Evolution trends of land use/land cover in a Mediterranean forest landscape in Italy
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Evolution trends of land use/land cover in a Mediterranean forest landscape in Italy

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Evolution trends of land use/land cover in a Mediterranean forest landscape in Italy...

Evolution trends of land use/land cover in a Mediterranean forest landscape in Italy
Salvatore Di Fazio, Giuseppe Modica, Paolo Zoccali - Department of Agroforestry and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, ‘Mediterranean’ University of Reggio Calabria

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  • 1. EVOLUTION TRENDS OF LAND USE/LAND COVER IN A MEDITERRANEAN FOREST LANDSCAPE IN ITALYSalvatore Di Fazio, Giuseppe Modica, Paolo Zoccali ‘Mediterranea’ University of Reggio Calabria
  • 2. 11INTRODUCTION and problem statement  Though influenced by biophysical factors (soil conditions, topography, climate, etc.), the result of Land Use/Land Cover changes (LULCc) is mostly due to the human activity.  The estimation of LULC status and change can provide crucial ecological information for science-oriented resource management and policy-making. Their analysis is one of the main research topics of ecology and landscape ecology.  Over the last decades, the most significant LULC changes have occurred as a consequence:  Urban sprawl;  Agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas;  Agricultural abandonment in marginal areas;  More frequent and more intense summer forest fires.  The present work is part of a broader research aimed at the characterization, interpretation and valorisation of the forestry landscape in a representative mountainous region of Southern Italy.  The main goal of this paper is to interpret the forest landscape dynamics occurred over the period 1955 2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno, located in the centre of Calabria
  • 3. 22 STUDY AREA - The Serra S. Bruno municipality (Italy)The study area is the so calledSerre Vibonesi area, amountainous region including theterritory of four municipalities: • Serra San Bruno, • Mongiana, • Stilo • Bivongi.The municipality of Serra SanBruno has an area of ~ 4,000ha, a residential density of 178.5inhab.∙km-2 and is situated at anaverage altitude of 980 m a.s.l.(733-1418 m).The high environmental value ofthis area motivated the institutionof several protected areas.
  • 4. 33 STUDY AREA - The Serra S. Bruno municipality (Italy)The area of Serra S. Bruno is one Charterhouse of Serra S. Bruno Basilian monastery of Saintof the most interesting areas of JohnTherestisCalabria because of the presenceof many heritage resources ofgreat natural, historic andarchitectural interest.Count Roger II gave St Bruno ofCologne the territories of SerreVibonesi plateau to build hishermitage, the Charterhouse ofSanto Stefano del Bosco, firstCarthusian monastery in Italy and thesecond most important in Europe afterSaint-Pierre-de-Chartreuse (nearGrenoble, France).For centuries, the forests wereowned by the Charterhouse ofSerra San Bruno, founded by StBruno of Cologne in the 11thcentury, and managed efficientlyand sensitively according to themethods of the Carthusian monks
  • 5. 44 STUDY AREA - The Serra S. Bruno municipality (Italy)The local industrial archaeologyheritage is also very significant:  Watermills;  Old Royal iron factories;  Hydroelectric power stations.It is related to the utilization ofwater and wood as energysources and dates back to thetime of Bourbon rule in Calabria(XVIII-XIX centuries).Presence of the charcoal-production sites where manytraditional vertical moundcharcoal-kilns are still presentand active. Radius: ~ 5 m; Height : ~ 4 m; Length of vertical mound charcoal-kiln’s building: 7 days. Amount of wood employed: ~ 50÷60 t; Amount of charcoal produced: ~ 10 t. Length of carbonization: 20÷22 days; Carbonization yields: 20% in summer; 16,5% in winter. Wood species employed: mostly Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) and Beech (Fagus Sylvatica L.).
