Replication features, technologies and 3rd party Extinction
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Replication features, technologies and 3rd party Extinction Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Replication features, technologies and 3rd party Extinction.Percona Live London MySQL Conference, 2012Andrew Moore Ben MildrenMySQL DBA MySQL Team Technical Leadmoore@pythian.com mildren@pythian.com
  • 2. Why Pythian? • Recognized Leader: • Global industry leader in data infrastructure managed services and consulting with expertise in Oracle, Oracle Applications, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL, big data and systems administration • Work with over 200 multinational companies such as Forbes.com, Fox Sports, Nordion and Western Union to help manage their complex IT deployments • Expertise: • One of the world’s largest concentrations of dedicated, full-time DBA expertise. Employ 9 Oracle ACEs/ACE Directors • Hold 7 Specializations under Oracle Platinum Partner program, including Oracle Exadata, Oracle GoldenGate & Oracle RAC • Global Reach & Scalability: • 24/7/365 global remote support for DBA and consulting, systems administration, special projects or emergency response © 2012 – Pythian
  • 3. What do we cover in this presentation?1) MySQL Replication Overview2) MySQL Replication Topologies3) MySQL Replication Ecosystem4) MySQL Replication Tools5) MySQL Replication in 5.66) MySQL Replication Tools in 5.6 © 2012 – Pythian
  • 4. MySQL Replication Overview
  • 5. What is replication?• MySQL Replication is a means of propagating database changes from one server to another.• Master / Slave architecture• MySQL Replication is easy to setup and can be used as the basis of a number of different functions: Reporting Scale out Testing Failover Backups © 2012 – Pythian
  • 6. Native Replication Overview © 2012 – Pythian
  • 7. Native Replication Overview © 2012 – Pythian
  • 8. Native Replication Overview © 2012 – Pythian
  • 9. Native Replication Overview © 2012 – Pythian
  • 10. Native Replication Overview © 2012 – Pythian
  • 11. Native Replication Overview © 2012 – Pythian
  • 12. Native Replication Overview © 2012 – Pythian
  • 13. Binary Log• The binary log was introduced in version 3.23.14, and records events to capture changes made to the database.• DDL, DCL, and DML – includes transaction grouping.• Not equivalent to a redo log.• Not just used for Replication, but also for Point in Time Recovery. Its also a good source of information to use for auditing and troubleshooting.• Can be examined using the mysqlbinlog tool or SHOW BINLOG EVENTS; MySQL statement. © 2012 – Pythian
  • 14. Binary Log © 2012 – Pythian
  • 15. Binary Log Statement based logging• Captures just the SQL statements, means logging is lightweight and binlog storage requirements are minimized.• Non-deterministic statements can mean its prone to data drift. Row based logging• Introduced in 5.1• More verbose, as a result can mean larger binary logs, but also less data drift. Mixed format logging• By default uses statement based logging, but switches to row based logging for unsafe statements. © 2012 – Pythian
  • 16. Binary Log Binary log – Format_desc[ec2 mysql]$ sudo mysqlbinlog mysqld-bin.000001/*!40019 SET @@session.max_insert_delayed_threads=0*/;/*!50003 SET @OLD_COMPLETION_TYPE=@@COMPLETION_TYPE,COMPLETION_TYPE=0*/;DELIMITER /*!*/;# at 4#121112 3:05:24 server id 6 end_log_pos 106 Start: binlog v 4, server v5.1.61-log created 121112 3:05:24BINLOG xK2gUA8GAAAAZgAAAGoAAAAAAAQANS4xLjYxLWxvZwAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEzgNAAgAEgAEBAQEEgAAUwAEGggAAAAICAgC/*!*/; • Binlog v4 introduced MySQL 4.1 (v1 – 3.23, v3 – 4.02 - 4.1, v2 – redundant) • Server version • end_log_pos: 98 (5.0), 106 (5.1), 107 (5.5), 120 (5.6) © 2012 – Pythian
