Towards 'Resilient Cities' - Harmonisation of Spatial Planning Information as One Step Along the Way
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Towards 'Resilient Cities' - Harmonisation of Spatial Planning Information as One Step Along the Way
Manfred Schrenk, Julia Neuschmid, Daniela Patti - Department for Urbanism, Transport, Environment and Information Society, Central European Institute of Technology, Austria

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Towards 'Resilient Cities' - Harmonisation of Spatial Planning Information as One Step Along the Way Towards 'Resilient Cities' - Harmonisation of Spatial Planning Information as One Step Along the Way Presentation Transcript

  • Towards ‘Resilient Cities’ Harmonisation of Spatial Planning Information as One Step Along the WayCTP 2011, Santander, SpainManfred Schrenk, Julia Neuschmid, Daniela PattiCentral European Institute of TechnologyInstitute of Urbanism, Transport, Environment and Information Society
  • Grand Challenges
    By 2050 two-thirds of the world’s population will live in urban areas (UN Habitat, 2006)
    What about...world‘s resources…climate change…energy…pressure on cities…land use…?
  • The RoleofSpatialPlanning
    Givesgeographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society.
    is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach
    directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy.
    strongly influences society on all levels as
    it addresses the environment where people live and work, the location of social and economic activities and the way in which processedresourcesareexploited.
    (Council of Europe, 1983)
  • To improve
    • quality of life,
    • sustainability,
    • resilience
    • competitiveness,
    • happiness and contentedness
    To reduce
    • environmental stress,
    • waste of resources,
    • inequities
    Supporting the management of Cities and Regions,
    PUBLIC INTEREST
    fair distribution of chances/opportunities and burdens/impacts.
    PurposeofPlanning?
    • Numerous diverging interests
    • numerous (in)dependent actors
    • numerous, unforeseeable possibilities
    • hidden agendas
    • open system
    • 2 opposed interests
    • each with 16 actors (limited possib.)
    • exactly defined rules
    • clear agenda
    • closed system
    ComplexityofPlanning
    • Balance in short-,mid- and long-term
    • 1 winner, 1 loser„The winner takes it all!“
    Challenge: Goal Definition
  • © Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com
  • Resilient Cities
    can ADAPT to changes, grand challenges and can balance ecosystem and human functions.
    Resilience is “the capacity of a system to survive, adapt, and grow in the face of unforeseen changes, even catastrophic incidents” (Holling, 2001).
    Resilience in cities is a DYNAMIC PROCESS covering implementation and constant evaluation over time.
  • © Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com
  • Resilient Cities
    • Among requirements for resilience are innovation, foresight, adaptive multi-layered governance, effective partnership and networks among all actors involved in spatial planning processes AND
    • datainfrastructures
  • THE SPATIAL PLANNING RECIPE?
    „Perfect
    World“
    Is spatial planning a technical science where each step can be exactly described so that different planners confronted with the same problem generate the same result?
    Planning: an easy task?
  • THE SPATIAL PLANNING RECIPE?
    „Perfect
    World“
    Planning: an easy task?
  • Planning processes and their outputs are highly diverse across Europe and the world.
    Plans are taylor-made attempts to improve given situations
    The results of planning depends highly on the PLANNING PROCESS
    There are very different approaches and understandings of urban and spatial planning(design driven, technically/legally driven, real-estate-driven, participatory approach …)
    HarmonisationofPlanning?
  • Planningcycle
    Dynamic
    World
    Technical project or (also) a
    unique, creative, dynamic, process
    with unpredictable outcomes?
    INFORMATION/ DATA
    PLANNING
    CYCLE
    Land cover
    Land use
    Agricultural and aquacultural facilities
    Production and industrial facilities
    Area management/ restriction/ regulation zones and reporting units
    Utility and Government services
    Natural Risk Zones



    ACTORS
    Planners
    Politics
    Public administration
    Economy
    Citizens
    Media
    Investors
    Interest groups
    Citizens
    Researchers
    GIS Experts

  • © Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com
  • What is more important in planning processes? The process itself with the involvement of stakeholders that generates certain dynamics or just the final results, "the plan"?
    Is spatial planning a technical science where each step can be exactly described and confronted with the same problem different planners generate the same result?
    Unique, creative process with unpredictable outcomes?
    Spatial planning is never finished ("planning cycle“)
    Always one key question: How/where to get reliable data / information?
    Characteristicsofplanningprocesses
  • The past years have led to the development of spatial data infrastructures and more harmonised spatial data which can positively effect spatial planning processes.
    Spatial planning / Stakeholders can use interoperable information that is provided through spatial data infrastructures to
    monitor ongoing developments,
    to integrate different stakeholders and themes, and
    to make decision processes more transparent.
    SDI helps spatial planning to receive more up-to-date information than ever.
    As a consequence spatial planning can detect new developments and changes, analyse them according to existing plans and visions, and
    is able to steer the spatial order to better improve resilient cities.
    Planning & SDI?
  • Planningand SDI?
    Tofaceclimatechange, urbanisation, energysupply etc. citiesneedtoberesilient
    CITIES arecomplex
    so is PLANNING!
    Spatialdatais a keyinputforplanningprocessesbecauseithelpsto understand betterthecomplexworldandtofulfilplanning‘spurpose
    Thereforeplanninghasgreathopesin recentlydevelopedspatialdatainfrastructures (SDI)
  • SDI: A Pan-European Matter
  • SDI: A Pan-European Matter
    European Environment Agency (EEA)
    provides sound, independent
    information on the environment
    Climate change
    Air pollution
    Biodiversity
    Land use
    Water
    cross-border &
    accessible
    http://www.eea.europa.eu
  • Project: CentropeMAP
    Interoperable, cross-boder geodata
    Infrastructure for the CENTROPE
    region
  • Project: CentropeMAP
    2222
  • Project: Plan4all
    Plan4all
    Harmonisation of spatial planning data according to the INSPIRE directive based on the existing best practises in EU regions and municipalities and the results of current research projects
    www.plan4all.eu
  • Project: Plan4all
    co-funded by the
    Community programme
    eContentplus
  • Common Data Sharing Infrastructure:
    Common Web services allowing to visualise, overlay information from different sources
    PILOT 1:
    PILOT 2:
    PILOT 3:
    LU/LC data
    analysis system
    national
    land
    information
    system
    Waste dumpsstratification
    Project: HLanData
    Harmonisation of Land Use and Land Cover Databases for the creation of
    value added services
    www.hlandata.eu
  • SDI: A Pan-European Matter
    • INSPIRE – Infrastructure for Spatial Informationin the European Community
    • Best Practice Plan4all Data harmonisation and access to planning-related data in Europehttp://www.plan4all.eu/
    • Best Practice HLanData
    Harmonisation of Land Use and Land Cover Data
    www.hlandata.eu
    • Best Practice CentropeMAP
    Cross-border geodata infrastructure for the CENTROPE region
    (HU, AT, CZ, SK)
    • User-generated content, OPEN SOURCE DATA(Open Street Map, …)
  • DATA and INFORMATION are key inputs into planning processes
    Best practice projects try to harmonize data and to make it accessible and shareable
    Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) try to provide better access to data and information
    Accessibility to new DATA better allows planning
    To monitor and to detect changes
    To be able to act and react on changes
    To make planning processes and decisions more transparent
    To try to better fulfill planning’s purpose
    SDI & Planning?
  • BETTER ACCESS
    to data and information
    BETTERCONNECTING
    themes and actors
    SDI & Planning?
  • BETTER INTEGRATING
    different planninglevels
    SDI & Planning?
  • SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURES
    Providing NEW DATA & INFORMATION & KNOWLEDGE forplanningprocesses
    SDI & Planning?
  • SDI / Knowledge INFRASTRUCTURESWiserdecisionsforbetter Cities
  • Categoriesofspatialdataaccordingtheir „spatialclearness“
    Geometrically/mathematicallyclearlydefined
    Not clearlydefindedphenomena
    Continuouslychanging
    Spatialphenomensthatcan notclearlybedescribed in spatialterms
  • A matter ofview-point:
    If the only toy you have is a hammer …
    every problem looks like a nail …
    (Abraham Maslow)
  • To improve
    • quality of life,
    • sustainability,
    • resilience
    • competitiveness,
    • happiness and contentedness
    To reduce
    • environmental stress,
    • waste of resources,
    • inequities
    Supporting the management of Cities and Regions,
    PUBLIC INTEREST
    fair distribution of chances/opportunities and burdens/impacts.
    PurposeofPlanning?
  • Infrastructure?!?
    © Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com
  • Infrastructure?!?
    © Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com
  • Infrastructure?!?
    © Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com
  • CEIT ALANOVA
    Central European Institute of Technology
    Department for Urbanism, Transport, Environment & Information Society
    Schwechat/ Austria
    www.ceit.at
    Manfred Schrenk, Julia Neuschmid, Daniela Patti
    m.schrenk@ceit.at, j.neuschmid@ceit.at, d.patti@ceit.at
    Thankyou!