An Alternative Method for Manufacturing Robust Electronic Assemblies  Without Solder Joseph Fjelstad President Verdant Ele...
Outline  <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>The Occam Process  </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits...
Introduction <ul><li>Change is the defining element of evolution  </li></ul><ul><li>In electronics most change has been vo...
<ul><li>Electronics manufacturing presently comprises three basic manufacturing industries:  </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic ...
<ul><li>Electronics have historically increased functionality of products while size, weight and cost have all decreased w...
In the Recent News…  <ul><li>“ RoHS remains a $30B problem”   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design News July 31st 2007 </li></ul><...
The Value of Interconnections <ul><li>Interconnection technologies have long been undervalued but they are now gatekeepers...
Solder - Past and Present Issues <ul><li>Tin-lead solder provided reliable electronic interconnections,  however lead-free...
The Occam Process
<ul><ul><li>Position and bond various components on a temporary substrate or permanent carrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Sample Process Sequence Patents pending
CONVENTIONAL SMT ASSEMBLY SCHEMATIC  BOM PWB DESIGN ASSEMBLY DESIGN SMT  ASSEMBLY PARTS  ENGINEERING PROCURE PARTS  SOLDER...
Supply Chain Compression
The Occam Approach is Novel … but Not the Technologies <ul><li>Components are placed conventionally </li></ul><ul><li>Many...
Benefits Analysis
<ul><li>No PCB procurement </li></ul><ul><li>No PCB testing required </li></ul><ul><li>No spares required </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>RoHS restricted material concerns eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>No solderability testing and finish concerns  </li>...
<ul><li>No solderability or ROHS compliance checks </li></ul><ul><li>No component leads = No coplanarity issues </li></ul>...
Overlapping Components Patents pending
<ul><li>Components can be placed closer together </li></ul><ul><li>Increased routing capability  </li></ul>Occam Benefits ...
Alternative Routing Offers Layer Reduction
QFP/QFN Routing Advantage
BGA Routing Advantage
Single Lead Pitch Potential
HDI - Price/Density Comparison RCI: Rel price to 8L DEN: Ave pins/sq.inch Source: Happy Holden
The Future of Electronics?
<ul><li>Components can be placed closer together </li></ul><ul><li>Increased routing capability  </li></ul>Occam Benefits ...
Connecting Assemblies Patents pending
Stacking and Interconnecting Occam Processed Assemblies Patents pending
<ul><li>Components can be placed closer together </li></ul><ul><li>Increased routing capability  </li></ul><ul><li>Compone...
Occam Process for Flex Circuits
Occam Process for Flex Circuits
Occam Process for Flex Circuits
Occam Process for Flex Circuits
Occam Process for Flex Circuits
Occam Process for Flex Circuits Patents Pending
EDA Support Emerging <ul><li>Lack of integrated EDA tool flow creates gaps between circuit design and manufacturing howeve...
Co-Design Compresses Time IC Design Package Design PCB Design IC Design Package Design PCB Design Time to Market Reduction
<ul><li>Simple structure with fewer elements </li></ul><ul><li>Lower temperature processing avoids thermal damage caused b...
<ul><li>Testing is believed to be critical… but is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Testing implies defects are anticipated  </li></u...
Cost  Comparison  Model
Conventional SMT Line Ionograph $15K X-ray $50K Equipment with ~capital cost Source: Richard Otte, Promex Industries  Wate...
Conventional SMT Line Cost <ul><li>Capital Cost 15+75+200+55+80 = $440K, 5yrs, 1 shift </li></ul><ul><li>Sq ft.  50 x 10 =...
Occam Process Line Water Wash Machine Solder Paste Measurement Station Kitting, Feeder Setup Solder Printer P&P Machine $2...
Occam Process Line Cost <ul><li>Capital Cost 200+75+5 = $280K </li></ul><ul><li>Sq ft.  20 x 10 = 200 </li></ul><ul><li>Po...
Alternative Structures
Alternative Solderless Structures Patents Pending   programmed
Occam and Direct Write Technology
Occam Process - Direct Write Ink jet printer Patents Pending
Occam Roadmap
The Occam Process Roadmap  <ul><li>Proof of concept </li></ul><ul><li>Test vehicle identification and reliability testing ...
Summary <ul><li>Current assembly technology problems continue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory imperatives for lead-free e...
A Shared Opportunity <ul><li>No one company can change the entire industry. It requires a shared effort </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Learning Curve Cost Time Source BPA New Technology Incumbent Technology
<ul><li>Change is constant and inevitable  </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler solutions are generally better </li></ul><ul><li>More...
“ Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it. Begin it now. ”   ~Johann Go...
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Virtual Pcb Fjelstad With Audio

  1. 1. An Alternative Method for Manufacturing Robust Electronic Assemblies Without Solder Joseph Fjelstad President Verdant Electronics
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>The Occam Process </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Occam Roadmap </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Change is the defining element of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>In electronics most change has been voluntary to meet customer needs and as well to control cost in order to make products more broadly available to benefit a broader base. </li></ul><ul><li>Some change is mandated by legislation (e.g. RoHS) </li></ul><ul><li>The electronics industry is in the midst of trying to comply with that mandate. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been neither easy nor 100% successful with many questions and concerns still unaddressed. </li></ul><ul><li>In this environment a new approach has been conceived and is rapidly heading into development. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Electronics manufacturing presently comprises three basic manufacturing industries: </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic component manufacturing industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICs, electronic modules, discrete devices, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic interconnection manufacturing industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCBs, package substrates, sockets, connectors, cables, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic assembly industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soldering, testing, box build, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vertically integrated companies of the past did it all. </li></ul>Electronics Manufacturing Today
  5. 5. <ul><li>Electronics have historically increased functionality of products while size, weight and cost have all decreased with each new generation of product </li></ul><ul><li>The trend continues but it slope of the curve is flattening and becoming more asymptotic. </li></ul><ul><li>Lead pitches are decreasing, this is impacting both design and manufacture of PCBs and assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>Product life and reliability are also being impacted </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain is growing longer and less manageable </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns over lead-free soldering are on the rise </li></ul>Electronics Assembly Challenges
  6. 6. In the Recent News… <ul><li>“ RoHS remains a $30B problem” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design News July 31st 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ EU ban increases worries over 'whiskers' “ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>San Jose Mercury News October 8th 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Peril: Tin ‘whiskers’ that ruin electronics” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corvallis Gazette October 8th 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Lead Phase-out May Destroy Electronics” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LA Times October 9th 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ 'Tin whiskers' in electronics stoke anti-lead debate” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>San Jose Mercury News October 15th 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Value of Interconnections <ul><li>Interconnection technologies have long been undervalued but they are now gatekeepers of cost and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnection technologies are also often the limiting factor in product reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Improved interconnection technologies are required to address future needs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Solder - Past and Present Issues <ul><li>Tin-lead solder provided reliable electronic interconnections, however lead-free solder is generating concerns in shock and vibration </li></ul><ul><li>There are some intrinsic problems with solder but they are more easily addressed with tin-lead </li></ul><ul><li>As lead contact pitch drops with every new component shrink, the problems with solder are becoming increasing apparent. </li></ul><ul><li>Lead-free impact has been negative and expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Metals cost is rising (Tin has tripled since 2001) </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Occam Process
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Position and bond various components on a temporary substrate or permanent carrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulate the components in place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove from substrate, expose terminations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnect terminations by additive or semi-additive board fab methods or alternative direct interconnection methods. </li></ul></ul>Abbreviated Occam Concept
  11. 11. Sample Process Sequence Patents pending
  12. 12. CONVENTIONAL SMT ASSEMBLY SCHEMATIC BOM PWB DESIGN ASSEMBLY DESIGN SMT ASSEMBLY PARTS ENGINEERING PROCURE PARTS SOLDER, PASTE, FLUX INVENTORY, STORAGE RELIABILITY ASSURANCE PWB FAB, PROCURE Storage & Inventory VERDANT ELECTRONICS’ OCCAM PROCESS THE OCCAM PROCESS SCHEMATIC BOM ASSEMBLY DESIGN PARTS ENGINEERING PROCURE PARTS Storage & Inventory CIRCUIT DESIGN
  13. 13. Supply Chain Compression
  14. 14. The Occam Approach is Novel … but Not the Technologies <ul><li>Components are placed conventionally </li></ul><ul><li>Many suitable encapsulants available off the shelf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable CTE, low shrinkage, high thermal conductivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials need not withstand soldering temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vias can be made by laser or other methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photolithographic materials can work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additive fabrication process well established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All copper system should prevail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plating to other finishes is unconventional (is it an issue?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for all classes of products </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and rework... Philosophical questions? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use known good parts and robust processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repair is possible but there are issues </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Benefits Analysis