  • 17. Binary Log Binary log - Statement based logging[ec2 mysql]$ sudo mysqlbinlog mysqld-bin.000001...# at 106...# at 127924#121112 3:50:03 server id 6 end_log_pos 128160 Querythread_id=18112805 exec_time=0 error_code=0SET TIMESTAMP=1352710203/*!*/;UPDATE t1 SET c2 = ben WHERE c1 = 1/*!*/;... © 2012 – Pythian
  • 18. Binary Log Binary log - Row based logging[ec2 mysql]$ sudo mysqlbinlog -vvv mysqld-bin.000001# at 2609282#121129 0:24:19 server id 6 end_log_pos 2609282 Table_map: `db1`.`t1`mapped to number 9057#121129 0:24:19 server id 6 end_log_pos 2609389 Write_rows: table id9057 flags: STMT_END_FBINLOG g/GUBMGAAAAQAAEjAAAAAAEABWAAPYTHIANROCKSAAAMVyX3Nlc3Npb24ABwMHB/4DDw8G/kD/ADIAdA==g/GUBcGAAEAB//kn2U5AIPxtlBAMmM0MTYyYWE2MmQxMTAMAMAMAI4OTdhMxMWMxNHciBwA=/*!*/;### INSERT INTO db1.t1### SET### @1=2 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */### @2=andy /* VARCHAR(10) meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */### @3=NULL /* TIMESTAMP meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */### @4=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 19. Binary Log © 2012 – Pythian
  • 20. Binary Log © 2012 – Pythian
  • 21. Relay Log • The relay log is a binary log • end_log_pos relates to master binlog not the event size[ec2 mysql]$ sudo mysqlbinlog -vvv –base64-output=decode-rows relay-bin.000001# at 2609427#121129 0:24:19 server id 6 end_log_pos 2609282 Table_map: `db1`.`t1`mapped to number 9057#121129 0:24:19 server id 6 end_log_pos 2609389 Write_rows: table id9057 flags: STMT_END_F### INSERT INTO db1.t1### SET### @1=2 /* INT meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */### @2=andy /* VARCHAR(10) meta=0 nullable=0 is_null=0 */### @3=NULL /* TIMESTAMP meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=1 */### @4=1 /* INT meta=0 nullable=1 is_null=0 */ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 22. Relay Log © 2012 – Pythian
  • 23. Replication Filters• binlog-do-db and binlog-ignore-db - Filters on the master• Replicate-do-db, replicate-ignore-db, replicate-do-table, and replicate-ignore-table - Filters on the slave.• Replicate-wild-do-table and replicate-wild-ignore-table - Filter on the slave.• Can have unforeseen consequences, Row based logging tends to have the best results. Additionally has implication on point in time recovery.• Column based filtering – Slave has more/fewer columns• Row based filtering – Triggers © 2012 – Pythian
  • 24. Replication Administration SHOW SLAVE STATUSG*************************** 1. row *************************** Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event Master_Host: repl_host... Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000118 (IO_thread) Read_Master_Log_Pos: 137492455 (IO_thread) Relay_Log_File: mysqld-relay-bin.000011 (Relay Log) Relay_Log_Pos: 131560187 (Relay Log Pos) Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql-bin.000118 (SQL_thread) Slave_IO_Running: Yes Slave_SQL_Running: Yes Replicate_Do_DB: Replicate_Ignore_DB: Replicate_Do_Table: Replicate_Ignore_Table: Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table:... Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 137492455 (SQL_thread)... Seconds_Behind_Master: 0... © 2012 – Pythian
  • 25. Communication © 2012 – Pythian
  • 26. Communication Asynchronous replication• Built in, default, replication method, doesnt require any additional configuration.• Lightweight, doesnt wait for any remote confirmations.• Highest performance, lowest durability. Semi-Syncronous replication• Introduced in 5.5, implemented using plug-ins on master and slave.• Waits for confirmation that an event from the binary log on the master has been written to the relay log of at least 1 slave.• Reverts to asynchronous replication if the confirmation times out. © 2012 – Pythian
  • 27. Communication © 2012 – Pythian
  • 28. Native Replication Overview © 2012 – Pythian
  • 29. MySQL Replication Topologies
