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Grammar book 2nd semester
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Grammar book 2nd semester

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  • 1. Grammar Book2nd semester
    Benjamin Blackburn
  • 2. Table of Contents
    Conditional + Irregulars
    Present Perfect
    Past Perfect
    Present Perfect Irregulars
    Subjunctive Perfect
    Tanto y Tan
    Impersonal “Se”
    Saber vs. Conocer
    Los Mandatos
    Formal/Informal
    Affirmative Commands
    Negative Commands
    15. Irregular Commands
    16. DOP and IOP
    17. Nosotros Commands
    18. Mono Verbs
    19. Subjunctive
    20. Irregulars
    21. Trigger Phrases
    22. Impersonal Expressions
    23. Expressions of Emotion
    24. Conjunctions of Time
    25. Demonstrative Adjectives
    26. Demonstrative Pronouns
  • 3. Conditional + Irregulars
    Words like would, could, and should.
    Gustar type words are often used with it.
    Endings
    íaíasíaíamosíaisían
  • 4. Present Perfect
    Formed by combining “has” or “have” with the past participle.
    Two verbs are required (Main and Auxiliary verb).
  • 5. Past Perfect
    Combines the use of the auxiliary verb (had) with the past participle.
    Also requires two verbs (Main and Auxiliary verb).
    Use the imperfect tense with the past participle.
  • 6. Present Perfect Irregulars
  • 7. Subjunctive Perfect
    Formed by using present subjunctive of helping verb with the past participle.
    Example: I (have)….
  • 8. Tanto y Tan
    Used to form comparisons of things with equal qualities using nouns.
    tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como
    Used to form comparisons of things with equal qualities using adj. or adv.
    tan + adjective (adverb) + como
  • 9. Impersonal “Se”
    Put verbs in the 3rd person and have it follow “se”.
    Se + 3rd person verb
  • 10. Saber vsConocer
    Saber is used when you know a fact, to know something thoroughly, or to know how to do something.
    Conocer is used when something learning a person, place, or thing.
  • 11. Los Mandatos
    Used to directly give someone an order.
    Can be formal, informal, nosotros, affirmative or negative.
  • 12. Formal/Informal
  • 13. Affirmative Commands
  • 14. Negative Commands
    Formed the same as the Affirmative commands except you just put a “no” in the front.
  • 15. Irregular Commands
  • 16. DOP and IOP
    Placed before verb to answer who and what.
    Placed before the verb to answer whom and for whom.
  • 17. Nosotros Commands
    Command used when the speaker is involved.
    Just add “no” before the verb.
    (no) Lets + (verb)
  • 18. Mono Verbs
    Affirmative nosotros commands>> drop the finial “s” before adding pronouns.
    To make it negative just add a “no” before.
    (no)(verb)mos + nos = (verb)monos
  • 19. Subjunctive
    The subjunctive is used to express everything except certainty and objectivity: Things like doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity.
    Yo form of present indicative>>drop “o”>>add appropriate ending.
  • 20. Irregulars
    TVDISHES
    -car, -gar, -zar verbs
  • 21. Trigger Phrases
    Esperarque…
    Insistiren que…
    Mandarque…
    Preferirque…
    Prohibirque…
    Quererque…
    Es aconsejableque…
    Es necesarioque…
    Pedirque…
    Recomendarque…
    Rogarque…
    Sugerirque…
  • 22. Impersonal Expressions
    Expressions that introduce an aspect of uncertainty.
  • 23. Expressions of Emotion
    Es maloque …it's ( too) bad that
    Es mejorque … it's better that
    Es peorque … it's worse that
    Es preferibleque … it's preferable that
    Es raroque … it's strange that
    Es tristeque … it's sad that
    Es útilque … it's useful that
    Estarcontentoque … to be happy that
    Estartristeque … to be sad that
    Extrañarseque … to be amazed that
    Gustarseque … to like
    Másvale que … it's better that
    Sentirque … to regret, be sorry that
    Sorprenderseque … to be surprised that
    Temerque … to fear that
    Tenermiedoque … to be afraid that
  • 24. Conjunctions of Time
    Así que… as soonas
    Cuando… when
    Despuesde que… after
    En cuanto… as soonas
    Hasta que… until
    Luego que… as soonas
    Tan pronto como… as soon as
  • 25. Demonstrative Adjectives
    An adjective that points out something.
  • 26. Demonstrative Pronouns
    Used to stand for nouns instead of modify them.
    • estas (those)
    • 27. esas (that)
    • 28. aquellas (those)

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