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Ch2.1 mini lecture

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  • 1. Civilization Begins in Mesopotamia:Short Answers and Essential Question
  • 2.  little rain, but soil enriched by layers of silt deposited by the overflowing of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers flooding , due to spring run-off, was unpredictable, and sometimes caused damaging floods people learned how to control the flooding (irrigation and drainage ditches) made it possible to grow an abundance food promoted agriculture and supported cities, where trade and industry could thrive
  • 3.  first Sumerian city with population of 50,000 people by 2700 B.C. walled city with defensive towers and dwellings made of mud bricks dwellings of different sizes, indicating a social structure consisting of peasants and of people with higher status (city officials, priests & priestesses)
  • 4.  most prominent building in a Sumerian city was the temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city, often built atop a ziggurat priest or priestess who supervised this temple had great power (surplus food and crafts stored here) Sumerians believed that gods ruled their cities even when ruled by a king, it was believed that these rulers derived their power from the gods (divine authority)
  • 5.  farming trade (bartered with civilizations in Eastern Mediterranean and India wool, barley, dried fish, wheat and metal goods for imported copper, tin and timber) industry (tools and jewelry made of bronze)
  • 6.  nobles (royalty and priests & their families) commoners (servants, farmers, merchants, fishers, and artisans) slaves (used for building projects, weaving, grinding grain, as workers for rich landowners)
  • 7. achievement effect on our lives todaycuneiform (Sumerian form of writing) basis for modern forms of communicationthe wheel cars, trucks, etc. still use wheels
  • 8.  potters wheel sundial first to use bronze devised a number system based on 60 used geometry to measure fields & erect buildings charted the heavenly constellations
  • 9.  If anyone commits a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death. If a man wishes to separate from a woman who has borne him children, or from his wife who has borne him children, then he shall give that wife her dowry, and a part of the usufruct (right of use) of field , garden, and property, so that she can rear her children. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
  • 10.  severe penalties for criminal offenses officials held strictly accountable for enforcing laws regulated marriage patriarchal society women had rights (although not as many as men)
  • 11. characteristic evidence in Mesopotamia? time (approximate)cities? Eridu, Ur, Uuk 3500-500 B.C.government? kings, Code of Hammurabireligion? priests & priestesses, ziggurat, 2100 B.C.social structure? nobles, commoners, slaves 3500-500 B.C.writing? cuneiform 3500 B.C.art? Epic of Gilgamesh, Standard of Ur 2700 B.C.
  • 12. The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic inAkkadian
  • 13. depicting a a border skirmish (excavated in Ur in 1920 – now in British Museum
  • 14. portrays a banquet scene – attendants parade animals, fish, and other goods(possibly war booty) before seated figures, while a lyrist entertains the throng