Early 1800’s- Property ownership and tax payment qualifications wiped out by states.
Post Civil War- 15 th Amendment made it illegal to disenfranchise based on race.
1920’s- Progressivism brought the 19 th Amendment and gave women right to vote.
1960’s-The Voting Rights Act of 1965 guaranteed the right to vote for minorities. The 23rd Amendment (1961) granted citizens of the District of Columbia the right to vote for presidential electors. The 24th Amendment (1964) eliminated the poll tax.
The 26th Amendment (1971) lowered the voting age to 18.
Civil Rights Act of 1957 Created the United States Civil Rights Commission Investigated and reported voter discrimination Gave the Attorney General the power to require federal courts to issue orders to prevent any interference with a person’s right to vote Civil Rights Act of 1960 Created federal voting referees who helped correct conditions to prevent voter discrimination
More far-reaching than the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960 , the Civil Rights Act of 1964 abolished the use of voter registration or a literacy requirement to discriminate against any voter.
Its enforcement relied on judicial action and the use of injunctions —court orders that either force or restrain specific acts.
The violent response of civilians and police and state troopers to a voter registration drive mounted by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in Selma, Alabama showed that the Civil Rights Acts of 1957, 1960 and 1964 were still not enough to ensure voter equality.
Nonpartisan Primary Candidates are not identified by party labels Runoff Primary If a required majority is not met, the two people with the most votes run again Closed Primary Only declared party members can vote. Types of Direct Primaries Open Primary Any qualified voter can take part. Blanket Primary Qualified voters can vote for any candidate, regardless of party
Voting was initially done orally. It was considered “manly” to speak out your vote without fear of reprisal.
Paper ballots began to be used in the mid-1800s. At first, people provided their own ballots. Then, political machines began to take advantage of the flexibility of the process to intimidate, buy, or manufacture votes.
In the late 1800s, ballot reforms cleaned up ballot fraud by supplying standardized, accurate ballots and mandating that voting be secret.
In 2004, candidates spent a total of $717 Million. Obama spent $734 M by himself in 2008.
Small contributors Nonparty groups such as PACs Wealthy supporters Temporary fund-raising organizations Candidates Government subsidies President Obama used technology to reach out to supporters. People transferred funds to his campaign via email, text, etc. Private and Public Sources of Campaign Money
Early campaign regulations were created in 1907, but feebly enforced.
The Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971 was passed to replaced the former, ineffective legislation.
The FECA Amendments of 1974 were passed in response to the Watergate scandal.
Buckley v. Valeo invalidated some of the measures in the FECA Amendments of 1974. Most significantly, it also stipulated that several of the limits that the 1974 amendments placed on spending only apply to candidates who accept campaign money from the government, not those who raise money independently.
The FECA Amendments of 1976 were passed in response to Buckley v. Valeo .
Soft money —money given to State and local party organizations for “party-building activities” that is filtered to presidential or congressional campaigns. $500 million was given to campaigns in this way in 2000.
Independent campaign spending —a person unrelated and unconnected to a candidate or party can spend as much money as they want to benefit or work against candidates.
Issue ads —take a stand on certain issues in order to criticize or support a certain candidate without actually mentioning that person’s name.