Why aDigestive System ?Kingdom AnimaliaHeterotrophism
Digestive System General Function for the …The digestive system is responsibleIntake and breakdown of complex foods into t...
Six Major Digestive ProcessesINGESTIONPROPULSIONMECHANICAL DIGESTIONCHEMICAL DIGESTIONABSORPTION (of nutrients)DEFECATION ...
GI                AccessoryTractOral Cavity                  Organs                       TeethEsophagus                  ...
GI Tract andAccessory Organs
Appendicitis
Functional Anatomy    of the Digestive SystemPart IOral CavityPharynxEsophagus
Digestive Processes of the OralCavityINGESTIONMECHANICAL DIGESTIONCHEMICAL DIGESTION
Oral CavityBorders:  Anterior t Lips                               *** Lateral Cheeks Superior Palate (Hard/soft) Inferior...
Oral Cavity cont’dSalivary glands secrete saliva!Saliva components:       water, amylase, mucin, lysozymeSalivation contro...
3 pairs of Salivary GlandsParotidSubmandibularSublingualSaliva functions:LubricationCleansingChemical digestion
Oral Cavity cont’.Palate:Hard Palate bony anterior regionSoft Palate muscular posterior regionUvula
Oral Cavity cont Teeth Function in MASTICATION Work with tongue, saliva, and palate to form BOLUS. Bolus is swallowed at p...
Deglutition (Swallowing)
THE ESOPHAGUS carries bolus from oral cavity tostomach.PERISTALSIS  the automatic, involuntary,continuous propulsion of fo...
ISTALSIS
Functional Anatomy contPART IIThe STOMACH
Digestive Processes of theStomachStorage tankChemical digestion of proteinsMechanical digestionBolus i ChymeVolume— 50 ml ...
Divided into four regions    cardiac region    fundus    body    pyloric regionLesser curvature--lesseromentumGreater curv...
Gastric SphinctersCardiac SphincterPyloric SphincterFunctions:Regulates/controls propulsion of food into/out of thestomach
Cardiac sphincterPyloric sphincter
Peristaltic Waves in the Stomach!
What is Gastric Juice?A collection of chemicals produced by a variety of cells liningthe gastric pits!Examples:   CELL TYP...
So How’s It All Related?Bolus enters stomach through cardiac sphincterStomach distends (stretches)Receptors detect stretch...
The Effect of It All?Stomach Distension/Muscle Contraction:   Completion of Mechanical DigestionAcidic Environment:   Bolu...
Stomach Disorders/Conditions Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastritis Gastric Ulcer Emesis
PART IIISMALL INTESTINEACCESSORYSTRUCTURESLIVERGALL BLADDERPANCREAS
Small IntestineThree Regions:Duodenum~1 ftJejunum~8 ftIleum~12 ft
Digestive Processesof the Small IntestineCHEMICAL DIGESTION OF…CARBOHYDRATESPROTEINSLIPIDSNUTRIENT ABSORPTION!!
Microscopic Anatomy of theSmall Intestine Mucosa Circular folds (“plicae circulares”) Slow propulsion of chyme Villi Finge...
(Location of duodenal gl
Before Nutrient Absorptionoccurs…  CHEMICAL DIGESTION MUST BE COMPLETED IN THE SMALL INTESTINE  THROUGH ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY!
But There’s a Problem… THE SMALLINTESTINE LACKSCELLS THATPRODUCE/SECRETEDIGESTIVE ENZYMES!
Accessory Structures to theRescue
LIVERLargest internal organ of the bodyOver 500 metabolic functionsDigestive Function:Produces BILE for chemical digestion...
GALL BLADDERSmall sac embedded in liverStores bile produced by liver
Bile PathwayProduced in LiverTravels from Liver to Gall BladderReleased from Gall bladder via cystic ductCystic duct fuses...
PANCREAS Embedded within outer duodenum Produces PANCREATIC JUICE containing: Secretes PJ into duodenum via common bile du...
PART IVTHE LARGE INTESTINE (aka COLON)
Digestive Processes of theLarge Intestine  ABSORPTION OF: WATER VITAMINS PRODUCTION OF VITAMIN K E. coli; bacterial flora ...
Regions of the ColonCecumappendixAscending colonTransverse colonDescending colonSigmoid colonrectumanus
Microscopic AnatomyMucosa   Goblet cells!   thick mucusLubrication/movement of fecesProtection against bacterial flora
MuscularisTight band arrangement (Taniae coli)Haustra formation
Taniae coliHaustra of ascending colon        ileum             Colonoscopy of a Healthy Colon     cecumVermiform appendix
FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER
Destructionremoved dailyOld, worn out RBC’s                    of RBC’s~120 days:RBC’s collect in spleenMacrophages in spl...
