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Substantiv
 

Substantiv

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    Substantiv Substantiv Document Transcript

    • NOUNS Count nouns have two forms, singular and plural. Singular count nouns generally take a determiner. Plural count nouns do not need a determiner: e.g. A plane is quicker than a train. Planes are quicker than trains.1. THE PLURAL OF COUNT NOUNS1. Most nouns add -s to form the plural:boy - boys /z/ cat - cats /s/2. Nouns ending in -ss. -s, -se, -eh, -sh, -xadd -es /iz/: glass - glasses bus - buses rose - roses3. Some nouns ending in -o add -es, othersadd -s: domino - dominoes Negro - Negroes echo - echoes potato - potatoes BUT hero - heroes tomato - tomatoes4. a) Nouns ending in a consonant plus -ychange to -ies:country - countries party - partiesb) Nouns ending in a vowel plus -y add -s: boy - boys day - (lays key - keys5. Some nouns ending in -f or -fe substitute-ves for -f or -fe: calf - calves life - lives half - halves loaf - loaves knife - knives scarves - scarves leaf - leaves shelf - shelves6 Some count nouns have irregular plurals: child - children louse - lice foot - feet man - men goose - geese mouse - mice
    • 7. Some count nouns have the same form for both singular anid plural: e.g. His favourite was a big white sheep. The sheep were grazing in the field.aircraftcrossroadsdeerdice watch – watches dish – dishes box - boxes photo - photos piano - pianos radio - radios story - stories victory victories ray - rays toy - toys thief - thieves wife - wives wolf - wolves ox - oxen tooth - teeth woman - women shee p spac ecraf t speci es fish (in some cases) fruit (in some cases) hovercraft
    • series8. Some count nouns are usually plural and are followed by a pluralverb. These nouns refer to single items that have two linked parts.They are:
    • - nouns referring to clothes or other things that people wear: (sun) glasses knickers pyjamas slacks jeans pants shorts spectacles tights trousers- nouns referring to tools or other things that people use: binoculars pincers compasses (the drawing instrument) pliers nutcrackers scales scissors shears tongsTHE PLURAL OF COUNT NOUNS1. Uncount nouns often refer to: - substances: coal, coffee, food, ice, iron, rice, satfc/, steel - human qualities: courage, cruelty, honesty, patience -feelings: anger, happiness, hope, joy, pride, relief respect - activities: travel, sleep, work - abstract ideas: beauty, freedom, fun, luck2. Uncount nouns have only one form and takea singular verb. They are not used with a or withnumbers: e.g. His courage was praised by everybody. The money is on the table.3. Some nouns which are uncount in English haveplurals in other languages: e.g.* Weve got a lot of luggage, but its not heavy. The soldiers equipment was wet with rain. advice homework machinery progress baggage housework merchandise research business information money spaghetti equipment knowledge news strength furniture luggage nonsense4. Uncount nouns are not used with numbers, butyou can refer to a quantity or an item of somethingby using words or expressions like some, a loaf of,packets of, a piece of. A bit of is common in spokenEnglish. e.g. Mother bought some bread and rice.250
    • I. COUNT NOUNSGRAMMAR COMPENDIUM He needed some advice so I gave it to him. Isabel bought two loaves of bread. The receptionist gave him a piece of valuable information. He confessed to having a bit of knowledge on the matter. 5. Some uncount nouns that refer to food or drink can be count nouns when they refer to quantities of the food or drink: e.g. Do you like coffee? (uncount) He ordered two coffees, (count) Some nouns are uncount nouns when they refer to something in general and count nouns when they refer to a particular instance of something: e.g. She never gave up hope, (uncount) Roger has high hopes his boss will promote him by the end of the year, (count) 6. Some uncount nouns end in -s and therefore look like plural count nouns. They refer to: - subjects of study: aeronautics, astronautics, electronics, mathematics, physics, politics - sports events: aerobics, athletics, gymnastics - games: billiards, cards, checkers, darts - illnesses: diabetes, measles, mumps e.g. Mathematics is one of the most important sciences. Billiards is played on a special table with pockets.___________________________
    • NOUNS Count nouns have two forms, singular and plural. Singular count nouns generally take a determiner. Plural count nouns do not need a determiner: e.g. A plane is quicker than a train. Planes are quicker than trains.2. THE PLURAL OF COUNT NOUNS6. Most nouns add -s to form the plural:boy - boys /z/ cat - cats /s/7. Nouns ending in -ss. -s, -se, -eh, -sh, -xadd -es /iz/: glass - glasses bus - buses rose - roses8. Some nouns ending in -o add -es, othersadd -s: domino - dominoes Negro - Negroes echo - echoes potato - potatoes BUT hero - heroes tomato - tomatoes9. a) Nouns ending in a consonant plus -ychange to -ies:country - countries party - partiesb) Nouns ending in a vowel plus -y add -s: boy - boys day - (lays key - keys10. Some nouns ending in -f or -fe substitute-ves for -f or -fe: calf - calves life - lives half - halves loaf - loaves knife - knives scarves - scarves leaf - leaves shelf - shelves6 Some count nouns have irregular plurals: child - children louse - lice foot - feet man - men goose - geese mouse - mice7. Some count nouns have the same formfor both singular anid plural: 250
    • I. COUNT NOUNS GRAMMAR COMPENDIUM e.g. His favourite was a big white sheep. The sheep were grazing in the field.aircraftcrossroadsdeerdice watch – watches dish – dishes box - boxes photo - photos piano - pianos radio - radios story - stories victory victories ray - rays toy - toys thief - thieves wife - wives wolf - wolves ox - oxen tooth - teeth woman - women shee p spac ecraf t speci es fish (in some cases) fruit (in some cases) hovercraft
    • series8. Some count nouns are usually plural and are followed by a pluralverb. These nouns refer to single items that have two linked parts.They are: - nouns referring to clothes or other things that people wear: (sun) glasses knickers pyjamas slacks jeans pants shorts spectacles - nouns referring to tools or other things that people use: binoculars pincers compasses (the drawing instrument) pliers nutcrackers scales tight s trou scis sers sor s she ars 250 ton gs
    • series8. Some count nouns are usually plural and are followed by a pluralverb. These nouns refer to single items that have two linked parts.They are: - nouns referring to clothes or other things that people wear: (sun) glasses knickers pyjamas slacks jeans pants shorts spectacles - nouns referring to tools or other things that people use: binoculars pincers compasses (the drawing instrument) pliers nutcrackers scales tight s trou scis sers sor s she ars 250 ton gs
    • series8. Some count nouns are usually plural and are followed by a pluralverb. These nouns refer to single items that have two linked parts.They are: - nouns referring to clothes or other things that people wear: (sun) glasses knickers pyjamas slacks jeans pants shorts spectacles - nouns referring to tools or other things that people use: binoculars pincers compasses (the drawing instrument) pliers nutcrackers scales tight s trou scis sers sor s she ars 250 ton gs