NATIONALLY APPROPRIATE MITIGATION ACTIONS (NAMAs) The Need ofIntegrated National ProcessesTHE GREEN BUSINESS FORUM 2011 The Korea EnergyManagement Corporation (KEMCO)26 October 2011, Seoul, Korea Dr. Hardiv H. Situmeang Kyoto, 2 July 2011
Decision 1/CP.16Outcome of the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long- term Cooperative Action under the Convention Paragraph 48 Agrees that developing countries Parties will take NAMAs in the context of sustainable development, supported and enabled by technology, financing and capacity building, aimed at achieving a deviation in emissions relative to “business as usual” emissions in 2020.
NAMAs by DEVELOPING COUNTRY PARTIES [Its Categories – Cancun, Mexico] Category Remarks (Unsupported or Self-supporting): Autonomous mitigation actions undertaken by developing country Parties on their own to achieve certain emission reduction level without international1. Domestically (outside) support under the UNFCCC framework as domestically Supported supported mitigation actions. The emission reduction achieved NAMAs would be accounted for the associated developing country Party, and the MRV should be done domestically. Associated required financing comes from domestic financial sources. Mitigation actions by developing country Parties supported directly by developed country Parties as internationally supported mitigation actions under the UNFCCC framework. The2. Internationally generated emission reductions cannot be used to offset Supported emissions by developed country Parties in meeting their GHG NAMAs emission reduction commitments. It would be accounted for the associated developing country Party, and the MRV should be done internationally in accordance with guidelines to be developed under the Convention.
Multi Sectoral Business as Usual Baseline Unilateral / (Aggregated) Domestically Supported NAMAs [GHG Emissions] Credited NAMAs Internationally Supported NAMAs Future Path of GHG Emissions T0 T1 Tn 2020 [Tahun]NAMAs Categories of Developing Country Parties
Unilateral / National Business as Usual Baseline Domestically (Multi Sectoral - Aggregated) Supported NAMAs [GHG Emissions] 26 % 41 % Credited NAMAs Internationally Supported NAMAs Future Path of GHG Emissions T0 T1 Tn 2020 [Tahun]National integrated processes in meeting the national emission reduction target based on cost effectiveness and its implementability level.
3 RELATED KEY ISSUES THAT SHOULD BE SOLVED IN WIDE SPECTRUM BASIS To establish National Business as Usual Baseline which is a multi sectoral business as usual baseline (aggregated), and follows by establishment of aggregated mitigation actions, To establish NAMAs through National Integrated Processes to be put under 2 (two) NAMAs categories: Domestically supported NAMAs to achieve the national emission reduction target which is 26% below the national business as usual baseline, and Internationally supported NAMAs to achieve the national emission reduction target up to 41%, increase from 26% below the National Business as Usual Baseline under the UNFCCC framework, and To propose from the remaining aggregated mitigation actions which are not selected under the above NAMAs categories to be put further under credited NAMAs.
Future Path of GHG National Emissions Reduction (Multi Sectoral Mitigation Actions) National Business as Usual Baseline Past Trend and (Multi Sectoral - Aggregated) Current State ofGHG Emissions GHG Emissions Sector # 1 Sector # 2 Sector # 3 Sector # 4 Sector # -- Sector # n Aggregated Mitigation Future Path Actions (Selected from of GHG Emissions Potential Mitigation Actions of Each Sectors T0 T1 Tn [T i m e] National integrated processes in meeting the national emission reduction target based on cost effectiveness and its implementability level.
Article 3.4 of the ConventionThe Parties have a right to, and should, promote sustainabledevelopment. Policies and measures to protect the climate systemagainst human-induced change should be appropriate for thespecific conditions of each Party and should be integrated withnational development programmes, taking into account thateconomic development is essential for adopting measures toaddress climate change. Integrate Climate Change Program into National Development Plan (Programmes)
Job Creation 4 PILLARS Economic and PovertyEradication NAMAs Social Development Meeting the National Emission Reduction Target as a Contribution to Global Coherent Mitigation Effort Please see: the UNFCCC Convention, Article 4, Paragraph 7.
SOME POSSIBLE SCREENING CRITERIASome possible screening criteria can be used to rank the implementabilitylevel of proposed potential mitigation action options of each sector besidesits cost effectiveness modified from the UNFCCC Resource Guide Module 4,and take into consideration the above four pillars such as:• Consistency with national development goal,• Consistency with national environmental goals,• Data availability and quality,• Political and social feasibility,• Replicability, e.g. adaptability to different geographical, socio-economic- cultural, legal, and regulatory settings, and• Macro-economic considerations, such as: the impact on GDP; the number of jobs created or lost; effects on inflation or interest rates; the implications for long-term development: sustainable economic growth & social development, and poverty eradication; foreign exchange and trade, etc.Screening criteria should be consistent with the overall framing of proposedpotential mitigation scenarios from each sector which is important anduseful when using bottom-up methodologies in which a wide range oftechnologies, national policies and existing legal and regulatory frameworks.The calculation of abatement cost for each potential mitigation action isconsidered as very important. The magnitude of its abatement cost and theagreed criteria will determine the priority level of each mitigation actions inits associated sectoral scope and its priority level in the national scale.
POWER SECTOR TRANSPORT SECTOR Aggregated Aggregated Business-as- Business-as- Usual Usual Baseline Baseline Potential Potential Mitigation Mitigation Actions ActionsINDUSTRIAL SECTOR Aggregated Aggregated Business-as- Business-as- Integrated Usual Usual Baseline Baseline Modeling Potential Mitigation Actions Drive the energy system toward low carbon energy sources, low- carbon and carbon-free energy technologies, greater efficiency in energy production and distribution and in energy use.
Integrated Modeling of Energy Sector GHG • Macroeconomic and Energy ParametersEmissions • Data Base DevelopmentReduction • Development of Business as Usual BaselineScenarios • Sectoral Analysis Power Integrated Sector Modeling Industrial Sector Objectives,Strategies, and Transport Approaches. Sector • Integrating the associated emission reduction scenarios • Energy supply to meet useful energy demand • Broader energy mix to alleviate sustainable challenges • Etc.
National BAU Baseline / Aggregated BAU Baseline 1st Layer Energy Land Based Other Sector Sector Targeted Sector 2nd Layer Power Industry Transport REDD+ Other Sector Sector Sector Activity 3rd Layer Cement Pulp & Paper Required Processes to Establish National BAU Iron & Steel Baseline / Aggregated Textile BAU Baseline (Bottom-up Approach)Interconnectedpower systems By modes and Sub-sectors Sub-national and isolated sub-national Industry levels levels
Establishment of Aggregated Business as Usual Baseline of Each Sector Establishment of Potential Mitigation Actions of Each Sector Establishment of National Business as Usual Baseline and Aggregated Mitigation Actions Establishment of NAMAs and National Long-Term CO2 Emission Reduction Paths Calculate Carbon Budget for Each Sector Propose Required Policies, Measures and Instruments