Appropriate Engineering Solutionsfor Developing Nations<br />California State University, Chico <br />in collaboration wit...
Access to Sanitation<br />WHO – Estimates 2.6 Billion people are without access to improved sanitation facilities worldwid...
HONDURAS<br />Population – 7,989,415<br />Population below poverty line - 59%<br />Unemployed or underemployed - 36%<br />...
Projects in Honduras<br />Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Reuse<br />Renovation and Expansion of existing Natural Was...
Municipality of Tela, Honduras<br />Currently owns and operates a natural wastewater<br />stabilization lagoon system serv...
Caribbean Ocean<br />Tela, Honduras<br />Rio Hylan<br />Lagoon System<br />
Tertiary Lagoon<br />Secondary Lagoon<br />Rio Hylan<br />Primary Lagoon<br />
Problem Identification – Sludge Accumulation<br />15 years of sludge accumulation<br />Sludge had reached a depth of 4 met...
Problem Identification – Flow Measurement<br />Improper design and construction of two Parshall flumes.<br />No flow measu...
Problem Identification – Treated effluent and sustainability<br />Treated effluent is discharged into the Rio Hylan<br />T...
Problem Identification – Site Safety	<br />
Solutions and ImplementationProcess<br />Initial steps;<br />Collaborate with the Municipality<br />Site investigation<br ...
Sludge Removal<br />
Parshall Flume<br />
Implementation<br />Sludge Removal <br />Bypass channel<br />Drain lagoon<br />Remove sludge <br />Store on-site<br />Impr...
Implementation – Bypass Channel<br />
Implementation – Draining Primary Lagoon<br />Pump and siphon draining<br />Time to drain – 88 hours<br />
Implementation – Desludging Primary Lagoon<br />
Implementation – Parshall Flume Installation<br />Arrival of TRACOM’s donated Parshall flume on-site<br />Installation of ...
Sustainable Reuse Potential - Effluent Quality and WHO Guidelines<br />1. World Health Organization 2004<br />
Caribbean Ocean<br />Tela, Honduras<br />Possible Land Application<br />Proposed Nursery Location<br />Possible Aquacultur...
Solid Waste Management<br />Wastewater Stabilization <br />Lagoons<br />Solid Waste Disposal Site<br />
Solid Waste Management in Tela<br />
Vectors<br /><ul><li>Birds
Mosquitoes
Rats
Live stock</li></li></ul><li>Scavengers<br /><ul><li>Live and work in the dump
Only source of income
Numerous children</li></li></ul><li>Leachate & Methane<br />
Medical Waste<br />
Special and Hazardous Waste<br /><ul><li>Tires
If buried, tires will eventually rise to the surface of the landfill
Tires hold water or leachate that is hazardous and is a breeding ground for insect vectors such as mosquitoes
Chemicals
May leak and harm workers, scavengers, and animals
May react with other chemicals deposited in the dump, possibly forming a more toxic byproduct.</li></ul>Currently no separ...
Tela Dump Closure<br />A proper design for closure of a dump ensures that the waste will be covered with a minimum thickne...
Tela Dump Closure<br />
Sanitary Landfills in the U.S.<br />Solid and hazardous waste in the U.S. is regulated under the Environmental Protection ...
Minimal land usage and cover material required
Not feasible for developing countries due to:
Cost considerations
Equipment maintenance requirements
Cover material requirements
Lack of skilled labor</li></li></ul><li>Alternative Methods: Canyon/Area Method Landfill<br />Compacted daily cells of was...
Alternative Methods:  Trench Method Landfill<br />A series of properly sized trenches in parallel are excavated as require...
Trench Method Landfill<br />Immediate availability of cover without the need for full-time heavy equipment to compact, exc...
Trench Method<br />
Leachate, Methane and Decomposition<br />
Communal Sanitation Facilities <br />at the Tegucigalpa Solid Waste Disposal Site<br />
Project Partnership<br /><ul><li>Municipality of Tegucigalpa
United States Army Corps of Engineers
Universidad Politécnica de Ingeniería (UPI)
California State University, Chico (CSUC)
CSUC- and UPI- Student Teams</li></li></ul><li>Percent by Volume of Waste Components (Compacted)<br />in La Ceiba, Hondura...