  • 6. 55 MATERIALS AND METHODS - Aerial image processing and GIS database preparation1955 and 1983 aerial Characteristics of the aerial photographs and orthophotos used in the researchphotographs consisted of 9 Year Frame data Flight data Sourcecontact copies (23 cm x 23 cm) Sheet n° 246 Height: 6000 mscanned at 600x600 dpi 1955 Strip/Frames: 241/ 10369 10370 10371 Scale: 1:36000 Strip/Frames: 242/ 10418 10419 10420 Italian Militaryresolution by IGM Format: Digital – 600dpi Date: 02 July 1955 Geography InstituteProvided in non-georeferenced Sheet n° 246 (IGMI) Height: 4800 m http://www.igmi.org Strip/Frames: 16/ 534 535 536 537 538and non-compressed TIFF 1983 Strip/Frames: 17/ 573 573 575 576 577 Scale: 1:30000graphic format. Format: Digital – 600dpi Date: 06 Sept. 1983 Date: May 1994Aerial photographs georeferenced B/W Aerial Orthophotos via GIS 1994 Server catalogue Spatial resolution: 1 mby 20 30 GCP each. (only for consultation) National Cartographic PortalSpatial resolution  1.37 m Date: 18 May 2006 www.pcn.minambiente.it Colour Aerial Orthophotos via GISRMSE  < 6.5 m 2006 Server catalogue Spatial resolution: 0.5 m (only for consultation)
  • 7. 66 MATERIALS AND METHODS - LULC mapping LULC Classes usedIn order to improve the CORINE Land Cover Classes for data analysisinterpretation of the results, the Historical buildings Continuous urban fabricoriginal 44 LULC classes of the Continuous urban fabric (Urb-Cont)CORINE classification system atIII level of detail were Artificial Discontinuous urban fabric Discontinuous urban fabricaggregated in 9 classes so as to surfaces Green urban areas (Urb-Disc)interpret changes as changetypes Industrial or commercial units Industrial, commercial and Mining areas transport units (Ind) Land principally occupied by agriculture, with significant areas of Agricultural natural vegetation Agricultural areas (Agric) areas Pastures Non-irrigated arable land Coniferous forest Coniferous forest (Con-For) Coniferous Reforestation Broad-leaved forestCorrespondence between Forests and Broad-leaved mix forest Broad-leaved forest (Blv-For)CORINE legend nomenclature semi-natural Broad-leaved Reforestationand LULC classes used for Mixed forestdetecting LULC changes. areas Mixed forest (Mix-For) Rows of treesIn brackets, the symbols utilized in Transitional woodland shrub Shrub and/or herbaceousfigures and tables in the following Open spaces with little or no vegetation associations (Shrub)slides. vegetation Water bodies Water bodies Inland waters (Waters)
  • 8. 77 MATERIALS AND METHODS - LULC mappingPhotointerpretation made at afixed scale of 1:1,000 1:1,500 forall periods under investigation.The LULC 2006 map has beenthe reference map; the otherLULC maps were produced byupdating it.Minimum mapping unit  0.2 haThe thematic accuracy of the2006 LULC map was assessedby means of a stratified randomsamplingOverall classificationaccuracy  95.85%Kappa coefficient (Khat)  0.94
  • 9. 88 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS - Analysis of LULC ChangesAgricultural and forest areas as awhole occupied the most part ofthe study area, even though theywere differently distributed.1955Agric  41.19%Mix-For  47.51%Blv-For  5.39%The urban fabric was almostcompletely continuous (Urb-Cont) and coincided with thehistorical nucleus (0.89%).2006Agric  20.98%Mix-For  49.31%Blv-For  ~ 18%The total amount of forest areaspassed from 54.25% in 1955 to73.34% of the total area in 2006. Landscape composition in Serra St. Bruno in the four periods under investigation. Data in [ha] and in [%]
