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Robertson ch08

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Transcript

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO FIRE PREVENTION Seventh Edition • James C. Robertson Chapter 8 Instilling Positive Fire Reaction Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, Seventh Ed. © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 2. Overview• Human element• Human characteristics• Environment• Mental status Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 3. Individual Decisions• Flashover• Margin of safety• Ability to extinguish• Closed doors Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 4. Time versus Products of Combustion chart points out the need for prompt alarm and control action inthe event of fire. (Source: Northern Illinois Fire Sprinkler Advisory Board, Illinois Fire InspectorsAssociation, and Northern Illinois Fire Inspectors Association) Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 5. Reaction to fire was measured by a survey. Generally, men were found to try to fight the fire, whereaswomen alerted others and evacuated. (Source: Society of Fire Protection Engineers) Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 6. Fire Reporting• 911• Enhanced 911• Cellular calls and 911 Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 7. Home Fire Drills• E.D.I.T.H.• Stop, Drop, and Roll Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 8. School Fire Drills• Most widespread program to condition public fire reaction – Frequency – Evacuation – Hidden benefits Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 9. Institutional Fire Drills• Staff is trained to evacuate and take basic fire action – Nonambulatory – Defend in place – Individual abilities Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 10. Industrial Fire Drills• May be responsible for obtaining and operating extinguishing equipment and calling fire department – Location of exits – Location of alarm stations – Procedures Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 11. Fire Extinguishers• Training• Types• Locations Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 12. Multifamily Residential Occupancies• Fire alarms• Fire extinguishers• Fire drills Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 13. Panic• Defined—sudden, unreasoning, hysterical fear• Existence of real or imagined danger• Psychological factors Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 14. Counteracting Panic• Uniformed personnel – Symbol of authority• Occupancy signs• Emergency lighting• Exit signs Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 15. Counteracting Panic• Maintenance of exits• Public address systems• Advance notice Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 16. Fire Brigades• Familiar with location – Knowledge of the plant – Members should be from all areas of plant• Roles – Turn in alarm – Operate extinguishers and hoselines• Drills – Emergency action plan should be posted Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 17. Fire Safety Manuals• Basis for fire drills• Tailored to occupancy• Comprehensive Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 18. Elevator Fire Safety• Danger of use• Warning signs• Doors opening on fire floor Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 19. Fire Reaction Safeguards• Housing for older adults – Interlocked chain of life safety • Prevention • Detection • Alarm • Escape or refuge • Confinement • Control • Extinguishment Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 20. Fire Reaction Safeguards• Special occupancies• High-rise structures Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 21. Special Occupancies• Hotel occupancies – Changing concept of residential treatment – Reaction may change materially Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 22. High Rises• Difficult for evacuation – Elevator use a major problem – Location of stairs may be unknown to some • Voice communication may aid • Sprinklers • Lighting Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 23. Terrorism• NIST recommendations – Additional exit stairway for buildings more than 420 feet – One fire service elevator for buildings more than 120 feet – Luminous markings – Limiting length of horizontal transfer – Increasing remoteness – Enhancing survivability of stair enclosures Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • 24. Summary• Public responsibilities• Practice• Fire department interaction Robertson, Introduction to Fire Prevention, 7/e © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ

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