Unit 3: The Legislative Branch
National Legislature <ul><li>How does the Constitution provide power for a bicameral Congress? </li></ul><ul><li>How long ...
Bicameral Congress <ul><li>Historical- British Parliament had consisted of two houses since 1300s. Americans knew this sys...
Terms <ul><li>Term  - 2 or 6 year term. </li></ul><ul><li>20th Amendment as “noon of the 3d day of January” of every odd-n...
Sessions of Congress <ul><li>Congress meets yearly. It adjourns until each regular session, unless an emergency happens.  ...
The House <ul><li>Has 435 Members </li></ul><ul><li>Seats are apportioned, or distributed according to population. </li></...
Qualifications for Members <ul><li>Must be at least 25 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Must have been a citizen of the U.S...
Reapportionment <ul><li>Seats are redistributed after every ten year census. </li></ul><ul><li>Reapportionment act of 1929...
Current Appointment
Congressional Elections <ul><li>Held on the first Tuesday in November of each even numbered year. </li></ul><ul><li>When e...
Districts <ul><li>35 separate Congressional districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Alabama has 7districts </li></ul><ul><li>Single m...
Gerrymandering <ul><li>Redrawing of district lines to give the advantage to one political party or the other. </li></ul><u...
The U.S. Senate
Senate <ul><li>100 Members  </li></ul><ul><li>2 from each state </li></ul><ul><li>More responsible for legislature than re...
Qualifications <ul><li>Must be at least 30  </li></ul><ul><li>Must have been citizen for at least 9 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li...
Election and Terms <ul><li>Senators were originally selected by state legislatures. </li></ul><ul><li>17 th  Amendment cha...
The Job <ul><li>Play 5 major roles  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislators  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives of their...
Representatives of the People Trustees Believe that each question they face must be decided on merit. Delegates Serve as a...
Salary <ul><li>Today, senators and reps. are paid $174,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker of the House makes $223,000 </li></ul...
Privileges <ul><li>the Speech and Debate Clause (Article I, Section 6, Clause 1) protects representatives & senators from ...
Congressional Power <ul><li>What are the three types of Congressional Power? </li></ul><ul><li>What is strict construction...
“ Enumerated Powers”
Implied Powers
 
Strict versus Liberal Construction <ul><li>Strict construction were led by Jefferson. Argued an Anti-Federalist position. ...
Power to Tax <ul><li>The Power </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution give Congress the power: </li></ul><ul><li>“ To lay and ...
Commerce Power and Limits <ul><li>Cong has power to regulate interstate and foreign trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbons v. Og...
Foreign Relations and War <ul><li>Cong shares this power with the President. </li></ul><ul><li>2 sources on Foreign Relati...
Other Expressed Powers <ul><li>Naturalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalization  is the process by which citizens of on...
<ul><li>Weights and Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress has the power to “fix the Standard of Weights and Measures” th...
Impeachment <ul><li>the power of removing the Pres., V.P., or other civil officers from their office through impeachment. ...
Executive Powers <ul><li>Treaties </li></ul><ul><li>President makes treaties “by & with the Advice & Consent of the Senate...
Congress In Action! <ul><li>How and when does Congress convene? </li></ul><ul><li>What roles do the presiding officers in ...
Congress Convenes <ul><li>Convenes every two years on the 3 rd  of Jan. on odd numbered years. </li></ul><ul><li>The House...
Presiding Officers <ul><li>Speaker of House </li></ul><ul><li>The  Speaker of the House  is the presiding officer of the H...
Party Officers <ul><li>Party Caucus </li></ul><ul><li>Closed meeting of the members of each party of the house. </li></ul>...
Committee Chairmen and Seniority Rule <ul><li>Committee Chairmen </li></ul><ul><li>The  committee chairmen  are the member...
Composition of Congress
Permanent Committees of Congress
Committees <ul><li>Standing committees   are permanent panels in Congress to which bills of similar nature could be sent. ...
Cm 12.4
 
The First Steps <ul><li>A  bill  is a proposed law presented to the House or Senate for consideration. Most bills are born...
