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  • 1. PBL Scenario 2 Benedict, Denise, Mei Ling, Song-I, Ying Ying
  • 2. About Jeremy ● ● Dozes off in class as he lacks sleep ● Often ostracized and teased by classmates; a solitary person ● Affected by harsh words from adults and peers ● No time for personal and social life ● Lacks support and attention at home
  • 3. Jeremy’s Teachers Lack empathy, judgmental Ms Low ● Cares more about getting in touch with parents than understanding Jeremy ● Alienates and embarrasses Jeremy out of frustration with him Mr Tan ● Also embarrasses Jeremy Also… They do not encourage disinterested student (Jeremy) They do not promote good behaviour • •
  • 4. Problem statement The lack of empathy, support, and communication in relationships can be detrimental to a student’s academic and socioemotional* well-being. * Depression, low self-esteem, feelings of alienation
  • 5. Hypotheses 1. Classroom dynamics (the learning environment, student behaviour & relationships) can drastically affect individual behaviour and cognitive learning 2. A teacher has the ability to activate and facilitate students’ motivation and critical thinking (selfevaluation, reflection) process
  • 6. Two-Pronged Approach: Overview Cognitive and Behavioural 1. Cognitive Constructivist (Piaget) 2. Social Constructivist (Vygotsky) 3. Social Cognitive: Inner motivation (Maslow) 4. Behavioural ● Classical Conditioning ● Operant conditioning (Skinner)
  • 7. Cognitive Constructivist Piaget The Approach: ∙ ∙ Cognitive development as process of adaptation and organization of knowledge Key figure: Jean Piaget (1896-1980) o Conceptualization of his Theory of Cognitive Development influenced by his early work as a biologist o Theory describes how humans gather and organize information
  • 8. Cognitive Constructivist Piaget Key Concept:- Principle of Adaptation • Four Concepts o Schema o Assimilation o Accomodation o Equilibrium
  • 9. Cognitive Constructivist Piaget: Schema o Cognitive structure by which we intellectually adapt to and organize our environment o New experiences organized into schemata through two separate cognitive process - Assimilation and Accommodation
  • 10. Cognitive Constructivist Piaget: Assimilation and Accommodation Cognitive process What? How? Assimilation Integration of new materials into an existing schemata Connecting new material to existing knowledge Accomodation Development of a new schema when process of assimilation is impossible because there are no schemata to fit new data Creation of new schema
  • 11. Cognitive Constructivist Piaget: Equilibrium ○ State of balance between Assimilation and Accommodation ○ Piaget: “one of the most effective methods for motivating a child is to set up a state of cognitive disequilibrium in which the child is thrown into ‘cognitive conflict’ - when he expects something to happen a certain way but it does not”
  • 12. Cognitive Constructivist Strategies: Theory of Cognitive Development 1. Address Jeremy’s pre-existing schemata 2. Create Cognitive Disequilibrium 3. KWL Method
  • 13. Social Constructivist Vygotsky The Approach: Social contexts of learning; knowledge is mutually built and constructed Key figure: Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) • • o Social influences (especially instruction) on children’s cognitive development o Collaboration & social interaction
  • 14. Social Constructivist Vygotsky 3 Key Concepts • Teaching in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) • Scaffolding • Language and thought
  • 15. Social Constructivist Vygotsky: Teaching in the ZPD What is ZPD?
  • 16. Social Constructivist Vygotsky: Teaching in the ZPD What is teaching in the ZPD? o Awareness of student ability o “teaching to enable developmental readiness, not just waiting for students to be ready” (Horowitz & others, 2005, p.105)
  • 17. Social Constructivist Vygotsky: Scaffolding ● How? Probing questions e.g. o What would an example of that be? o Why do you think that is so? o What’s the next thing you need to do? o How can you connect those? ● Develops ‘more sophisticated thinking skills’ ● Students will gradually internalize probes and begin to examine own work (Horowitz & others, 2005).