Recyclers play a valuable role in the solid waste disposal process<br />
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Appropriate engineering solutions for developing nations

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A presentation providing a brief summary of volunteer engineering projects I have been involved with in Honduras while working in collaboration with the Civil Engineering Department at CSU, Chico and Universidad Politécnica de Ingeniería.

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  • 3 types of diarrhea – osmotic, secretal, exum
  • Residential wastewater is transported via 2,500 connections flowing into four lift stations which pump the wastewater to the lagoon system.
  • Influent is transported via the pump stations to an open channel on the west side of the primary lagoon. From here, the wastewater flows via gravity through the lagoon system and is then discharged into the Rio Hylan adjacent to the lagoons.
  • There is no security fencing or way to divert livestock or pedistrian traffic around the lagoons. Many of the residents living east of the Lagoons use the lagoon site as a short-cut to town, and many of those own livestock which graze on the property. Another problem is natural wildlife, for the last five years we would spot a crocodile in the secondary and tertiary lagoons. It is rumored that this croc has a mate.
  • Appropriate engineering solutions for developing nations

    1. 1. Appropriate Engineering Solutionsfor Developing Nations<br />California State University, Chico <br />in collaboration with <br />Universidad Politécnica de Ingeniería<br />
    2. 2. Access to Sanitation<br />WHO – Estimates 2.6 Billion people are without access to improved sanitation facilities worldwide (most in developing countries)<br />Clean drinking water<br />900 million people without access to clean drinking water<br />Wastewater treatment<br />Solid waste management<br />Problems associated with lack of sanitation<br />Increased risk of pathogen transmission<br />WHO – Estimates 1.5 Million children under age of 5 die every year from diarrhea<br />Disease<br />Virus<br />Parasites<br />
    3. 3. HONDURAS<br />Population – 7,989,415<br />Population below poverty line - 59%<br />Unemployed or underemployed - 36%<br />Major infectious diseases;<br />Food or waterborne diseases<br />Bacterial diseases<br />Hepatitus A<br />Typhoid Fever<br />Helminth – Ascaris infections<br />Vectorborne diseases<br />Dengue Fever<br />Malaria<br />Water contact diseases<br />Leptospirosis<br />
    4. 4. Projects in Honduras<br />Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Reuse<br />Renovation and Expansion of existing Natural Wastewater Stabilization Lagoons. Tela, Honduras<br />Solid Waste Management<br />Proposed closure plan of open dump and new management plan for new sanitary landfill. Tela, Honduras<br />Sanitation and Medical Facilities <br />Design, procurement, and construction oversight for recyclers residing in an open dump. Tegucigalpa, Honduras<br />
    5. 5. Municipality of Tela, Honduras<br />Currently owns and operates a natural wastewater<br />stabilization lagoon system serving 8,000 residents.<br />
    6. 6. Caribbean Ocean<br />Tela, Honduras<br />Rio Hylan<br />Lagoon System<br />
    7. 7. Tertiary Lagoon<br />Secondary Lagoon<br />Rio Hylan<br />Primary Lagoon<br />
    8. 8. Problem Identification – Sludge Accumulation<br />15 years of sludge accumulation<br />Sludge had reached a depth of 4 meters<br />Approximated volume of sludge is 3,000 cubic meters<br />
    9. 9. Problem Identification – Flow Measurement<br />Improper design and construction of two Parshall flumes.<br />No flow measurement of influent or effluent wastewater.<br />Lacking grit chamber.<br />
    10. 10. Problem Identification – Treated effluent and sustainability<br />Treated effluent is discharged into the Rio Hylan<br />Treated effluent could be used for agriculture<br />Tertiary lagoon could also serve as a Tilapia farm<br />