The Bill in Committee <ul><li>Discharge Petitions </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills die in committee, pigeonholed, or put away,...
Committees in Action <ul><li>Report the bill favorably (do pass) </li></ul><ul><li>Refuse to report the bill (pigeonhole i...
The Bill on the Floor <ul><li>The  Committee of the Whole  includes all members of the House, however, they sit as one lar...
The Vote <ul><li>Four Methods for voting on legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Voice votes (ayes, nos) </li></ul><ul><li>Standi...
Filibusters and Clotures <ul><li>Filibuster </li></ul><ul><li>A  filibuster  is an attempt to “talk a bill to death.” </li...
Conference Committees and Presidential Action <ul><li>Any measure enacted by Congress  must  have been passed by both hous...
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The legislative branch

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The legislative branch

  1. 1. Unit 3: The Legislative Branch
  2. 2. National Legislature <ul><li>How does the Constitution provide power for a bicameral Congress? </li></ul><ul><li>How long is a term of Congress? </li></ul><ul><li>How have Congressional sessions changed over time? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the size and elective terms of members of the House? </li></ul><ul><li>How are seats reapportioned among the States after each census? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a typical congressional election and district? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the qualifications for a member of the house? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the size of the Senate? </li></ul><ul><li>How do States elect senators? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is a senator’s term different from a representatives? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the qualifications to be a U.S. senator? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the personal and political backgrounds of current members? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the duties of a member? </li></ul><ul><li>What privileges do members receive? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bicameral Congress <ul><li>Historical- British Parliament had consisted of two houses since 1300s. Americans knew this system well and adopted it. </li></ul><ul><li>Practical- Framers created two chambered body to settle conflict between VA and NJ Plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical- One house might act as a check on the other. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Terms <ul><li>Term - 2 or 6 year term. </li></ul><ul><li>20th Amendment as “noon of the 3d day of January” of every odd-numbered year. </li></ul><ul><li>Session - regular period of time during which Congress conducts business. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sessions of Congress <ul><li>Congress meets yearly. It adjourns until each regular session, unless an emergency happens. Session usually lasts most of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Pres. has power to prorogue a session, or suspend it. </li></ul><ul><li>Special Sessions- meet to deal with emergencies. Only 26 have ever been held. Can only be called by the President. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The House <ul><li>Has 435 Members </li></ul><ul><li>Seats are apportioned, or distributed according to population. </li></ul><ul><li>Rep. are chosen each two years. </li></ul><ul><li>D.C., Guam, Virgin Islands, and Samoa all have Reps. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Qualifications for Members <ul><li>Must be at least 25 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Must have been a citizen of the U.S. for at least seven years. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be an inhabitant of the State from which he or she is elected. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reapportionment <ul><li>Seats are redistributed after every ten year census. </li></ul><ul><li>Reapportionment act of 1929 set the final number at 435 members. </li></ul><ul><li>Although there have been recent movements to limit terms, there are no limits set on the number of terms a representative may serve. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Current Appointment
  10. 10. Congressional Elections <ul><li>Held on the first Tuesday in November of each even numbered year. </li></ul><ul><li>When elections are held between presidential elections, they are known as off-year, or mid-term elections. </li></ul><ul><li>The trend is that the party in power loses seats during mid-term elections. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Districts <ul><li>35 separate Congressional districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Alabama has 7districts </li></ul><ul><li>Single member districts have voters select one Rep. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gerrymandering <ul><li>Redrawing of district lines to give the advantage to one political party or the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Two Forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration of opposition voters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread opposition as thinly as possible. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The U.S. Senate
  14. 14. Senate <ul><li>100 Members </li></ul><ul><li>2 from each state </li></ul><ul><li>More responsible for legislature than reps. </li></ul><ul><li>Represent entire State as opposed to district. </li></ul><ul><li>Alabama’s senators are Jeff Sessions and Richard Shelby. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Qualifications <ul><li>Must be at least 30 </li></ul><ul><li>Must have been citizen for at least 9 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be inhabitant of the State from which you are elected. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Election and Terms <ul><li>Senators were originally selected by state legislatures. </li></ul><ul><li>17 th Amendment changed it so the public could vote them in office. </li></ul><ul><li>Elections are held every two years for senators, although their terms last six years. </li></ul><ul><li>Only a third of them expire every two years. </li></ul><ul><li>Term was designed to keep senators from become subject to public opinion and pressure. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Job <ul><li>Play 5 major roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representatives of their constituents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public servants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politicians </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Representatives of the People Trustees Believe that each question they face must be decided on merit. Delegates Serve as agents of the people who elected them. Partisans Lawmakers who show 1 st allegiance to the party. Politicos Combine elements of the other roles.