  16. 16. <ul><li>No PCB procurement </li></ul><ul><li>No PCB testing required </li></ul><ul><li>No spares required </li></ul><ul><li>No shelf life issues </li></ul><ul><li>No finish solderability concerns </li></ul><ul><li>No high temperature board warpage concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Low material use and near zero waste </li></ul><ul><li>All copper system possible </li></ul><ul><li>Edge card connections are still possible </li></ul>Occam Benefits No PCB
  17. 17. <ul><li>RoHS restricted material concerns eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>No solderability testing and finish concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Solder inspection required is not required </li></ul><ul><li>No high temperature damage to devices or PCB </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced energy use (no bakes, no reflow) </li></ul><ul><li>No post assembly cleaning concerns (e.g., SIR, dendrites and fidelity at high frequency) </li></ul><ul><li>No solder shorts, opens or other solder related assembly yield and reliability issues </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced steps and materials = reduced cost </li></ul>Occam Benefits No Soldering
  18. 18. <ul><li>No solderability or ROHS compliance checks </li></ul><ul><li>No component leads = No coplanarity issues </li></ul><ul><li>No thermal warping concerns </li></ul><ul><li>No MSL issues or popcorning concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer component types needed (LGA & QFN) </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller component libraries possible (Pkgs) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower cost & higher yield on devices </li></ul><ul><li>No solder build up on tester/socket contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Improved routing for area array IC packages </li></ul><ul><li>Overlapping of components is possible </li></ul>Occam Benefits Simpler Components
  19. 19. Overlapping Components Patents pending
  20. 20. <ul><li>Components can be placed closer together </li></ul><ul><li>Increased routing capability </li></ul>Occam Benefits Circuit Design Improvment
  21. 21. Alternative Routing Offers Layer Reduction
  22. 22. QFP/QFN Routing Advantage
  23. 23. BGA Routing Advantage
  24. 24. Single Lead Pitch Potential
  25. 25. HDI - Price/Density Comparison RCI: Rel price to 8L DEN: Ave pins/sq.inch Source: Happy Holden
  26. 26. The Future of Electronics?
  27. 27. <ul><li>Components can be placed closer together </li></ul><ul><li>Increased routing capability </li></ul>Occam Benefits Circuit Design Improvement <ul><li>“ Dead” leads ignored for additional routing </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler and faster reconfiguration and ECOs </li></ul><ul><li>Improved design security with opaque encap </li></ul><ul><li>Integral heat spreader redefine placement rules </li></ul><ul><li>Completed assemblies can interconnected </li></ul>
  28. 28. Connecting Assemblies Patents pending
  29. 29. Stacking and Interconnecting Occam Processed Assemblies Patents pending
  30. 30. <ul><li>Components can be placed closer together </li></ul><ul><li>Increased routing capability </li></ul><ul><li>Components can be placed closer together </li></ul><ul><li>Increased routing capability in less space </li></ul><ul><li>“ Dead” leads ignored for additional routing </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler and faster reconfiguration and ECOs </li></ul><ul><li>Improved design security </li></ul><ul><li>Integral heat spreader redefine placement rules </li></ul><ul><li>Completed assemblies can interconnected </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptable to optoelectronics </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for flexible circuits </li></ul>Occam Benefits Circuit Design Improvement
  31. 31. Occam Process for Flex Circuits
  32. 32. Occam Process for Flex Circuits
  33. 33. Occam Process for Flex Circuits
  34. 34. Occam Process for Flex Circuits
  35. 35. Occam Process for Flex Circuits
  36. 36. Occam Process for Flex Circuits Patents Pending
  37. 37. EDA Support Emerging <ul><li>Lack of integrated EDA tool flow creates gaps between circuit design and manufacturing however, some EDA tool suppliers sense opportunity and are getting involved early </li></ul><ul><li>Co-design of all elements needed for optimum system performance is easier with Occam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical, mechanical and thermal analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signal integrity will increase in importance </li></ul><ul><li>Verification and design accounting for multi-dimensional analysis for complex systems </li></ul>
  38. 38. Co-Design Compresses Time IC Design Package Design PCB Design IC Design Package Design PCB Design Time to Market Reduction
  39. 39. <ul><li>Simple structure with fewer elements </li></ul><ul><li>Lower temperature processing avoids thermal damage caused by soldering </li></ul><ul><li>Components are fully encapsulated increasing shock and vibration immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Hermetic structure possibilities with full metal jacket protection </li></ul><ul><li>Total EMI protection possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Integral heat spreader assemblies help to extend life of IC devices </li></ul>Occam Benefits Improved Reliability
  40. 40. <ul><li>Testing is believed to be critical… but is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Testing implies defects are anticipated </li></ul><ul><li>Test finds faults of weak manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorts and opens are accepted as facts of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead-free assembly can damage components </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stencil printing paste has physical limits </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler processes should yield higher </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate test is assembly turn on </li></ul><ul><li>Can time and money for test be better spent? </li></ul>What about Testing?
