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Angličtina - Maturitní Práce (The Most Important Computer Companies)
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Angličtina - Maturitní Práce (The Most Important Computer Companies)


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  • 1. Martin KrálThe most important computer companies in the worldHistory:Apple Inc. Today Apple is one of the most interesting companies in the world. Applewas established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Waynein a “garage”. There was only one reason, why they established this company, theywanted to sell Apple I personal computer kit. But on January 3, 1977 Apple wasincorporated. In that time Apple was without Wayne who sold his shares of thiscompany back to Jobs and Wozniak. Personally I think that Steve Jobs is very verysmart person. He is a visionary who can see the future of his products earlier thananyone else. Because of that he visited XEROX PARC in 1979 and he bought theirOperating System which had GUI(graphical user interface) - the same interface aswe know in modern system like Windows or Mac OS X. A very important feature ofthis system was mouse controllled interface. It was very cheap for Apple and I thinkthat it is one of the most important deals in the computer history. And then in 1983Apple introduced a new computer with this graphical user interface which is a veryfamous computer APPLE LISA. Maybe, Apple failed because the price was veryhigh(9 995USD) and software was very limited for this new platform. However, nowwe can tell, that Apple Lisa was a great productfor future Mac computers. Next big commercial event happenedwhen Apple announced release of 1
  • 2. Martin KrálMacintosh by the famous $1.5 million television spot which named 1984. Why1984? It is simple, everybody knows the famous book by George Orwell. Thistelevision spot was based on the same idea and was directed by Riddley Scott. Thespot was broadcasted only once during the third quarter of Super Bowl. In 1985 started a power struggle between Steve Jobs and CEO John Sculleywho was made redundant in next two years. Because of this fight Steve Jobsresigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. the same year. Then a very bad periodfor Apple broke out. Yes, Steve Jobs is symbol of Apple and without him thiscompany isn’t good in the market. Computers which they have made in this periodwas terrible. For Apple this was very bad because Microsoft with Bill Gates won thisrace and introduced their new operating system. Year 1996 meant another big stepfor Apple. Apple was choosing between some new operating system interface andcore because OS9 was archaic in comparison with Windows. New CEO of AppleGil Amelio detemined to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system. Thisevent brought Steve Jobs back to Apple and Apple started growing up very fast.Steve Jobs became CEO in 1997 and began restructuring the company productsline. In 1998 the first interesting computer by Apple - iMac G3 was introduced and itwas also interesting also for me. This computer was All-In-One which reducedelectricity usage. And this computers was very nice and user-friendly. There wasonly one drawback, this computer ran only on OS9, because developers worked onnew operating system based on NeXTSTEP. This new operating system wasintroduced on March 24, 2001. The name of this system was MAC OS X 10.1. During next years Apple introduced many products which are famous amongpeople all around world. For example: one of the best mobile phone - iPhone, bestmusic player called iPod and laptop which are famous as MacBook, PowerBook orMacBook Air - the most thinnest laptop. I think that all what this company hasshown us is thanks to Steve Jobs who is one of the best people for me. This ishistory of Apple and after showing history of three other big companies. I am goingto tell you something about my opinion and future attitude to the development ofthis company in next pages of this work.Microsoft Next big computer company which develops hardware and software for usersis Microsoft, which is most popular in the world. There are very few people, who donot know what Microsft is. The same as Apple, there were two big men, whoestablished this company. That came about on April 4, 1975. It was Paul Allen andmost famous Bill Gates. Gates worked as CEO. Both of them were friends fromchilhood with a passion for computer programming. Firstly they developed a BASICInterpreter(microcomputer) which was named as Altair BASIC. The first home of 2