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Digestive system

  1. 1. Why aDigestive System ?Kingdom AnimaliaHeterotrophism
  2. 2. Digestive System General Function for the …The digestive system is responsibleIntake and breakdown of complex foods into two categories:Useable materials (nutrients)Non-useable materials (wastes)
  3. 3. Six Major Digestive ProcessesINGESTIONPROPULSIONMECHANICAL DIGESTIONCHEMICAL DIGESTIONABSORPTION (of nutrients)DEFECATION (of wastes)
  4. 4. GI AccessoryTractOral Cavity Organs TeethEsophagus TongueStomach Gall BladderSmall Intestine GlandsLarge Intestine LiverAnus Pancreas Salivary
  5. 5. GI Tract andAccessory Organs
  6. 6. Appendicitis
  7. 7. Functional Anatomy of the Digestive SystemPart IOral CavityPharynxEsophagus
  8. 8. Digestive Processes of the OralCavityINGESTIONMECHANICAL DIGESTIONCHEMICAL DIGESTION
  9. 9. Oral CavityBorders: Anterior t Lips *** Lateral Cheeks Superior Palate (Hard/soft) Inferior n TongueTongue: Accessory Organ for:
  10. 10. Oral Cavity cont’dSalivary glands secrete saliva!Saliva components: water, amylase, mucin, lysozymeSalivation controlled by PNS
  11. 11. 3 pairs of Salivary GlandsParotidSubmandibularSublingualSaliva functions:LubricationCleansingChemical digestion
  12. 12. Oral Cavity cont’.Palate:Hard Palate bony anterior regionSoft Palate muscular posterior regionUvula
  13. 13. Oral Cavity cont Teeth Function in MASTICATION Work with tongue, saliva, and palate to form BOLUS. Bolus is swallowed at pharynx, prevented from entering trachea by epiglottis and passed to esophagus Automatic Propulsion of food (PERISTALSIS) begins!
  14. 14. Deglutition (Swallowing)
  15. 15. THE ESOPHAGUS carries bolus from oral cavity tostomach.PERISTALSIS the automatic, involuntary,continuous propulsion of foodthrough the GI tract.
  16. 16. ISTALSIS
  17. 17. Functional Anatomy contPART IIThe STOMACH
  18. 18. Digestive Processes of theStomachStorage tankChemical digestion of proteinsMechanical digestionBolus i ChymeVolume— 50 ml eRugae allow for expansionEnervated by ANS
  19. 19. Divided into four regions cardiac region fundus body pyloric regionLesser curvature--lesseromentumGreater curvature--greater omentum 19
  20. 20. Gastric SphinctersCardiac SphincterPyloric SphincterFunctions:Regulates/controls propulsion of food into/out of thestomach
  21. 21. Cardiac sphincterPyloric sphincter
  22. 22. Peristaltic Waves in the Stomach!
  23. 23. What is Gastric Juice?A collection of chemicals produced by a variety of cells liningthe gastric pits!Examples: CELL TYPE SECRETIONMucus Neck Cells mucusParietal Cells HClChief Cells Pepsinogenl PepsinEnteroendocrine Cells Hormones
  24. 24. So How’s It All Related?Bolus enters stomach through cardiac sphincterStomach distends (stretches)Receptors detect stretch stimulusGastrin secretedGastrin stimulates secretion of HCl by Parietal CellsHCl stimulates conversion of pepsinogen (produced bychief cells) to pepsin!
  25. 25. The Effect of It All?Stomach Distension/Muscle Contraction: Completion of Mechanical DigestionAcidic Environment: Bolus ChymePepsinogen mPepsin:
  26. 26. Stomach Disorders/Conditions Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastritis Gastric Ulcer Emesis
  27. 27. PART IIISMALL INTESTINEACCESSORYSTRUCTURESLIVERGALL BLADDERPANCREAS
  28. 28. Small IntestineThree Regions:Duodenum~1 ftJejunum~8 ftIleum~12 ft
  29. 29. Digestive Processesof the Small IntestineCHEMICAL DIGESTION OF…CARBOHYDRATESPROTEINSLIPIDSNUTRIENT ABSORPTION!!
  30. 30. Microscopic Anatomy of theSmall Intestine Mucosa Circular folds (“plicae circulares”) Slow propulsion of chyme Villi Finger-like projections w/ capillaries in center Microvilli Small projections of cells that absorb nutrients (aka absorptive cells)
  31. 31. (Location of duodenal gl
  32. 32. Before Nutrient Absorptionoccurs… CHEMICAL DIGESTION MUST BE COMPLETED IN THE SMALL INTESTINE THROUGH ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY!
  33. 33. But There’s a Problem… THE SMALLINTESTINE LACKSCELLS THATPRODUCE/SECRETEDIGESTIVE ENZYMES!
  34. 34. Accessory Structures to theRescue
  35. 35. LIVERLargest internal organ of the bodyOver 500 metabolic functionsDigestive Function:Produces BILE for chemical digestion of LIPIDS
  36. 36. GALL BLADDERSmall sac embedded in liverStores bile produced by liver
  37. 37. Bile PathwayProduced in LiverTravels from Liver to Gall BladderReleased from Gall bladder via cystic ductCystic duct fuses with bile ductBile duct drains bile into duodenum of small intestine
  38. 38. PANCREAS Embedded within outer duodenum Produces PANCREATIC JUICE containing: Secretes PJ into duodenum via common bile duct amylases proteases Lipases nucleases
  39. 39. PART IVTHE LARGE INTESTINE (aka COLON)
  40. 40. Digestive Processes of theLarge Intestine ABSORPTION OF: WATER VITAMINS PRODUCTION OF VITAMIN K E. coli; bacterial flora PROPULSION OF FECES FOR DEFECATION
  41. 41. Regions of the ColonCecumappendixAscending colonTransverse colonDescending colonSigmoid colonrectumanus
  42. 42. Microscopic AnatomyMucosa Goblet cells! thick mucusLubrication/movement of fecesProtection against bacterial flora
  43. 43. MuscularisTight band arrangement (Taniae coli)Haustra formation
  44. 44. Taniae coliHaustra of ascending colon ileum Colonoscopy of a Healthy Colon cecumVermiform appendix
  45. 45. FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER
  46. 46. Destructionremoved dailyOld, worn out RBC’s of RBC’s~120 days:RBC’s collect in spleenMacrophages in spleen break down RBC’sFe in heme gets recycledRemainder of heme broken down to bilirubinBilirubin binds to plasma albumin, sent to liverLiver sends bilirubin to intestineLeaves body in feces
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