  • 18. Social Constructivist Changing Perceptions • • Recognize that ZPD differs from student to student Understanding/Empathizing with Jeremy
  • 19. Social Constructivist Strategies: Teaching in the ZPD + Scaffolding 1. 1. Scaffold Jeremy’s Learning 2. Check and Assist 3. Encourage
  • 20. Social Constructivist Strategies: Teaching in the ZPD + Scaffolding 4. Group work a. “Children also benefit from the support and guidance of more-skilled children” (Gredler, 2009). b. Strategic grouping of students
  • 21. Social Constructivist Strategies: Teaching in the ZPD + Scaffolding 5. Peer Tutoring ■ “Fellow students also can be effective tutors” (De Smet & others, 2010; McDuffle, Mastropieir, & Scruggs, 2009) ■ (Cross-age) Peer-tutoring programme ∙ Train student tutors ∙ Monitor students ∙ Parental consent
  • 22. Social Cognitive (Inner Motivation) Abraham Maslow The Approach: ● A theory of human motivation: Psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs. ● Key figure: Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) ○ Key participant of the humanistic movement. ○ The importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people. ○ Belief that humans are motivated to satisfy needs.
  • 23. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Growth Need Deficiency Need
  • 24. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Need to experience beauty and truth Satisfy curiosity and seek knowledge Desire to have respect & personal value Needs for friends and family to give and receive love Good health & Security from harm and danger Food, Water, Sleep & Pain reduction
  • 25. Jeremy’s Issues according to Maslow’s hierarchy Jeremy’s needs were not met because... 1. Busy parents 2. No time for social life Harsh words from people around Jeremy Lack of sleep
  • 26. Social Cognitive (Inner Motivation) Maslow It is easier to meet the higher needs when the lower needs have already been met. For Jeremy, it is difficult for him to achieve the higher needs as the lower needs have not been satisfied.
  • 27. Behaviorism in the Classroom • • • First proposed by John B. Watson (1913) A belief that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed through conditioning Our behaviors are shaped by our responses to environmental stimuli Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning
  • 28. Classical Conditioning Counterconditioning • • • • Introduce a new stimulus so as to break the association between the conditioned stimulus and conditioned response. Discourage negative comments Utilizing non-competitive games Keeping the classroom climate relaxed and supportive Give positive reinforcements and no sarcasm
  • 29. Operant Conditioning (1968) • • • • • • Behavioral contract Identify effective reinforcers Reinforce contingently and timely Best schedules of reinforcement Use cues and prompts Use negative reinforcements effectively B. F. Skinner Solutions: Positive, negative or punishments?
  • 30. Operant Conditioning in the Classroom ✓ It is successful for learning-challenged children ✓ Useful when working towards larger, more valued goals ✓ Students learn to persist toward more significant achievements ✓ Extrinsically reinforced behavior may become an intrinsic motivation
  • 31. Solutions to Scenario 2 Cognitive • For cognitive development… o Piaget  To address students’ schemata  Provide problem-solving opportunities  Apply KWL method o Vygotsky  Scaffold learning process  Encourage group work and peer tutoring
  • 32. Solutions to Scenario 2 Behavioural • • To resolve behavioral issues… o Maslow  Applying the hierarchy of needs o Skinner  Social contract  Effective reinforcers Other solutions
  • 33. Conclusion • • Empathy, support and communication in relationships are crucial to the student’s socioemotional well-being In order to provide a nurturing environment for the student, the teacher needs to be aware of the following factors: o Classroom dynamics will affect the individual student’s behavior and cognitive learning o The teacher has the ability to activate and stimulate the students’ motivation
  • 34. References • • • • • • • Santrock, J.W. (2011). Educational Psychology (5th ed.) Boston: McGraw-Hill. Skinner, B. F. (1968). The Technology of Teaching. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Tan, O.S., Parsons, R.D., Hinson, S.L. and Sardo-Brown, D. Educational Psychology - A Practitioner-Research Approach (2nd ed.). Singapore: Cengage Learning Thorndike, E. L. (1905). The Elements of Psychology. New York: A. G. Seiler. Vygotsky, L.S. (1987). The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky. Vol.1: Problems of general psychology. Including the volume Thinking and speech. R.W. Rieber & A.S. Carton, Eds., N. Minick, Translators. NY: Plenum Press. Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it. Psychological Review, Vol 20(2), Mar 1913, 158-177.
  • 35. Thank you!