    11. 11. Problem Identification – Site Safety <br />
    12. 12. Solutions and ImplementationProcess<br />Initial steps;<br />Collaborate with the Municipality<br />Site investigation<br />Work on feasible plan of action<br />Develop design report to submit to Municipality<br />Assist Municipality with funding and technical guidance through implementation<br />
    13. 13. Sludge Removal<br />
    14. 14. Parshall Flume<br />
    15. 15. Implementation<br />Sludge Removal <br />Bypass channel<br />Drain lagoon<br />Remove sludge <br />Store on-site<br />Improve system sustainability<br />Parshall flume<br />Proposed reuse projects<br />
    16. 16. Implementation – Bypass Channel<br />
    17. 17. Implementation – Draining Primary Lagoon<br />Pump and siphon draining<br />Time to drain – 88 hours<br />
    18. 18. Implementation – Desludging Primary Lagoon<br />
    19. 19. Implementation – Parshall Flume Installation<br />Arrival of TRACOM’s donated Parshall flume on-site<br />Installation of fiberglass flume<br />Properly operating flow measurement device<br />
    20. 20. Sustainable Reuse Potential - Effluent Quality and WHO Guidelines<br />1. World Health Organization 2004<br />
    21. 21. Caribbean Ocean<br />Tela, Honduras<br />Possible Land Application<br />Proposed Nursery Location<br />Possible Aquaculture<br />
    22. 22. Solid Waste Management<br />Wastewater Stabilization <br />Lagoons<br />Solid Waste Disposal Site<br />
    23. 23. Solid Waste Management in Tela<br />
    24. 24. Vectors<br /><ul><li>Birds
    25. 25. Mosquitoes
    26. 26. Rats
    27. 27. Live stock</li></li></ul><li>Scavengers<br /><ul><li>Live and work in the dump
    28. 28. Only source of income
    29. 29. Numerous children</li></li></ul><li>Leachate & Methane<br />
    30. 30. Medical Waste<br />
    31. 31. Special and Hazardous Waste<br /><ul><li>Tires
    32. 32. If buried, tires will eventually rise to the surface of the landfill
    33. 33. Tires hold water or leachate that is hazardous and is a breeding ground for insect vectors such as mosquitoes
    34. 34. Chemicals
    35. 35. May leak and harm workers, scavengers, and animals
    36. 36. May react with other chemicals deposited in the dump, possibly forming a more toxic byproduct.</li></ul>Currently no separation of Tela’s solid and special wastes<br />
    37. 37. Tela Dump Closure<br />A proper design for closure of a dump ensures that the waste will be covered with a minimum thickness of soil, known as the final cover (or cap). A properly designed final cover should:<br />Provide durable surface drainage systems over the landfill<br />Control infiltration of rainfall into the waste<br />Control erosion of its surface (by wind and water runoff)<br />Control the migration of gas and leachate generated within the landfilledwaste<br />Control disease transmitting vectors<br />
    38. 38. Tela Dump Closure<br />
    39. 39. Sanitary Landfills in the U.S.<br />Solid and hazardous waste in the U.S. is regulated under the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976.<br /><ul><li>Fully mechanized
    40. 40. Minimal land usage and cover material required
    41. 41. Not feasible for developing countries due to:
    42. 42. Cost considerations
    43. 43. Equipment maintenance requirements
    44. 44. Cover material requirements
    45. 45. Lack of skilled labor</li></li></ul><li>Alternative Methods: Canyon/Area Method Landfill<br />Compacted daily cells of waste are built into designed ‘lifts,’ that are abutted against a canyon wall.<br />
    46. 46. Alternative Methods: Trench Method Landfill<br />A series of properly sized trenches in parallel are excavated as required, depending on the process design. <br />Waste is deposited in the trenches, and when the trench is full (which will occur approximately once-per-month for a properly designed trench), the excavated material is used as cover.<br />