  • 3. Martin Králthis company wasthe city of Bellevuein Washingtonwhere they moved in1979. For me this isvery curiousbecause they hadhad theirheadquarters in NewMexico for fouryears. When I readsomething aboutMicrosft, I was embarrased when I see that Microsft entered into OS bussines withUnix version of operating system, which is based on free open source. Opensource means that we can modifiy core and interface of this system. They called itXENIX. When I read following pages I found out that it was the first version of DOS.DOS stands for Disk Operating System. The story about DOS is very crazy.Supposedly, Bill Gates bought full operating system from Tim Paterson for 50 000USD. They only edited this system for their needs and then they earned millions ofUSD. Personally, I think that it is the deal of 20th century. In 1980 another famousman - Tim Ballmer joined Microsoft. Next significant year was 1986, when Microsoft developed the third version of their text editor “Word” which has become the most predominant editor on a computer. Microsoft was very bestial in developing their software. By that time the first disputes between Gates and Jobs appeared. Gates told Jobs that he could help him with developing their new computer Macintosh however Gates could see nothing but new graphical interface which he used in the next version of his operation system DOS was similar. It was aclever step in this argument. After very hard work(over 110 000 hours) Microsoftfinished their first version of Windows in 1985. When they released Windows 2.0two years later, Apple sued Microsoft because Gates completely copied graphical 3
  • 4. Martin Králinterface. This lawsuit went on for five following years but then the accusationswere denied. I suppose that it was not a good step of american court. This interfacewas identical to the interface on Macintosh. The company developed very fast and Bill Gates became a billionaire whenhe was 31 years old and then he relocated the company to Redmond, in where wecan find his company today. The nineties was a period of great progress - Microsoftreleased popular office package which called Microsoft Office, Windows 95(morethan 4 million copies were sold during the first four days), Windows 98(with the firstintegrated web browser Internet Explorer 4), Windows 2000 which was not built onMS-DOS core. The most popular version of Windows was Windows XP, which wasn o treleased in 2003 however the support for this system is very limited in nowadays. For many Microsoft fanatics was bad year the 2008 because Bill Gatesstopped his work in this company and Steve Ballmer became new CEO. Microsoftdid not produce hardware and computers that much, they especially developed asoftwares for this machine and some hardware company made components for thissoftware. There are more differences between Apple and Microsoft nevertheless Ithink that Microsoft was inspired by Apple in most ways. For example: when Applehad introduced iPhone, Microsoft tried it too, they came up with Microsoft Kin whichdid not become popular so that they stopped the production. But you can read moreabout future and this topic in the next chapter.Facebook 4
  • 5. Martin Král Facebook represents another computer company. Being labeled as acomputer company there are, however, some differences between Facebook onone side and Apple with Microsoft on the other one. FaceBook is only socialnetworking service which runs on a computer manufactured by Apple or on acomputer with Windows. The history of Facebook is very strange. There were manycheats and ruses before launching the website. FaceBook was established by Mark Zuckerberg who is a very intelligentyoung man according to me. Why was he all the time beside computer? Theanswer is easy. He had big problems with girls and his life was so hard. In factcomputers were his entire life. All started when he hacked into the protected areasof Harvard’s computer network and copied all ID images of students. The site withthese images was very attractive and had many visitors when he started it. Site wasshutdown a few days later by the school’s IT administrator and Zuckerberg wascharged by school administration. Basically the whole story started when threestudents from Harvard knew that Zuckerberg was smart when it came to computerprogramming and they told him about their idea of new social network insideHarvard. They believed that he could do it for them. But Zuckerberg stole their ideaand started with programming new network. When he finished, he did not tell this 5
  • 6. Martin Králthree students about it. He opened the site to his classmates and people could startsharing their school notes. This was the first version of Facebook. Zuckerbergbegan writing a new code for website in January 2004 and on February 4, 2004 helaunched TheFacebook located at When the three studentscomplained the situation to the administration, the investigation began and laterthey led a lawsuit against Zuckerberg. In June 2004 they moved with his FaceBook team to Palo Alto in Californiawhich is a very famous place in the USA. They received first money from theirinvestors and in 2005 they dropped “The” from its name and purchased newdomain which was called In September 2005 facebook launched thefirst hich school version. Then Facebook expanded to other schools and states.When Facebook was growing up, its price was very high and it became the thirdlargest US web company after Google