  • 30. Master / Slave(s) © 2012 – Pythian
  • 31. Master / Relay © 2012 – Pythian
  • 32. Master / Master © 2012 – Pythian
  • 33. Circular © 2012 – Pythian
  • 34. Multiple Master (Fan-in) © 2012 – Pythian
  • 35. Replication Ecosystem
  • 36. Replication Ecosystem Replication Ecosystem Ecosystem within Ecosystem © 2012 – Pythian
  • 37. Replication EcosystemOverview Products Tungsten Replicator Galera Master High Availability Tools Data Consistency Prefetching Maintainence Monitoring © 2012 – Pythian
  • 38. Replication Ecosystem Wait...replication doesnt rock?Replace Compliment Improve © 2012 – Pythian
  • 39. ContinuentTungsten Replicator (Talking here at Percona Live) https://code.google.com/p/tungsten-replicator/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 40. Replication EcosystemTungsten Replicator● External to MySQL Replication (but depends on binlog)● Cross version (5.1, 5.5), cross fork (Percona, Oracle...)● Global Transaction IDs● Parallel Replication● Heterogeneous Environments (MySQL → Oracle → Postgres, ...)● Complex topologies, Multiple masters with single slave● Time-Delay replication● Auto Provisioning tools● Enterprise functionality and support available https://code.google.com/p/tungsten-replicator/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 41. Replication EcosystemTungsten Replicator High level overview of Tungsten https://code.google.com/p/tungsten-replicator/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 42. Replication EcosystemTungsten Replicator Replication Jackpot? https://code.google.com/p/tungsten-replicator/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 43. Replication EcosystemTungsten ReplicatorNice to know ● Relies on the binglog ● Another product to learn, configure, maintain ● New considerations for monitoring (Nagios plugins etc) Further Reading: http://code.google.com/p/tungsten-replicator/wiki/TungstenReplicatorCookbook https://s3.amazonaws.com/releases.continuent.com/doc/replicator- 2.0.4/html/Tungsten-Replicator-Guide/content/index.html http://datacharmer.blogspot.co.uk https://launchpad.net/galera/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 44. Codership Galera Cluster (also here at PLUK!) https://launchpad.net/galera/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 45. Replication EcosystemGalera● Synchronous replication (no slave lag)● No SPOF● Simplified high availability using JDBC/PHP connectors● Multi threaded slaves (row level)● Consistency guaranteed● Scalable reads & writes● True Master-Master Active-Active (read/write on any node)● XtraDB Cluster, MariaDB support● Auto Provisioning tools● Commercial support available https://launchpad.net/galera/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 46. Replication EcosystemGalera High level overview of Galera https://launchpad.net/galera/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 47. Replication EcosystemGaleraNice to know ● InnoDB only ● Synchronicity adds overhead ● As fast as the slowest node Further Reading: http://codership.com/content/using-galera-cluster http://www.severalnines.com/clustercontrol-mysql-galera-tutorial http://openlife.cc/search/node/galera https://launchpad.net/galera/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 48. Master High Availability http://code.google.com/p/mysql-master-ha © 2012 – Pythian
