6 Things Water Cant Give You
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6 Things Water Cant Give You

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A step-by-step explanation from http://www.bengreenfieldfitness.com of why the body needs electrolytes and how athletes and exercisers can optimize their hydration and salts intake.

A step-by-step explanation from http://www.bengreenfieldfitness.com of why the body needs electrolytes and how athletes and exercisers can optimize their hydration and salts intake.

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  • Far too many athletes have suffered needlessly with swollen hands and feet from water retention due to ingestion of salt tablets or electrolyte products too high in sodium during prolonged exercise in the heat. The body has very effective mechanisms to regulate and re-circulate sodium from body stores. Excess sodium consumption interferes with or neutralizes these complex mechanisms. Sweat generates large sodium losses, which is monitored closely through hormonal receptors throughout the body. However, rapid sodium replacement neutralizes the system, allowing water intake to dilute the sodium content. High sodium electrolyte supplementation contravenes the natural physiological control of serum electrolytes. Once the body detects an increase in sodium from exogenous sources (i.e., food, salt tablets, or products too high in sodium), the hormone aldosterone signals the kidneys to stop filtering and re-circulating sodium. Instead, the kidneys will excrete sodium; another hormone, vasopressin, will predominate and cause fluid retention.While taking large amounts of sodium may temporarily resolve a sodium deficiency, doing so substantially increases the risk of a number of problems, including increased fluid storage and thus swelling, or edema, in the distal extremities, elevated blood pressure, and increased rate of sodium excretion. All of these inhibit performance. If you've ever finished a workout or race with swollen hands, wrists, feet, or ankles, or if you have experienced puffiness under your eyes and around your cheeks, chances are your sodium/salt intake was too high Phosphate is an important component of bones and teeth. Phosphate is a building block for many important substances. Phosphate is necessary for the formation of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), the synthesis of high energy compounds (ATP and creatine phosphate), and acid-base balance of the blood.
     Phosphate levels in the blood are regulated by two hormones, the parathyroid hormone and by calcitonin. Excess phosphate in the diet is eliminated in urine, and stools.
     Phosphate is lost through impaired kidney function, hypothyroidism, use of some medications especially theophylline, diuretics, and aluminum-containing antacids, poor nutrition, severe alcohol intoxication, diabetic ketoacidosis, and severe burns (the body uses large amounts of phosphates during recovery).
     Hypophosphatemia, an abnormally 
low level of phosphate, can result in muscle weakness progressing to stupor, coma, and death. Prolonged hypophosphatemia can weaken bones. This can cause bone pain and can make bones prone to fracture.
  • By poking newly-developed, very fine microelectrodes directly into the giant axon of the squid , Hodgkin and Huxley measured the changes in membrane voltage that occurred during the action potential. They thus established precisely the mechanism of the action potential : it was generated by the movements of ions across the nerve cell membrane, in both directions. Like Loewi and Dale before them, Hodgkin and Huxley would share a Nobel prize for their.
  • By poking newly-developed, very fine microelectrodes directly into the giant axon of the squid , Hodgkin and Huxley measured the changes in membrane voltage that occurred during the action potential. They thus established precisely the mechanism of the action potential : it was generated by the movements of ions across the nerve cell membrane, in both directions. Like Loewi and Dale before them, Hodgkin and Huxley would share a Nobel prize for their.
  • By poking newly-developed, very fine microelectrodes directly into the giant axon of the squid , Hodgkin and Huxley measured the changes in membrane voltage that occurred during the action potential. They thus established precisely the mechanism of the action potential : it was generated by the movements of ions across the nerve cell membrane, in both directions. Like Loewi and Dale before them, Hodgkin and Huxley would share a Nobel prize for their.
  • Cramping is your body's final warning signal that you're on empty electrolyte wise. However, your performance is deteriorating and you are slowing down long before you feel the slightest twinge of a cramp. To keep your body's muscular, digestive, nervous, and cardiac systems firing on all cylinders you need a consistent supply of all electrolytic minerals, not just sodium and potassium.
  • .. SODIUM is the chief cation (positively charged ion) outside the cell. The average American carries 8000 mg of excess sodium in extracellular tissues. During endurance events, a minimum of three to four hours is necessary to deplete this mineral, which may result in symptoms of abnormal heartbeat, muscle twitching, and hypoventilation. However, if sodium is replaced at the same rate as depletion, it overrides the hormonal regulating mechanisms that enable the body to conserve electrolytes. Consumption of too much sodium will cause a variety of problems, the least of which is fluid retention. Therefore, we highly recommend a more moderate, body-cooperative replenishment of 120-240 mg/hr of sodium as sodium chloride. One reason salt tablets were eliminated from professional athletic training kits is that shortly after a sodium-depleted athlete would slug a few salt tablets, stomach cramps would bend them over double. One report suggests however, that total correction or over correction of sodium solution may result in irreversible damage to the brain.[9] Why is this and what causes these pressure gradients to occur? Why should the body be exposed to a minimal repletion electrolyte dose during extreme losses? Hypothetically electrolyte absorption should occur under the body's radar, without triggering a cascade of hormonal signals alter excretion rate by the kidneys. This hypothetically supports for taking the low sodium model as opposed to a higher sodium electrolyte. It needs to be emphasized that substrate repletion is never completed during high metabolic aerobic expense above sedentary state. Glycogen/glucose, electrolytes, fluids, and numerous other substrates are lost faster than they can be replaced during exercise. Waste matter and free radicals accumulate at 12-20 times that rate which is normally restored during sedentary inactivity. To suggest that a substrate must be replaced at or near the rate it is lost, is to suggest that 1-liter water, 2000 milligrams sodium, and 700 calories per hour must be consumed. We have observed that athletes who consume only 50% of this amount are more likely to have problems than those who consume 1/4 of the lost metabolites during ultra endurance exercise. This material may be shared in its entirety. This is a complex issue, since individual variations are difficult to explain without full understanding of how the individual