Chapter 09


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Chapter 09

  1. 1. Chapter Nine General Fire Safety Provisions
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 550 Fire Safety Concepts Tree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List two strategies for fire safety from model codes </li></ul><ul><li>List three objectives for each </li></ul>
  3. 3. NFPA 550 Fire Safety Concepts Tree <ul><li>Fault-tree analysis system for fire safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in 1974 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies fundamental strategies and lists objectives for a safe environment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. NFPA 550 Strategies <ul><li>Prevent ignition </li></ul><ul><li>Manage impact </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prevent Ignition <ul><li>Control heat sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking, heating appliances, electrical hazards, open flames </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate materials storage and handling </li></ul><ul><li>Control the interaction between the two </li></ul>
  6. 6. Manage Impact <ul><li>Limit building height and area </li></ul><ul><li>Provide adequate fire resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Provide adequate egress systems </li></ul><ul><li>Provide built-in fire protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Separate hazardous processes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide adequate training </li></ul>
  7. 7. Illegal Change in Use <ul><li>Occupancy classification determines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building height and area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural fire resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Means of egress features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in fire protection systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowable amounts of regulated materials </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Illegal Change in Use <ul><li>Building height and area </li></ul><ul><li>Structural fire resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Means of egress features </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in fire protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Allowable amounts of regulated materials </li></ul><ul><li>Can all be inadequate for the new use </li></ul>
  9. 9. Maintenance of Rated Assemblies <ul><li>Occupancy separations </li></ul><ul><li>Means of egress components </li></ul><ul><li>Exit stairs, exit passages, horizontal exits, rated corridors </li></ul><ul><li>Structural protection </li></ul><ul><li>Walls, partitions, floor/ceilings, roof ceilings, structural frame </li></ul>
  10. 10. Maintenance of Rated Assemblies <ul><li>Opening protectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire doors, fire windows, fire dampers, rated glazing, through penetration firestops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building shafts, atriums </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Maintenance of Nonrated Barriers <ul><li>Draftstopping limits fire spread in large combustible, concealed spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attics and truss floors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fireblocking limits fire spread in small concealed spaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustible wall and floor joist cavities </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Decorative Material and Interior Finish <ul><li>Interior finish regulated by use group and sprinkler protection </li></ul><ul><li>Decorative material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noncombustible or flame resistant </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Vacant and Abandoned Structures <ul><li>Invite illegal activity and vandalism </li></ul><ul><li>May be occupied by the homeless </li></ul><ul><li>Codes require these structures to be secured or boarded-up </li></ul><ul><li>Structures are often broken into and occupied </li></ul>
  14. 14. Outdoor Waste Accumulation <ul><li>Trash containers </li></ul><ul><li>Abandoned construction materials </li></ul><ul><li>Trees, brush, and vegetation </li></ul>
  15. 15. Electrical Fire Safety <ul><li>Maintenance of electrical systems </li></ul><ul><li>Limit use of temporary wiring </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibit use of hazardous appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure access to electrical equipment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Extension Cords <ul><li>Grounded cords for grounded appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Ampacity must meet or exceed capacity of appliance </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t affix to walls or ceilings </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t pass through doors, walls, or under rugs </li></ul><ul><li>Only one appliance per cord </li></ul>
  17. 17. Electrical Safety <ul><li>Defective equipment removed from service </li></ul><ul><li>Tagged </li></ul><ul><li>Notification of electrical code official </li></ul><ul><li>Access to electrical equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Illumination for equipment service areas </li></ul>
  18. 18. Smoking <ul><li>Prohibited around </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piers and wharves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous fire areas (UFC and IFC) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Open Flames and Torches <ul><li>“Hot work” permits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting and welding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plumbers and soldering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removing paint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearance to combustibles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguisher or hose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire watcher </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Fire Department Access <ul><li>Posted fire lanes when any portion of the building is > 150’ from the street or as required by fire official </li></ul><ul><li>20’ in width </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13’6” vertical clearance </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Fire Department Access <ul><li>Signs and curb delineation </li></ul><ul><li>Grade limitations per the jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>Turnarounds </li></ul>
  22. 22. Summary <ul><li>Model codes address fire safety by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventing fire ignition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limiting smoking and open flames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulating heating devices and appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulating materials storage and handling </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Model codes address fire safety by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing the impact of fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining rated construction, FD access, fire protection systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing employee training and emergency planning </li></ul></ul>