  • 10. 99 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS - Area changes and change rates of LULC classes 2006Spatial comparison of LULC made by Urb-Cont Urb-Disc Ind Agric Con-For Blv-For Mix-For Shrub Waters Sum 1955 1955means of post-classification Urb-Cont 30.98 - - - - - - - 0.36 31.34comparison technique that can Urb-Disc - 4.48 - - - - - - - 4.48provide a complete matrix of change Ind - - 1.97 - - - - - - 1.97directions Agric 24.68 72.21 27.39 789.43 87.51 484.82 133.14 41.07 2.92 1663.18The rows display the categories of t1 Con-For - - - - 12.86 0.36 39.90 1.20 - 54.38 Blv-For - 0.74 - 29.28 1.02 160.78 25.29 0.33 - 217.44The columns display the categories of t2. Mix-For 0.27 - 0.75 8.82 138.18 18.10 1749.21 2.93 - 1918.27 Shrub 2.76 0.28 - 14.71 5.48 50.99 42.44 5.25 - 121.91Row vector shows the evolution of aland use type in the period t1 t2. Waters 1.07 2.76 0.25 - - 10.41 0.78 0.76 3.61 24.64 Sum 2006 59.76 80.47 30.41 847.24 245.05 725.46 1990.77 51.55 6.89 4037.60Column vector shows the land usetype at time t1, from which another 1983 Urb-Cont Urb-Disc Ind Agric Con-For Blv-For Mix-For Shrub Waters Sum 1955land use type generated at time t2. 1955 Urb-Cont 27.27 1.13 - 1.66 - - - - 1.28 31.34The data of the main Urb-Disc - 4.47 - - - - - - - 4.47diagonal, indicate the area of Ind - - 1.97 - - - - - - 1.97persistence. Agric 8.95 45.85 33.15 991.46 78.83 335.52 128.63 39.34 1.45 1663.18 Con-For - - - 1.91 12.17 1.20 39.10 - - 54.38Relative and absolute changes for Blv-For - 0.16 - 36.48 1.05 135.07 43.18 1.44 - 217.44each of the 9 land cover types Mix-For 1.70 - 1.02 15.06 48.56 21.16 1829.93 0.84 - 1918.27were calculated from 9x9 Shrub - - - 23.55 5.59 47.95 40.64 4.21 - 121.91Transition matrices according to Waters 0.39 1.69 - - - 8.73 0.84 0.28 3.44 24.63the 4 time-intervals defined. Sum 1983 38.32 53.31 36.19 1079.35 146.20 549.63 2082.31 46.11 6.16 4037.60
  • 11. 10 10 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS - Area changes and change rates of LULC classes 1 At2The mean annual rate of r ln 100change was calculated for each t2 t1 At1LULC class by means of theindex r as proposed by At1 = Area of the land use type in time t1 At 2 = Area of the land use type in time t2Puyravaud.This index represents the rate LULC 1955÷1983 1983÷1994 1994÷2006 1955÷2006 classesof the compound interest law. Urb-Cont 0.73 1,63 2,17 1,26 Urb-Disc 8.84 4,70 -0,86 5,67 Ind 10.39 -0,46 -0,97 5,38 Agric -1.54 -1,74 -0,42 -1,32 Con-For 3.53 0,33 4,01 2,95 Blv-For 3.31 1,98 0,50 2,36 Mix-For 0.29 0,02 -0,40 0,07 Shrub -3.48 0,32 0,64 -1,69 Waters -4.92 0,94 0,00 -2,50
  • 12. 11 11 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS - Area changes and change rates of LULC classesIn the period underinvestigation, the agriculturalareas were the mostconcerned by the changesoccured in the study area.In particular, the agriculturalarea was incorporated in theforestry classes.These dynamics are due to theintensification of silviculturalactivities.These LULC changes describedabove are combined with thoserelated to the abandonment of theAgric class, consequentlyoccupied by Shrub class. LULC dynamics concerning agricultural areas in the period 1955 2006
  • 13. 12 12 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS - Area changes and change rates of LULC classesThese dynamics are confirmedby the Agricultural Censusesconducted by ISTAT for theyears 1970, 1982, 1990 and2000.The analysis of data shows thatthe number of farms hashalved, passing from 503 in1970 to 228 in 2000 (-54.7%).Correspondingly, UAA (UtilizedAgricultural Area) hasdropped, though lessdramatically, from 1027.63 ha in1970 to 716.74 ha in 2000 (-30.25%), with a consequentincrease (+53.9%) in theaverage area per farm (from2.04 ha to 3.14 ha). LULC dynamic networks of 1955 2006 changes. The sequence of percentage in each LULC class type indicates its share on the entire landscape composition analysed in 1955 and in 2006, respectively. Numbers of [ha] marked above the arrows represent the surface changed from one LULC class type to another
  • 14. 13 13 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS - Area changes and change rates of LULC classes URBAN SPRAWLThe urban sprawl of the studyarea has concerned and is stillconcerning almost flat areas(slope ≤10%). 1955 2006Urb-disc 4.48 80.56Urb-Cont 31.34 59.65Moreover, the discontinuousurban fabric is still changing:since the „80s, it has beentending to be incorporated inthe Urb-Cont class.