  • 49. Replication EcosystemMHA● Not a replication product● Simplifies Failover● Takes care of re-aligning slaves● Elects most up-to-date slave to promote as new Master● Automated monitoring and failover of Master● Interactive failover● Failover without the monitoring or the interactivity● Online switching masters (think maintenance)● Commercial support available from SkySQL http://code.google.com/p/mysql-master-ha/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 50. Replication EcosystemMHASimplified Overview of MHA slave promotion 1. 2. 3. http://code.google.com/p/mysql-master-ha/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 51. Replication EcosystemMHANice to know ● No automated failback (not a bad thing!) ● Manager node now a SPOF unless clustered (heartbeat?) ● Author now working at Facebook so ? Around future development of the tool. Further Reading: http://code.google.com/p/tungsten-replicator/wiki/TungstenReplicatorCookbook https://s3.amazonaws.com/releases.continuent.com/doc/replicator- 2.0.4/html/Tungsten-Replicator-Guide/content/index.html http://datacharmer.blogspot.co.uk http://code.google.com/p/mysql-master-ha/ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 52. Eco-Tools
  • 53. Eco-Tools Replication has got its problems...(currently) Primary Data Consistency Performance Secondary Monitoring Features © 2012 – Pythian
  • 54. Eco-ToolsData Consistency Human InterventionPerformance ● set global sql_slave_skip_counter=1;Monitoring ● set sql_log_bin=0;Features ● DML statements executed directly on the slave ● Writing to both sides of a master-master topology Technical Difficulties ● sync_binlog=0 + crash © 2012 – Pythian
  • 55. Eco-ToolsData ConsistencyPerformance Non-Deterministic Statements (SBR)Monitoring UPDATE t1 … LIMIT 1;Features … UUID() … now() © 2012 – Pythian
  • 56. Eco-ToolsData ConsistencyPerformance INSERT INTO t1 … VALUES (1, ...) [ERROR] Duplicate entry 1 for key "PRIMARY"Monitoring DELETE FROM t1 WHERE date = 2012-12-04 13:45:00Features [ERROR] Slave SQL: Could not execute Delete_rows !!!YOUR DATA IS* INCONSISTENT!!! *probably © 2012 – Pythian
  • 57. Eco-ToolsData ConsistencyPerformance Rebuild your slave “Sure, its a 100mb database”Monitoring “WTF??? Its 5tb of data!!!”Features © 2012 – Pythian
  • 58. Eco-ToolsData ConsistencyPerformance Find it, fix it findMonitoring pt-table-checksumFeatures pt-table-sync fix From percona toolkit © 2012 – Pythian
  • 59. Eco-ToolsData ConsistencyPerformance pt-table-checksum ● Connects to tables and checksums chunks of rows.Monitoring ● Works across one table at a time ● Self awareFeatures ● Slave aware ● Writes to table percona.checksums (by default) © 2012 – Pythian
  • 60. Eco-ToolsData ConsistencyPerformance pt-table-sync ● Synchronizes data (only) between tablesMonitoring ● Changes data! ● Runs no-op queries on the master to replicate to slavesFeatures ● Foreign Key Funkiness ● Strongest with tables using PK or Unique key © 2012 – Pythian
  • 61. Eco-ToolsData Consistency Summary #1Performance Problem:Monitoring ● Data drift detected Solution:Features ● Read Only Slaves ● Respect the binary logs Workaround: ● Find and fix with pt-table tools © 2012 – Pythian
  • 62. Eco-ToolsData Consistency Master: MultithreadedPerformanceMonitoringFeatures © 2012 – Pythian
  • 63. Eco-ToolsData Consistency Slave: Single ThreadedPerformanceMonitoringFeatures © 2012 – Pythian
  • 64. Eco-ToolsData ConsistencyPerformanceMonitoring ORFeatures © 2012 – Pythian
  • 65. Eco-ToolsData ConsistencyPerformanceMonitoringFeatures © 2012 – Pythian
  • 66. Eco-ToolsData Consistency Meet the fortune tellersPerformance Replication Booster by Yoshinori MatsunobuMonitoring faker by MySQLatFacebookFeatures mk-slave-prefetch by maatkit slave readahead by Anders Karlsson © 2012 – Pythian
  • 67. Eco-ToolsData Consistency Meet the fortune tellersPerformance Replication Booster by Yoshinori MatsunobuMonitoring faker by MySQLatFacebookFeatures mk-slave-prefetch by maatkit slave readahead by Anders Karlsson © 2012 – Pythian
  • 68. Eco-ToolsData Consistency Meet the fortune tellersPerformance Replication Booster by Yoshinori MatsunobuMonitoring faker by MySQLatFacebookFeatures mk-slave-prefetch by maatkit slave readahead by Anders Karlsson © 2012 – Pythian