    47. 47. Trench Method Landfill<br />Immediate availability of cover without the need for full-time heavy equipment to compact, excavate and haul cover is a major advantage of the trench method. <br />
    48. 48. Trench Method<br />
    49. 49. Leachate, Methane and Decomposition<br />
    50. 50. Communal Sanitation Facilities <br />at the Tegucigalpa Solid Waste Disposal Site<br />
    51. 51. Project Partnership<br /><ul><li>Municipality of Tegucigalpa
    52. 52. United States Army Corps of Engineers
    53. 53. Universidad Politécnica de Ingeniería (UPI)
    54. 54. California State University, Chico (CSUC)
    55. 55. CSUC- and UPI- Student Teams</li></li></ul><li>Percent by Volume of Waste Components (Compacted)<br />in La Ceiba, Honduras<br />4.9 + 1.5 + 12.2 + 24.8 = 43.4<br />Up to 43.4% Reduction in Waste Volume Landfilled <br />
    56. 56. Recyclers play a valuable role in the solid waste disposal process<br />
    57. 57. Benefits of the Recyclers<br /><ul><li>Reduce cost to industries
    58. 58. Reduce cost to government (municipality)
    59. 59. Increase environmental sustainability</li></li></ul><li>Risks to Recyclers<br /><ul><li>Exposure to the elements (rain, wind, sun)
    60. 60. Exposure to hazardous waste, such as lead, asbestos, blood, fecal matter, animal carcasses, broken glass, medical waste, & chemicals.</li></li></ul><li>More Risks<br /><ul><li>Exposure to diseases transmitted via insect and rodent vectors
    61. 61. High risk of tuberculosis, dysentery, parasites, asthma, bronchitis, helminths
    62. 62. High infant mortality rate
    63. 63. Low life expectancies</li></li></ul><li>Proposed Communal Sanitation Facility Site<br />Source: Google Earth, 2009<br />
    64. 64. Proposed Site<br />
    65. 65. Water Requirements for Basic Human Needs<br />Estimated water demand for 300 recyclers at the Tegucigalpa Solid Waste Disposal Site:<br /><ul><li>18,000 L/month for drinking water
    66. 66. 180,000 L/month for laundry and bathing using a wash basin
    67. 67. 135,000 L/month for showers
    68. 68. 45,000 L/month for cooking/miscellaneous uses</li></li></ul><li>Configuration Options<br />Evaluation of feasibility and design for:<br />Option 1: Showers, wash basins and pit latrines.<br />Water demand: 495,000 L/month <br />Option 2: Wash basins and pit latrines.<br />Water demand: 180,000 L/month <br />Option 3: Showers and pit latrines.<br />Water demand: 270,000 L/month<br />
    69. 69. Water Source Options<br /><ul><li>Stormwater collection
    70. 70. Continuous connection to municipal water supply
    71. 71. Controlled connection to municipal water supply
    72. 72. Connection to proximal groundwater well
    73. 73. Elevated water tanks</li></li></ul><li>Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine<br />Source: Kalbermatten, 1982.<br />
    74. 74. Emptying the Latrine Pits<br />Source: EPA, 2009<br />
    75. 75. Human wastes and grey water disposal/treatment<br /><ul><li>Latrine/seepage pit
    76. 76. Stabilization lagoons
    77. 77. Facultative
    78. 78. Maturation
    79. 79. Use treated effluent for on-site dust control.</li></li></ul><li>Sanitation Facility Design Proposal<br />
    80. 80. Recomendations<br />To Minimize Water Requirements:<br />Wash Basins - Landfill Operator or recycler will fill basins once daily.<br />Organized leaders from the recyclers will charge for water usage.<br />Recyclers will be allowed one 20 liter bucket per day for laundry and bathing, therefore No Showers.<br />Water demand – 180,000L/Month<br />
    81. 81. On- and Off-Site Reuse Materials for Building<br />
    82. 82. Promoting Long-Term Project Success<br /><ul><li>Provide sanitary facilities
    83. 83. Provide identification, recognition and registration of recyclers
    84. 84. Provide regular health care </li></li></ul><li>Questions or Comments?<br />
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