Integration of temporal and semantic components into the Geographic Information through mark-up languages. Part I: Definition

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Integration of temporal and semantic components into the Geographic Information through mark-up languages. Part I: Definition
Willington Siabato, Miguel-Angel Manso-Callejo – Technical University of Madrid

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Integration of temporal and semantic components into the Geographic Information through mark-up languages. Part I: Definition

  1. 1. Willington SiabatoMiguel Ángel Manso-Callejo Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  2. 2. • Presentation and general overview• What do we expect? Our vision• How can we achieve this?• GI and Time• GI and Semantics (Geosemantics)• What have we done?• Conclusions (Pseudo)• Ongoing works and next steps• References
  3. 3. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  4. 4. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Presentation and general overview • Traditional spatial data modellingPresentation • FixedOur visionHow to do this? • StaticGI and TimeGI and Semantics • MonolithicHave done!!ConclusionReferences • ¿New Entity? • ¿New relationship? • ¿New “behaviour”? TO CHANGE TO UPDATE http://support.esri.com/en/downloads/datamodel/detail/14 © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 4 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  5. 5. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Presentation and general overviewPresentationOur vision New paradigm to store data takingHow to do this?GI and Time into account the temporal andGI and SemanticsHave done!! semantic components…..ConclusionReferences …… a new milestone in the geographic analysis capabilities. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 5 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  6. 6. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Presentation and general overviewPresentation This paper and this presentation are just and introduction. Our project isOur vision divided into four parts.How to do this?GI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!! • Part I: definition.ConclusionReferences • Part II: geosemantic component. • Part III: temporal component. • Part IV: integration. So, we are going to present the definition of the project today . © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 6 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  7. 7. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  8. 8. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI What do we expect?PresentationOur visionHow to do this?GI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!!ConclusionReferences © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 8 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  9. 9. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI What do we expect? I am a River I was bornPresentationOur vision in 1992How to do this?GI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!!ConclusionReferences ..... ..... I am a highway I was born in 2005 © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 9 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  10. 10. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI What do we expect? So, our vision, in a very utopianPresentation world, is be able to see how data canOur visionHow to do this? interact in a system justGI and TimeGI and Semantics incorporating them into it.Have done!!ConclusionReferences We want to provide data with the capability of interact without having to be immersed in a static model. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 10 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  11. 11. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI What do we expect?PresentationOur visionHow to do this?GI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!!ConclusionReferences Spatial Time Meaning ..... ..... © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 11 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  12. 12. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  13. 13. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Three main components of GI (Sinton)Presentation AtributtesOur vision Spatial Time • The represented • This component is needed • The simple observationHow to do this?GI and Time geographic feature to locate the geographic of a phenomenonGI and Semantics should contain a feature at a specific time. without registering theHave done!! minimum amount of Because of the dynamism location of the featureConclusion data describing it to of natural phenomena does not generate usefulReferences know about its and the activities information. It is nature. The registered on the Earth necessary to locate the description should be surface, the temporal phenomenon so as to made in qualitative or label is needed to locate match the represented quantitative units. data at the corresponding geographic feature and • Databases. specific time. its derived information. • Tables. • Temporal references. • Representation of • External files. • Metadata. geographic features. • Topology. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 13 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  14. 14. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI How can we achieve this?PresentationOur visionHow to do this?GI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!!ConclusionReferences © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 14 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  15. 15. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI How can we achieve this? By using Mark-Up Languages and related technologies such as:PresentationOur vision •Geographic Mark-Up Languages.How to do this? • GML, KML and SpatialML.GI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!! • Time Mark-Up Languages.ConclusionReferences • TimeML and Timex • Semantic Languages. • OWL, RDF, DARPA Agent Mark-up Language, SPARQL Query Language for RDF. In addition to other de facto or ad hoc standards related to semantic, temporal, and/or GI storage aspects. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 15 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  16. 16. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI How can we achieve this?PresentationOur visionHow to do this?GI and Time This piece of work is primarily based onGI and SemanticsHave done!! concepts and studies related to space andConclusionReferences time; semantic and semantic interoperability, annotation of temporal expressions, work related to space and time labelling as well as GI retrieval. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 16 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  17. 17. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI The ultimate objectivePresentation To enrich GI storing and to improve the spatialOur visionHow to do this? and temporal analyses.GI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!!ConclusionReferences Now I am able to interact with other data- © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 17 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  18. 18. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI The ultimate objectivePresentationOur visionHow to do this? The ultimate objective is the modelling andGI and TimeGI and Semantics representation of the dynamic nature of geographicHave done!!Conclusion features (which are dynamic by definition),References establishing mechanisms to store geometries enriched with a temporal structure and a set of semantic descriptors detailing and clarifying the nature of the represented features and their temporality. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 18 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  19. 19. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  20. 20. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Description of the problemPresentationOur visionHow to do this?The ProblemThe ProposalGI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!!ConclusionReferences © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 20 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  21. 21. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Description of the problem • Lack of a binding historical geometric, semantic and temporal register ofPresentation the represented features.Our visionHow to do this? • Users do not achieve directly (or even indirectly in some cases) theThe ProblemThe Proposal desired answers from the spatiotemporal analyses carried out.GI and TimeGI and Semantics • Inability to develop real spatiotemporal analyses.Have done!!Conclusion • Attribute  space  time relationships without one-to-one matching.References • Inability to find other related levels of information or associated geographic features. • The intrinsic need to manage versions. • Information duplication in zones not going through changes. • Inability to develop real spatiotemporal analyses. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 21 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  22. 22. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  23. 23. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI FrameworkPresentationOur visionHow to do this? “Geographic entities, like everything else in the world,The ProblemThe Proposal exist in time as well as in space;...... Spatio-temporalGI and TimeGI and Semantics reasoning is not reasoning about some abstractHave done!!Conclusion (x,y,z,t) framework: it is mainly reasoning about theReferences appearance, change, and disappearance of things in space and over time.” (Couclelis, 1998) © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 23 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  24. 24. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Description of the problemPresentationOur visionHow to do this?The ProblemThe ProposalGI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!!ConclusionReferences © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 24 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  25. 25. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Hypothesis The lack of the semantic and temporal components in the currentPresentationOur vision structures of Geographic Information storage causes the spatiotemporalHow to do this? analyses to be deficient. The proposal of a new model incorporating anThe ProblemThe Proposal independent temporal structure and a semantic meaning would optimiseGI and Time such storage and would allow improving GI retrieval, processing andGI and SemanticsHave done!! analysis capability.ConclusionReferences © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 25 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  26. 26. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Three new layers to empower the main componentsPresentationOur visionHow to do this?The ProblemThe ProposalGI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!!ConclusionReferences © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 26 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  27. 27. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Semantic-Temporal LayerPresentationOur visionHow to do this?The ProblemThe Proposal This layer will let to identify temporalGI and TimeGI and Semantics expressions into Attributes, MetadataHave done!!Conclusion and user-query sentences.References To process this sentences as NLP. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 27 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  28. 28. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Geosemantic LayerPresentationOur visionHow to do this?The ProblemThe Proposal This layer will let to provide data withGI and TimeGI and Semantics the capability of knowing who theyHave done!!Conclusion are.References Based on Gazetteer services it will be also possible to discover the historical linage of data. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 28 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  29. 29. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Incremental Spatio-Temporal LayerPresentationOur visionHow to do this? This layer will let to store dataThe ProblemThe Proposal following the incremental modelGI and TimeGI and Semantics avoiding data (geometries)Have done!!Conclusion duplication.References The first proposal will consider an independent (self- contained) format. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 29 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  30. 30. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  31. 31. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Related jobsPresentationOur visionHow to do this?The Problem ¿What?The ProposalGI and TimeGI and Semantics AtributteHave done!!ConclusionReferences . ¿When? ¿Where? Time Spatial Triadic model of space, time and attributes (Peuquet:1998) © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 31 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  32. 32. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Related jobsPresentationOur vision • Snodgrass and their work in data bases.How to do this?The Problem • Langran’s time and GIS concepts.The ProposalGI and Time • Yuan models.GI and SemanticsHave done!! • Ott and Swiaczny time in GIS concepts.ConclusionReferences © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 32 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  33. 33. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  34. 34. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Related jobsPresentation • Natural Language Processing methods and techniques.Our visionHow to do this? • Geographic Information Retrieval.The Problem • Computational processing of temporal expressions.The ProposalGI and TimeGI and SemanticsHave done!!ConclusionReferences The analysis of temporal expressions allows placing data, facts and events on timelines subjectively, correlating and arranging them chronologically. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 34 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  35. 35. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  36. 36. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI What have we done? • We have developed the core of the semantic-temporal layer. ThePresentation tests show reliability in the process. Now we must integrate it.Our visionHow to do this? • We have create a very basic time-ontology. We must define aThe ProblemThe Proposal comprehensive one.GI and TimeGI and Semantics • We have developed a GML Scheme for incorporating incrementalHave done!!Conclusion geometric data.References • We have evaluated the possibilities of mark-up languages to store data and describe time into GIS: I can see you are experts on this topic, I hope to keep in touch to “improve” the ontology. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 36 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  37. 37. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  38. 38. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI ConclusionPresentationOur visionHow to do this?The ProblemThe Proposal By adding three new layers to GI it will possible toGI and TimeGI and Semantics improve spatio-temporal geographic data analysis.Have done!!ConclusionReferences © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 38 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  39. 39. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  40. 40. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI Ongoing and next stepsPresentationOur visionHow to do this?The Problem • Implementation of the three layers.The ProposalGI and Time • Integration of layers.GI and SemanticsHave done!! • Incorporation of this layer into a system.ConclusionReferences • Proof of concept. © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 40 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  41. 41. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
  42. 42. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI References 1. Armstrong MP (ed.): Temporality in spatial databases. Falls Church - USA: The Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (1988) 3. Bates MJ, Wilde DN, Siegfried S: An analysis of search terminology used by humanities scholars: the Getty Online Searching Project Report Number 1. The Library Quarterly , 63(1): 1-39. (1993) 4. Berry BJ: Approaches to regional analysis: a synthesis. Annals of the Association of American Geographers , 54(1): 2-11. (1964)Presentation 7. Brandeis University and Universität Osnabrück, Annotating, Extracting and Reasoning about Time and Events,Our vision http://www.dagstuhl.de/de/programm/kalender/semhp/?semnr=05151How to do this? 9. Corporation TM: Time Expression Recognition and Normalization Evaluation. In: TERN-2004 Evaluation Workshop, MITRE, (2004)The Problem 10. Couclelis H: Aristotelian Spatial Dynamics in the Age of Geographic Information Systems. In: Spatial and temporal reasoning in geographicThe Proposal information systems. Edited by Egenhofer MJ, Colledge RG, vol. 54, 1st edn. New York - USA: Oxford University Press: 109-118 (1998) 11. DARPAs InformationExploitation Office, The DARPA Agent Markup Language Homepage, http://www.daml.orgGI and Time 12. Defense AdvancedResearchProjectsAgency-InformationTechnology Office, Conference on Message Understanding,GI and Semantics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Message_Understanding_ConferenceHave done!! 13. Dipartimento diInformaticai Comunicazione, TIME International Symposium on Temporal Representation and Reasoning,Conclusion http://time.dico.unimi.it/TIME_Home.htmlReferences 14. Ellen Voorhees, The Retrieval Group, http://www.itl.nist.gov/iaui/894.02/ 18. Galton A (ed.): Qualitative spatial change: Oxford University Press (2001) 19. Galton A, Worboys M: Processes and events in dynamic geo-networks. In: GeoSpatial Semantics. Edited by Rodríguez A, Cruz IF, Egenhofer MJ, Levashkin S, vol. 3799. Berlin - Germany: Springer-Verlag: 45-59 (2005) 20. Galton A: Desiderata for a Spatio-temporal Geo-ontology. In: Spatial Information Theory. Foundations of Geographic Information Science, International Conference -COSIT 2003-. Edited by Kuhn W, Worboys M, Timpf S, vol. 2825. Berlin - Germany: Springer-Verlag: 1-12 (2003) 21. Galton A: Dynamic collectives and their collective dynamics. In: Spatial Information Theory. International Conference -COSIT 2005-. Edited by Cohn AG, Mark DM, vol. 3693. Berlin - Germany: Springer-Verlag: 300-315 (2005) 22. Galton A: Fields and objects in space, time, and space-time. Spatial Cognition and Computation , 4(1): 39-68. (2004) 23. Galton A: Space, time, and the representation of geographical reality. Topoi , 20(2): 173-187. (2001) 24. Hornsby KS, Yuan M: Understanding Dynamics of Geographic Domains, 1st edn. Boca Raton - USA: CRC Press (2008) 25. International OrganizationforStandardization -ISO-: Language resource management – Semantic Annotation Framework (SemAF) – Part1: Time and events. Technical Report. Geneva - Switzerland: International Organization for Standardization -ISO- (2007) © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 42 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  43. 43. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI References (i) 26. Iowa State University and National Science Foundation, CHRONOS, http://chronos.org/index.html 28. James Pustejovsky, Time and Event Recognition for Question Answering Systems - TERQAS, http://www.timeml.org/site/terqas/index.html 32. Jim Castagneri, Temporal GIS explores new dimensions in time, http://www.gisworld.com/gw/1998/0998/998tmp.asp 33. Jones CB, Abdelmoty AI, Finch D, Fu G, Vaid S: The SPIRIT spatial search engine: Architecture, ontologies and spatial indexing. In: GeographicPresentation Information Science. Edited by Egenhofer MJ, Freksa C, Miller HJ, vol. 3234. Berlin - Germany: Springer-Verlag: 125-139 (2004)Our vision 38. Langran G, Chrisman N: A framework for temporal geographic information. Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic InformationHow to do this? and Geovisualization , 25(3): 1-14. (1988)The Problem 39. Langran G: A review of temporal database research and its use in GIS applications. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems ,The Proposal 3(3): 215-232. (1989) 41. Langran G: Temporal GIS design tradeoffs. URISA Journal , 2(2): 16-25. (1990)GI and Time 43. Langran G: Time in geographic information systems, 1st edn. London - UK: Taylor & Francis (1992)GI and Semantics 45. Manning C, Schütze H: Foundations of statistical natural language processing, 6th edn. Cambridge - Massachusets: MIT Press (2003)Have done!! 49. Mennis JL, Peuquet DJ, Qian L: A conceptual framework for incorporating cognitive principles into geographical database representation.Conclusion International Journal of Geographical Information Science , 14(6): 501-520. (2000)References 59. Peuquet DJ: A conceptual framework and comparison of spatial data models. Cartographica: The International Journal for Geographic Information and Geovisualization , 21(4): 66-113. (1984) 60. Peuquet DJ: Its About Time: A Conceptual Framework for the Representation of Temporal Dynamics in Geographic Information Systems. Annals of the Association of American Geographers , 84(3): 441-461. (1994) 61. Peuquet DJ: Making space for time: Issues in space-time data representation. GeoInformatica , 5(1): 11-32. (2001) 62. Peuquet DJ: Representations of geographic space: toward a conceptual synthesis. Annals of the Association of American Geographers , 78(3): 375-394. (1988) 63. Peuquet DJ: Representations of space and time. London - UK: The Guilford Press (2002) 72. Spatio Temporal MITRE: SpatialML: Annotation Scheme for Marking Spatial Expressions in Natural Language 3.0. Technical Report. : ©The MITRE Corporation (2009) 79. Turing AM: Computing machinery and intelligence. MIND , 59(236): 443-460. (1950) 83. Wachowicz M, Healey RG: Towards temporality in GIS. In: Innovations in GIS: selected papers from the first National Conference on GIS Research UK. Edited by Worboys M, vol. 1, 1st edn. London - UK: CRC Press: 105-115 (1994) © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 43 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  44. 44. Integration of Temporal and Semantic components into the GI References (i) 84. Worboys M, Duckham M: Monitoring qualitative spatiotemporal change for geosensor networks. International Journal of Geographical Information Science , 20(10): 1087-1108. (2006) 85. Worboys M: A generic model for spatio-bitemporal geographic information. In: Spatial and temporal reasoning in geographic information systems. Edited by Egenhofer MJ, Colledge RG, vol. 54, 1st edn. New York - USA: Oxford University Press: 25-39 (1998)Presentation 90. World WideWeb Consortium, OWL 2 Web Ontology Language - Recommendation 27 October 2009, http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-owl2-Our vision overview-20091027/How to do this? 91. World WideWeb Consortium, Resource Description Framework (RDF), http://www.w3.org/RDF/The Problem 92. World WideWeb Consortium, SPARQL Query Language for RDF, http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdf-sparql-query-20080115/The Proposal 93. Yuan M, Hornsby KS: Computation and visualization for understanding dynamics in geographic domains: a research agenda, 1st edn. Boca Raton - USA: CRC Press (2007)GI and Time 94. Yuan M, Mark DM, Egenhofer MJ, Peuquet DJ: Extensions to Geographic Representation. In: A Research Agenda for Geographic InformationGI and Semantics Science. Edited by McMaster RB, Usery EL. Boca Raton - USA: CRC Press: 129-156 (2004)Have done!! 96. Yuan M: Modeling semantical, temporal and spatial information in geographic information systems. In: Geographic Information Research:Conclusion Bridging the Atlantic. Edited by Craglia M, Couclelis H, vol. 1, 1st edn. London - UK: Taylor & Francis: 334-347 (1997)References 98. Yuan M: Temporal GIS and spatio-temporal modeling. In: 3rd International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, pp. 21- 26. University of California, Santa Barbara - USA (1996) 99. Yuan M: Use of a Three-Domain Representation to Enhance GIS Support for Complex Spatiotemporal Queries. Transactions in GIS , 3(2): 137- 159. (1999) 100. Yuan M: Use of knowledge acquisition to build wildfire representation in Geographical Information Systems. International Journal of Geographical Information Science , 11(8): 723-746. (1997) 101. Yuan M: Wildfire conceptual modeling for building GIS space-time models. In: GIS/LIS 94, pp. 860-889. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Falls Church - USA (1994)ref_end © Willington Siabato 11th International Conference on Computational Science and Applications 44 of 45 w.siabato@upm.es (ICCSA 2011) Santander, Spain, June 2011 Mercator Research Group
  45. 45. Mercator Research GroupUniversidad Politécnica de Madrid

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