  19. 19. Salary <ul><li>Today, senators and reps. are paid $174,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker of the House makes $223,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Party leaders make $193,400. </li></ul><ul><li>Receive generous retirement packages. Longtime members can retire making $150k/yr. in benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Members have franking privileges where they don’t have to pay for postage. </li></ul><ul><li>Free printing costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Receive special tax incentives and heath care. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress sets own salary. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Privileges <ul><li>the Speech and Debate Clause (Article I, Section 6, Clause 1) protects representatives & senators from suits for libel or slander arising from their official conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Members are immune from arrest for noncriminal offenses / engaged in congressional business. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Congressional Power <ul><li>What are the three types of Congressional Power? </li></ul><ul><li>What is strict construction of U.S. Constitution? </li></ul><ul><li>What key points relate to Cong. power to tax? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Cong. use its power to borrow? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the importance of Cong. commerce power? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the reasons that the Framers gave Cong power to issue currency? </li></ul><ul><li>What is bankruptcy? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key sources of Congress’s foreign relations powers? </li></ul><ul><li>What arrangement has been made between Cong and the President on issues of war and national defense? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some other key powers exercised by Cong? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Necessary and Proper Clause? </li></ul><ul><li>What key developments took place in the battle for implied powers of Congress? </li></ul>
  22. 22. “ Enumerated Powers”
  23. 23. Implied Powers
  24. 25. Strict versus Liberal Construction <ul><li>Strict construction were led by Jefferson. Argued an Anti-Federalist position. </li></ul><ul><li>Insisted that Cong. have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expressed powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implied powers only necessary to carry out expressed powers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liberal construction was led by Hamilton. </li></ul><ul><li>Favored liberal interpretation of Const. </li></ul><ul><li>This allows for Cong. powers and nat’l govt. to grow and expand. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Power to Tax <ul><li>The Power </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution give Congress the power: </li></ul><ul><li>“ To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States.…” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>— Article I, Section 8, Clause 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>may only tax for public purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>May not tax exports. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct taxes must be apportioned among the states. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes must be fair and equal around the country. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Commerce Power and Limits <ul><li>Cong has power to regulate interstate and foreign trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbons v. Ogden- clash over regulation of steamboats in N.Y. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 major limits to the Commerce Power. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot tax exports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot favor the ports of one State over any other in regulation of trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot require that “Vessels be bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not interfere with the slave trade, at least not until 1808 </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Foreign Relations and War <ul><li>Cong shares this power with the President. </li></ul><ul><li>2 sources on Foreign Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various expressed powers (commerce, War) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. is sovereign state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only Cong has power to declare war. </li></ul><ul><li>Has power to raise and support military forces and make rules on governing of land. </li></ul><ul><li>War Powers Resolution of 1973 allows Cong to restrict use of combat forces in an area where war is not present. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Other Expressed Powers <ul><li>Naturalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturalization is the process by which citizens of one country become citizens of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Postal Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article I, Section 8, Clause 7 says that Congress has the power “[t]o establish Post Offices and post Roads.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyrights & Patents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A copyright is the exclusive right of an author to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her creative work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A patent grants a person the sole right to manufacture, use, or sell “any new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter.” </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Weights and Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress has the power to “fix the Standard of Weights and Measures” throughout the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judicial Powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create all of the federal courts below the Supreme Court & structure the federal judiciary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>define federal crimes & set punishment for violators of federal law. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Over Territories and Other Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress has the power to acquire, manage, & dispose of various federal areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One way of acquiring property is through eminent domain, the inherent power to take private property for public use. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Impeachment <ul><li>the power of removing the Pres., V.P., or other civil officers from their office through impeachment. </li></ul><ul><li>House has the sole power to impeach , or bring charges against the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>There is then a trial in the Senate. 2/3 vote of the senators present is needed for conviction. </li></ul><ul><li>penalty for conviction is removal from office. </li></ul><ul><li>Only two presidents have been impeached (Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton) </li></ul>
  31. 32. Executive Powers <ul><li>Treaties </li></ul><ul><li>President makes treaties “by & with the Advice & Consent of the Senate,... provided 2/3 of the Senators present concur.” </li></ul><ul><li>Presently, the President often consults members of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Appointments </li></ul><ul><li>All major appointments made by the President must be confirmed by the Senate by majority vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 12 of 600 Cabinet appointments to date have been declined. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Senatorial courtesy” is the practice in which the Senate will turn down an appointment if it is opposed by a senator of the President’s party from the State involved. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Congress In Action! <ul><li>How and when does Congress convene? </li></ul><ul><li>What roles do the presiding officers in the Senate and House possess? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the duties of party officers? </li></ul><ul><li>How are committee chairmen chosen and what are their roles in the legislative process? </li></ul><ul><li>How do standing committees function? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the duties and responsibilities of the House Rules Committee? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the functions of the joint and conference committees? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the first steps in the introduction of a bill to the House? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to a bill once it is referred to a committee? </li></ul><ul><li>How do House leaders schedule a debate on a bill? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to a bill on the House floor? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the final step in the passage of a bill in the House? </li></ul><ul><li>How is a bill introduced in the Senate? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the Senate’s rules for debate on a bill? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of conference committees in the legislative process? </li></ul><ul><li>What actions can the President take after both houses have passed a bill? </li></ul>
  33. 34. Congress Convenes <ul><li>Convenes every two years on the 3 rd of Jan. on odd numbered years. </li></ul><ul><li>The House has formal organizational meetings at the beginning of each term. The Senate, because it is a continuous body, has fewer organizational issues to address at the start of each term. </li></ul><ul><li>When Congress is organized, the President presents a State of the Union message to a joint session of Congress. This message, in which the President reports on the state of the nation as he sees it, is given annually. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Presiding Officers <ul><li>Speaker of House </li></ul><ul><li>The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives and the acknowledged leader of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>The Speaker’s main duties revolve around presiding over and keeping order in the House. </li></ul><ul><li>The Speaker names the members of all select and conference committees, and signs all bills and resolutions passed by the House. </li></ul><ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>The job of president of the Senate is assigned by the Constitution to the Vice President. </li></ul><ul><li>The president of the Senate has many of the same duties as the Speaker of the House, but cannot cast votes on legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>The president pro tempore , the leader of the majority party, is elected from the Senate and serves in the Vice President’s absence. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Party Officers <ul><li>Party Caucus </li></ul><ul><li>Closed meeting of the members of each party of the house. </li></ul><ul><li>Deals mostly with matters of party organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Floor Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Most important officers in Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative strategists. </li></ul><ul><li>Picked by peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Whips </li></ul><ul><li>Assist floor leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Liaison between leadership and rank and file members. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Committee Chairmen and Seniority Rule <ul><li>Committee Chairmen </li></ul><ul><li>The committee chairmen are the members who head the standing committees in each chamber of Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>The chairman of each of these permanent committees is chosen from the majority party by the majority party caucus. </li></ul><ul><li>Seniority Rule </li></ul><ul><li>The seniority rule , an unwritten custom, holds that the most important posts will be held by those party members with the longest records of service in Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>The head of each committee is often the longest-serving member of the committee from the majority party. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Composition of Congress