  • 69. Eco-ToolsData Consistency Meet the fortune tellersPerformance Replication Booster by Yoshinori MatsunobuMonitoring faker by MySQLatFacebookFeatures mk-slave-prefetch by maatkit slave readahead by Anders Karlsson © 2012 – Pythian
  • 70. Eco-ToolsData Consistency Meet the fortune tellersPerformance Replication Booster by Yoshinori MatsunobuMonitoring faker by MySQLatFacebookFeatures mk-slave-prefetch by maatkit slavereadahead by Anders Karlsson © 2012 – Pythian
  • 71. Eco-ToolsData Consistency Summary #1Performance Problem:Monitoring ● serialized application of relay log events can cause slave lag.Features Solution: ● multithreaded slaves Workaround: ● Hardware hack ● Prefetch © 2012 – Pythian
  • 72. Eco-Tools http://code.openark.org/forge/openark-kitData Consistency oak-get-slave-lag Reports if slave is lag exceeds given thresholdPerformance ● ● Works off SHOW SLAVE STATUSMonitoring ● Bound to native replication ● Can be used in load balancer to determine if slave should be accessedFeatures oak-show-replication-status ● Reports replication status of slaves connected to a master ● Non-recursive (doesnt show if slave is a master and its connected slaves) ● Also depends on slaves being connected at runtime ● Can be used in load balancer to determine if slave should be accessed © 2012 – Pythian
  • 73. Eco-ToolsData Consistency --pt-heartbeatPerformance ● Monitors replication lag on MySQL or PostgresMonitoring ● Operates beyond native replication (Tungsten, etc)Features ● Supports multi tiered replication topology ● Can Emulate GTID (Global Transaction ID) © 2012 – Pythian
  • 74. Eco-Tools --pt-slave-delayData Consistency ● Intentionally causes slave to lag behind its master ● Works by starting and stopping slave threadsPerformance ● Helpful as a means to retrieve old/lost data ● Considered a good means to reproducing raceMonitoring condition to test applicationFeatures --pt-slave-restart ● Monitors replica(s) for errors ● Brute force method of restarting replication ● Not for regular consumption ● Does not fix replication © 2012 – Pythian
  • 75. MySQL Replication in 5.6
  • 76. Multi-threaded slaves• Like Tungsten Replicator, operations are only parallel across multiple distinct databases.• Requires: --slave-parallel-workers (+relay_log_info_repository=table;) (+STOP SLAVE; START SLAVE;)• Tunable: --slave_pending_jobs_size_max --slave_checkpoint_group --slave_checkpoint_period © 2012 – Pythian
  • 77. Binary log group commit• Improves performance by writing several events to the binary log file as opposed to one.• Not “new”, previously seen in MariaDB 5.3.• Requires no extra config• Tunable --binlog_order_commits --binlog_max_flush_queue_time © 2012 – Pythian
  • 78. Global Transaction Identifier• GTID is combination of the server uuid and the transaction_id which is simply a sequential id on that server.• Requires: –log-bin –log-slave-updates –gtid-mode=ON –disable-gtid-unsafe-statements (becomes enforce-gtid-consistency)• CHANGE MASTER TO ... MASTER_AUTO_POSITION=1• Required for some of the new MySQL Utilities (mysqlrpladmin and mysqlfailover)• http://mysqlmusings.blogspot.co.uk/2012/10/round-robin- replication-using-gtid.html © 2012 – Pythian
  • 79. Global Transaction Identifiermysql> show slave statusG*************************** 1. row ***************************... Master_Log_File: mysql_sandbox5608-bin.000003 Read_Master_Log_Pos: 1257... Relay_Master_Log_File: mysql_sandbox5608-bin.000003 Slave_IO_Running: Yes Slave_SQL_Running: Yes... Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 1257... Master_UUID: 2a499ad4-388b-11e2-ae3c-12313c035dd8... Retrieved_Gtid_Set: 2A499AD4-388B-11E2-AE3C-12313C035DD8:1-10 Executed_Gtid_Set: 2A499AD4-388B-11E2-AE3C-12313C035DD8:1-10,2AFB091E-388B-11E2-AE3C-12313C035DD8:1 (inconsistent case fixed in 5.6.10)mysql> show global variables like server_uuid;+---------------+--------------------------------------+| Variable_name | Value |+---------------+--------------------------------------+| server_uuid | 2afb091e-388b-11e2-ae3c-12313c035dd8 |+---------------+--------------------------------------+ © 2012 – Pythian