  41. 41. Cost Comparison Model
  42. 42. Conventional SMT Line Ionograph $15K X-ray $50K Equipment with ~capital cost Source: Richard Otte, Promex Industries Water Wash Machine $80K Solder Paste Measurement Station $15K Kitting, Feeder Setup Solder Printer $75K P&P Machine $200K Reflow Oven $55K
  43. 43. Conventional SMT Line Cost <ul><li>Capital Cost 15+75+200+55+80 = $440K, 5yrs, 1 shift </li></ul><ul><li>Sq ft. 50 x 10 = 500@ $2.00/mo </li></ul><ul><li>Power, Kw 0.5+2+25+5 = 32.5 Kw @ $0.15/Kwh </li></ul><ul><li>Operators 1.5 persons @ $20/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Cost per hour = $80.72 </li></ul><ul><li>Line will place 10,000 parts/hr </li></ul><ul><li>SAC305 costs 0.1 cent/part </li></ul><ul><li>or $10.00/hr @ 10,000 parts/hr. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Cost, ex-interconnect is: </li></ul><ul><li>$90.72/hr </li></ul>Source: Richard Otte, Promex Industries
  44. 44. Occam Process Line Water Wash Machine Solder Paste Measurement Station Kitting, Feeder Setup Solder Printer P&P Machine $200K Reflow Oven Encapsulant Dispenser $75K Encapsulant Cure Station $5K X-ray Ionograph Interconnect deposition $? Source: Richard Otte, Promex Industries
  45. 45. Occam Process Line Cost <ul><li>Capital Cost 200+75+5 = $280K </li></ul><ul><li>Sq ft. 20 x 10 = 200 </li></ul><ul><li>Power, Kw 2+1+5 = 8 Kw </li></ul><ul><li>Operators 1.0 person </li></ul><ul><li>Cost per hour = $50.38 </li></ul><ul><li>Line will place 10,000parts/hr </li></ul><ul><li>Encapsulant costs 2 cents/cc </li></ul><ul><li> or 0.4cents/cm 2 @ 2 mm thickness </li></ul><ul><li> or 0.1cents/pt. @4 parts/cc </li></ul><ul><li> or $10.00/hr @ 10,000 pts/hr. </li></ul><ul><li>Total cost, ex-interconnect is: </li></ul><ul><li>$60.38/hr, 33% less </li></ul>Source: Richard Otte, Promex Industries
  46. 46. Alternative Structures
  47. 47. Alternative Solderless Structures Patents Pending programmed
  48. 48. Occam and Direct Write Technology
  49. 49. Occam Process - Direct Write Ink jet printer Patents Pending
  50. 50. Occam Roadmap
  51. 51. The Occam Process Roadmap <ul><li>Proof of concept </li></ul><ul><li>Test vehicle identification and reliability testing </li></ul><ul><li>Standards development – for design and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Simple products first (like early SMT) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase complexity with captured experience </li></ul><ul><li>Explore alternative solderless assembly methods </li></ul><ul><li>Engage Material & Equipment Suppliers with new product and process opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable materials identified and characterized </li></ul><ul><li>Process qualification and technology transfer </li></ul>
  52. 52. Summary <ul><li>Current assembly technology problems continue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory imperatives for lead-free electronics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very high process temperatures with lead-free solder. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased whisker risk from extensive use of tin plating. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process challenges continue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solder paste deposition process is highly variable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed finishes are a concern and supply chain challenge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal damage to PCBs increasingly common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never ending drive to reduce size and cost. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased density = Reduced pitch = Increased problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global sourcing and supply-chain expansion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PWB fabrication largely moved or moving off-shore. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Components with tin-lead finish are disappearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited support for new technology development by EMS companies with sunk costs in existing equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. A Shared Opportunity <ul><li>No one company can change the entire industry. It requires a shared effort </li></ul><ul><li>Only those who appreciate the opportunity will respond early… the others will follow </li></ul><ul><li>Early adopters will share the risks but also reap greater rewards. OEMs know this well. </li></ul><ul><li>Change will happen… it always does. </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Will the industry drive for change or wait to be legislated to change again. </li></ul>
  54. 54. The Learning Curve Cost Time Source BPA New Technology Incumbent Technology
  55. 55. <ul><li>Change is constant and inevitable </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler solutions are generally better </li></ul><ul><li>More can be done with less </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution generally favors those who are prepared and willing to accept and adapt to change </li></ul>Final Thoughts…
  56. 56. “ Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it. Begin it now. ” ~Johann Goethe~ Thank You
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