response is effecting excretion versus re-absorption of sodium, fluids, and other substances. Reinking and Bennett have composed a texts to explain some of the complexities, though keep in mind neither suggests that one dose-size fits all.There is a point in time at which the body cannot replace losses from exogenous sources. Overdose of a single electrolyte at its repletion rate may lead to other imbalances triggering other systemic reactions that may lead to further problems that may inhibit performance. This suggests adding small dose electrolyte dose before detectable overdose triggers hormone-activated mechanisms further impeding natural outcome and performance progress. Aldosterone levels control the rate of sodium recirculated in the human body. Taking too much sodium may resolve sodium deficiency temporarily but potentially risks inducing increased distal extremity fluid storage and elevated blood pressure. In addition, taking excessive sodium tends to increase the rate of sodium excretion and in prolonged events may inhibit performance. Taking above 600 mg sodium per hour may be justified in large, overweight, unfit subjects who otherwise deplete sodium stores at a too rapid rate. Excessive water weight gain, increased blood pressure is shown to accompany excess sodium salts dose. The endurance athlete should set out to determine not how to replace all of the sodium lost at once, but how to replace the minimum amount which for most athletes is between 300-600 milligrams per hour. 1.8-3.6g sodium loss per hour
  • Why should the body be exposed to a minimal repletion electrolyte dose during extreme losses? Hypothetically electrolyte absorption should occur under the body's radar, without triggering a cascade of hormonal signals alter excretion rate by the kidneys. This hypothetically supports for taking the low sodium model as opposed to a higher sodium electrolyte. It needs to be emphasized that substrate repletion is never completed during high metabolic aerobic expense above sedentary state. Glycogen/glucose, electrolytes, fluids, and numerous other substrates are lost faster than they can be replaced during exercise. Waste matter and free radicals accumulate at 12-20 times that rate which is normally restored during sedentary inactivity. To suggest that a substrate must be replaced at or near the rate it is lost, is to suggest that 1-liter water, 2000 milligrams sodium, and 700 calories per hour must be consumed. We have observed that athletes who consume only 50% of this amount are more likely to have problems than those who consume 1/4 of the lost metabolites during ultra endurance exercise. This material may be shared in its entirety. This is a complex issue, since individual variations are difficult to explain without full understanding of how the individual response is effecting excretion versus re-absorption of sodium, fluids, and other substances. Reinking and Bennett have composed a texts to explain some of the complexities, though keep in mind neither suggests that one dose-size fits all.There is a point in time at which the body cannot replace losses from exogenous sources. Overdose of a single electrolyte at its repletion rate may lead to other imbalances triggering other systemic reactions that may lead to further problems that may inhibit performance. This suggests adding small dose electrolyte dose before detectable overdose triggers hormone-activated mechanisms further impeding natural outcome and performance progress. Aldosterone levels control the rate of sodium recirculated in the human body. Taking too much sodium may resolve sodium deficiency temporarily but potentially risks inducing increased distal extremity fluid storage and elevated blood pressure. In addition, taking excessive sodium tends to increase the rate of sodium excretion and in prolonged events may inhibit performance. Taking above 600 mg sodium per hour may be justified in large, overweight, unfit subjects who otherwise deplete sodium stores at a too rapid rate. Excessive water weight gain, increased blood pressure is shown to accompany excess sodium salts dose. The endurance athlete should set out to determine not how to replace all of the sodium lost at once, but how to replace the minimum amount which for most athletes is between 300-600 milligrams per hour. 1.8-3.6g sodium loss per hour
  • POTASSIUM is the chief cation (positively charged ion) within all muscle cells. It is necessary for maintaining the optimal concentration and balance of sodium. Potassium deficiency symptoms are nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, muscle spasms, cramping, and rapid heart rate. 75-150 mg/hr is an adequate replenishment amount. Even though 100-200 mg are lost in sweat alone (not counting internal muscle and cell use), if we try to replace it all at once, optimal sodium balance is altered. In addition, too much potassium is hard on the stomach and can cause severe stomach distress
  • CHLORIDE is the relative anion (negatively charged ion) that accompanies sodium. This electrolyte is absolutely necessary in maintaining the osmotic tension in both blood and extracellular fluids. It's a somewhat complicated process, but to put it in the simplest terms, think of osmotic tension as being the proper balance and consistency of body fluids and electrolytes. We believe 180-360 mg/hr of chloride (as sodium chloride) adequately replenishes chloride without overriding the function of the hormone aldosterone in regulating and conserving proper electrolyte levels. Note: salt (commonly called sodium) refers to sodium chloride, which is 40% sodium and 60% chloride by weight. The recommended amounts given above for both electrolytes, sodium and chloride, when combined together equals 300-600 mg sodium chloride, our recommended salt intake for the majority of athletes.
  • CALCIUM is the most abundant mineral in the human body (about 2.85 lbs/.8 kg in the average person). Normal heart rhythm, healthy nerve transmission, and strong muscle contractions require a constant blood calcium level. During exercise, calcium-dependent enzymes produce energy from fatty and amino acid conversion. Because fatty acids are such an important fuel during endurance exercise, providing 60-65% of your energy needs when exercise goes beyond two hours in length, having adequate calcium available to efficiently convert them into energy is crucial. When blood calcium runs low, the body extracts it from the bones, but this process can't keep up with your exercise depletion rate. Serum calcium deficiency during endurance events may produce high blood pressure, muscle cramps, and weakness. Calcium intake at 150-300 mg/hr will optimally sustain the multiple physiological functions listed above. MAGNESIUM should accompany calcium at a ratio of 1:2. When calcium flows into working muscle cells, the muscle contracts; when calcium leaves and magnesium replaces it, the muscle relaxes.
  • Many enzymatic reactions necessary for fuel conversion to muscular energy occur in the presence of adequate magnesium. Deficiency of magnesium contributes to muscle cramps, tremors, sleep disturbances, and in some cases, convulsive disorders. We lose at least 100 mg/hr via sweat, in addition to what is depleted by muscle use. Supplementation of 75-150 mg/hr adequately replenishes magnesium without the laxative effect that larger doses can produce