  • 80. Crash safe slaves• master.info and relay-log.info files are updated immediately after a transaction commits, however theres still a chance of a crash between the commit and the files being updated.• New variables: master_info_repository and relay_log_info_repository allow positional information to be stored in tables.• By default the master_info_repository and relay_log_info_repository system tables use InnoDB storage engine and are located in the MySQL db. © 2012 – Pythian
  • 81. Replication Checksums• Not equivalent to pt-table-checksum, these checks are focused on the events written in the binary log and replication.• Uses CRC-32 checksum to verify the events in the binary log and relay logs.• binlog_checksum generates checksum in the binlog• master_verify_checksum verifies events when read from the binary log• slave_sql_verify_checksum verifies events when read from the relay log © 2012 – Pythian
  • 82. Slave Delay• Provides a means of enforcing slave lag, similar to pt-slave-delay.• Requires: CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_DELAY = N; mysql> show slave statusG *************************** 1. row ***************************... SQL_Delay: 0 SQL_Remaining_Delay: NULL... © 2012 – Pythian
  • 83. Remote Binlog Backup• Uses mysqlbinlog to provide functionality to backup binary logs without the need of a slave.• Requires: --read-from-remote-server (or -R) --raw• Optional: --stop-never --stop-never-slave-server-id=id: --result-file © 2012 – Pythian
  • 84. 5.6 Replication Potpourri• Optimized row-based replication• Informational log events – useful new feature enables the original statement to be shipped in the binary log along with the corresponding row before / after image.• Slave_last_heartbeat – pt-heartbeat it is not, heartbeat configured in CHANGE MASTER TO ... however only kicks in during periods of inactivity. © 2012 – Pythian
  • 85. Further Readinghttp://larsthalmann.blogspot.co.uk/http://d2-systems.blogspot.co.uk/http://mysqlmusings.blogspot.fr/http://drcharlesbell.blogspot.co.uk/http://datacharmer.blogspot.co.uk/http://dimitrik.free.fr/blog/http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/replication.html © 2012 – Pythian
  • 86. MySQL Replication Tools in 5.6
  • 87. MySQL Utilities• MySQL Utilities can be installed via MySQL Workbench, or as a standalone package.• Set of scripts written in Python. http://dev.mysql.com/doc/workbench/en/mysql-utilities.html https://launchpad.net/mysql-utilities © 2012 – Pythian
  • 88. MySQL Utilities• mysqldbcompare • mysqlrplcheck• mysqldbcopy • mysqlrplshow• mysqldbexport • mysqlserverclone• mysqldbimport • mysqlserverinfo• mysqldiff • mysqluserclone• mysqldiskusage • Mysqluc (cmd line)• mysqlfailover • mut (tests)• mysqlindexcheck• mysqlmetagrep• mysqlprocgrep• mysqlreplicate• mysqlrpladmin © 2012 – Pythian
  • 89. MySQL Utilities• mysqlfailover Performs replication health monitoring, provides automatic failover on replication topologies (GTID, MySQL Server 5.6.5+)• mysqlreplicate Automates the process of setting up replication• mysqlrpladmin Administers the replication topology, allows recovery of the master, commands include elect, failover, gtid, health, start, stop, and switchover.• mysqlrplcheck Check replication configuration, tests binary logging on master.• mysqlrplshow Show slaves attached to master, can search recursively, shows the replication topology as a graph or list. © 2012 – Pythian
  • 90. Thank you and Q&ATo contact us… sales@pythian.com 1-877-PYTHIANTo follow us… http://www.pythian.com/news/ http://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Pythian-Group/163902527671 @pythian @pythianjobs http://www.linkedin.com/company/pythian © 2012 – Pythian