  • 15. 14 14 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS - Area changes and change rates of LULC classesURBANSPRAWLThe trend of the total number of buildings contributes in explaining the urban dynamic: 331 in1955, 1011 in 1983, 1829 in 1994 and, finally, 2057 in 2006.Resident population passed from 8,517 inhabitants in 1961 (the highest value since 1861) to 6,955 in 2010.The highest rate of housing construction was recorded, when, owing to the temporary lack of effectiveplanning regulations, many buildings were constructed in unsuitable areas.
  • 16. 15 15 URBAN SPRAWLIn those years housingconstruction did not meet aresidential need, but rather itanswered the purpose to investin the property market in aperiod of high monetaryinflation.At present, many of them are letduring summer for the so-called“Tourism of return” (or “Roots-Tourism”) and, to a lesserextent, for exogenous tourism Number of houses per typology of occupation in Serra S. Bruno municipality in 1971 2001 period (source: Italian National Institute of Statistics).
  • 17. 16 16Conclusions and future research directions  Understanding the evolution trends of landscape, particularly those related to urban/rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning.  In order to better quantifying and interpreting LULC changes, the spatial - historical (aerial photographs) and recent (orthophotos) - data with socio-economic data in a geodatabase at a detailed scale are integrated.  The analysis of LULC changes allows the temporal verification of the positive (e.g. reforestation of agricultural areas, land consolidation, etc.) or negative (lack of landscape planning tools, effects of agricultural abandonment, etc.) effects of past territorial policies.  These analyses can allow to implement landscape management tools and sustainable landscape planning so as to direct future changes towards those which had positive effects and to contrast the actions which had negative effects on the landscape in the past.  Future developments of the research will include the use of VHR satellite remote sensing data and landscape metrics.
  • 18. EVOLUTION TRENDS OF LAND USE/LAND COVER IN A MEDITERRANEAN FOREST LANDSCAPE IN ITALYSalvatore Di Fazio, Giuseppe Modica, Paolo Zoccaligiuseppe.modica@unirc.it
  • 19. 18 a18 Additional slidesThematic routes based on the“nature-culture” and “nature- spirituality” connection1 - Charcoal itineraryFocuses on the interpretation ofcharcoal production sites and, inparticular, of the traditional verticalmound charcoal-kilns.2 - Spirit and Nature traildesigned to favour a contemplativeand spiritual experience by offering asimple and beautiful contact withwoods and St. Bruno charterhouse.3 - Wood and Water itineraryPathway running through theFerdinandea forest, belonged toFerdinand de Bourbon (~ 3500 ha).4 - Industrial archaeology itineraryconnects the ruins of the MongianaRoyal Foundry to a weapon factory ofthe Bourbon age.5 - Monastic sites itineraryoffers a series of “cultural bridges”connecting different sites of the Logical and organizational scheme interlinking the main cultural/natural heritagehistoric monastic settlements in resources to favour their integrated tourism use in Serra San Bruno District.Calabria.