6 Things Water Cant Give You 6 Things Water Cant Give You Presentation Transcript

  • “Six Things Water Can’t Give You.” - How To Optimize Your Hot Weather Performance -
  • How Muscles Work.
  • Sodium • Most people eat too much • “Aldosterone/Vasopressin” mechanism • Recommendations: – 1500-2300mg/day – Replace 30-40% loss – Loss during exercise? • Hyponatremia • How To Get It?
  • Potassium • Balances sodium • 75-150mg/hr • How much in 1 banana? • Can’t replace all at once
  • Chloride • Usually “packaged” with sodium or potassium • The negative part • Don’t have to take “extra chloride”
  • Calcium • 150-300mg/hr • Cyclist’s concern… • Vitamin D assists with absorption and utilization
  • Magnesium • Heart attacks? • Common deficiency • Topical absorption
  • Phosphates/bicarbonate
  • Sample EXERCISE Foods • Nuun • Bananas • Oranges • Tomato Soup • Light Salting • Dairy/Vitamin D • Magnesium Oil • Epsom Salt Baths • Good Filtered Water • Mineral Supplementation (nuts/fruits/seeds/vegetables/supplements)
  • Questions To Ask Yourself • Does my gel already have salt? • Does my drink already have salt? • Does my “salt” have more than just sodium? • Do I need to pre-salt? • Am I taking too much salt? • Am I getting a bunch of crap with my salt?