  38. 39. Permanent Committees of Congress
  39. 40. Committees <ul><li>Standing committees are permanent panels in Congress to which bills of similar nature could be sent. The majority party always holds a majority of the seats on each committee. </li></ul><ul><li>House Rules Committee decides whether and under what conditions the full House will consider a measure. Act as traffic cops of the floor. They control the pace of legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Select committees are panels established to handle a specific matter and usually exist for a limited time. Most are formed for investigative purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>A joint committee is one composed of members of both houses. </li></ul><ul><li>A conference committee —a temporary, joint body—is created to iron out differences between bills passed by the House and Senate before they are sent to the President. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Cm 12.4
  41. 43. The First Steps <ul><li>A bill is a proposed law presented to the House or Senate for consideration. Most bills are born in the executive branch. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of bills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public bills are measures applying to the nation as a whole. (tax issue or health care) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private bills apply to certain persons or places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(funding state parks or allocating money to organization) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes a rider dealing with an unrelated matter is included. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 44. The Bill in Committee <ul><li>Discharge Petitions </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills die in committee, pigeonholed, or put away, never to be acted upon. </li></ul><ul><li>If a committee pigeonholes a bill that a majority of the House wishes to consider, it can be brought out of committee via a discharge petition . </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering Information </li></ul><ul><li>committees do their work through several subcommittees — divisions of existing committees formed to address specific issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Committees and subcommittees often hold public hearings or make a junket (trip) to gather information relating to a measure. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Committees in Action <ul><li>Report the bill favorably (do pass) </li></ul><ul><li>Refuse to report the bill (pigeonhole it) </li></ul><ul><li>Report the bill in amended form </li></ul><ul><li>Report with unfavorable recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Report a committee bill (entirely new bill that committee has substituted for the original) </li></ul>
  44. 46. The Bill on the Floor <ul><li>The Committee of the Whole includes all members of the House, however, they sit as one large committee and not as the House itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Debate </li></ul><ul><li>Severe limits are placed on floor debate due to the House’s large size. </li></ul><ul><li>Majority /minority floor leaders generally decide in advance how they will split the time to be spent on a bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Floor debate is unrestrained in the Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>Senators may speak on a bill as long as they wish. </li></ul><ul><li>This freedom is intended to encourage the fullest possible discussion on a piece of legislature. </li></ul>
  45. 47. The Vote <ul><li>Four Methods for voting on legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Voice votes (ayes, nos) </li></ul><ul><li>Standing vote happens when member thinks the Speaker has erred in judging voice vote. </li></ul><ul><li>1/5 of a quorum can demand a teller vote or an electronic vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Roll call vote is also known as a record vote. </li></ul>Once a bill has been approved at the second reading, it is engrossed and printed in its final form. Then it is read a third time. If it is approved, the Speaker signs it.
  46. 48. Filibusters and Clotures <ul><li>Filibuster </li></ul><ul><li>A filibuster is an attempt to “talk a bill to death.” </li></ul><ul><li>A senator may exercise his or her right of holding the floor as long as necessary, and in essence talk until a measure is dropped. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cloture Rule </li></ul><ul><li>Rule XXII in the Standing Rules of the Senate deals with cloture , or limiting debate </li></ul><ul><li>If at least 60 senators vote for cloture, no more than another 30 hours may be spent on debate, forcing a vote on a bill. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Conference Committees and Presidential Action <ul><li>Any measure enacted by Congress must have been passed by both houses in identical form. </li></ul><ul><li>If one of the houses will not accept the other’s version of a bill, a conference committee is formed to iron out the differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Once a conference committee completes work on a bill, it is returned to both houses for final approval. It must be accepted or rejected without amendment. </li></ul><ul><li>The President has the final act on passed legislature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bill into law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto, or refuse to sign it, sending it back to the house in which it originated. (Can be overturned by 2/3 vote) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May allow it to become law without signing it by not acting on it within 10 days of Cong. approval. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket Veto. If Cong. adjourns it session within 10 days of submitting a bill and the President does not act, the bill dies. </li></ul></ul>
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