  • 20. 19 a19 Additional slideso Coppices of Holm oak in the study area;1. Preparation of the place for the mound kiln building (radius ~ 5 m);2. Woodpile preparation according to the wood size;3. Scaffolding of the tree stumps and building of the central chimney (square section with side of 30 cm)4. Laying of the internal strata using wood with 8-10 cm in diameter;5. Laying of the external strata using wood with 3-5 cm in diameter;6. Covering using straw and earth (thickness  10 cm);7. Lightning and slow combustion (with very high temperatures and restricted quantity of oxigen  pyrolysis) for 20-22 days (dependig on the season);8. Cooling, Earth and straw removal and Charcoal extraction.9. The final product: charcoal (in photo, high quality holm oak charcoal).10. Packaging of the charcoal in bags of
  • 21. 20 a20 Additional slides RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS - Area changes and change rates of LULC classes 1994Spatial comparison of LULC made by Urb-Cont Urb-Disc Ind Agric Con-For Blv-For Mix-For Shrub Waters Sum 1983 1983means of post-classification Urb-Cont 33.90 2.65 - - - 0.91 0.95 - - 38.40comparison technique (using data Urb-Disc 2.60 48.87 - 1.39 - 0.45 - - - 53.31in vectorial format) that can provide a Ind - - 22.92 7.40 0.94 1.42 0.26 3.19 - 36.13complete matrix of change directions Agric 6.17 34.21 8.09 823.58 22.35 134.77 38.20 8.16 3.81 1079.36Relative and absolute changes for Con-For - - - 2.40 96.29 20.05 26.37 0.96 - 146.06each of the 9 land cover types were Blv-For 1.99 2.00 2.47 34.91 5.57 466.08 18.95 17.60 - 549.59calculated from 9x9 Transition Mix-For - - 0.48 19.53 26.00 31.14 2002.68 2.63 - 2082.48matrices (or Cross-tabulation Shrub - - 0.25 1.52 0.51 28.36 0.26 15.16 - 46.06matrices) according to 4 time- Waters 1.48 1.63 - - - 0.11 - - 2.99 6.21intervals. Sum 1994 46.14 89.37 34.22 890.72 151.65 683.31 2087.68 47.71 6.80 4037.60Each transition matrix is built for the 2006time interval t1 to t2. Urb-Cont Urb-Disc Ind Agric Con-For Blv-For Mix-For Shrub Waters Sum 1994 1994The rows display the categories of Urb-Cont 45.51 - - 0.45 - - - - - 45.96time 1 and the columns display the Urb-Disc 10.59 77.52 - 1.26 - - - - - 89.37categories of time 2. Ind - - 24.01 0.73 - 5.25 0.61 3.73 - 34.34 Agric 2.41 1.91 4.73 814.54 0.10 47.35 7.40 12.47 - 890.92Row vector shows the evolution of a Con-For - - - - 135.26 - 16.26 - - 151.52land use type in the period t1 t2. Blv-For 1.14 1.14 1.25 20.21 0.97 648.96 1.60 7.95 - 683.22Column vector shows the land use Mix-For - - 0.13 5.55 108.68 8.03 1964.69 0.60 - 2087.68type at time t1, from which another Shrub - - 0.43 4.54 - 15.67 0.29 26.77 - 47.71land use type generated at time t2. Waters - - - - - - - - 6.89 6.89 Sum 2006 59.65 80.56 30.55 847.29 245.02 725.27 1990.85 51.53 6.89 4037.60The data of the main diagonal,indicate the area of persistence.
  • 22. 21 a21 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS - Area changes and change rates of LULC classes 1 At2The mean annual rate of r ln 100change was calculated for each t2 t1 At1LULC class by means of theindex r as proposed by At1 = Area of the land use type in time t1 At 2 = Area of the land use type in time t2Puyravaud.This index represents the rate LULC 1955÷1983 1983÷1994 1994÷2006 1955÷2006 classesof the compound interest law. Urb-Cont 0.73 1,63 2,17 1,26 Urb-Disc 8.84 4,70 -0,86 5,67 Ind 10.39 -0,46 -0,97 5,38 Agric -1.54 -1,74 -0,42 -1,32 Con-For 3.53 0,33 4,01 2,95 Blv-For 3.31 1,98 0,50 2,36 Mix-For 0.29 0,02 -0,40 0,07 Shrub -3.48 0,32 0,64 -1,69 Waters -4.92 0,94 0,00 -2,50In the population dynamics, therate at which a populationincreases in size, if there are no after integrationdensity-dependent forcesregulating the population, isknown as the intrinsic rate ofincrease