and Amazon. It was unfortunate for Googlebecause the traffic of this site was sometimes higher.Google Google began in January 1996 as a research project led by Larry Page andSergey Brin. They were students and good friends both of them. The birth ofGoogle and its instant success is a true story of business success and ability to findnew solutions, the history of the search algorithm, which evolved into a multibillionbusiness. The name of Google was crated only by a mistake when they rewrote it.They did many things together and could trust each other. They developed PageRank which is one of the best things in today’s webbrowsing. It counts how many times terms appeared on the page. This was the firstengine running on Google. At the beginning Google ran on Stanford University websites and the domain was I suppose that nobody expected that Google would become the most important web service in the world. Finally the domain name Google was registered on September 15, 1997 and one year later the company was incorporated. We should notice that Larry Page and Sergey Brin did not want to do business. It is noteworthy that the company that changed the world of the early 21st century, actually arose involuntarily. A couple of doctoral students at Stanford 6
  • 7. Martin Králoriginally wanted to sell the licence of the technology. This bussiness was very hardbecause they had to buy servers and many other things which are very expensive.But they had good luck because the received money from their investors. The same as FaceBook they moved to Palo Alto in 1998 and they beganselling advertisements associated with search keywords. They changed the designof their website and increased the speed of engine. By that time, the name ofGoogle had found its way into everyday language, causing the verb “google” to beadded to the Oxford English Dictionary. This was very interesting for me and when Iopened this dictionary google was denoted as “to use the Google search engine toobtain information on the Internet”. In next years Google acquired many companies, for example Keyhole incwhich is responsible for Google Earth, one of the most interesting services offeredby Google. In 2007 Google bought YouTube for 1.65 billion dolars, but I think that itwas not too expensive because now YouTube earns more money than before.They started a period in which Google developed or bought some new services.Google Voice is one of this services, it is based on our voice and search enginethen finds searched terms. Nowadays Larry Page and Sergey Brin are nowbillionaires thanks to their experiment.Me and this companies 7
  • 8. Martin Král My life is based on computer. When I was 10 years I started with working ona computer. I liked it because I made some interesting things on it. At the beginningI had only common PC with Windows XP and I knew only Microsoft and theirServices. Apple was untitled for me. The first skill which i did on computer wascracking a game. Yes I know that it is not a good activity because it is a breach ofcopyrights and if I cracked s game then I stole it. But everybody needs to startsomehow. After several years I began playing in command prompt. Provided that peoplehandle it, they can use more feature from their computer. But command prompt inWindows is a bad mistake and I do not like it. However, the moment when thecomputer broke down came about and I did not know what I could do. That was thefirst reason why I launched BIOS in motherboard. It was a new thing for me and Iexplored it closely. This happened when I was thirteen and then started a periodwithin which I repaired a computer to anybody, who had a problem with it kicked off.The interesting point about it is that everything what I can do on a computer, Ilearned alone. Sometimes I used Internet where I could find everything I needed. Ido not understand why people do not apprehend it. When I was fourteen I moved to the village called Ohrazenice which is nearJince. Before that I lived in Prague. My new school was in Příbram and there I metmy new friend who was a fan of Apple. By that time I tested these new computersand their operating system on older Apple Computer called iMac G3. I knew thatmy next computer would be a Mac from Apple. During two following years I triedmany Apple computers from desktop to laptop and All-In-One solution. Windowsbecame dead for me. Graphical interface, controls and their services wereunreplaceable. Because of that I worked with this computers and earned my first money.With my friend we could unlock or jailbreak iPhones from the USA. The firstiPhones were sold only in the USA and people who took one to the Czech Republichad a major problem with it. It did not work with czech carriers. But we could unlockit for these people so that they could use the first iPhone 2G in the Czech Republicthe same way as in the USA. We also repaired every computer. Not only Apple, werepaired computers with Windows, their hardware problems and anything whatpeople wanted us to solve. Sometimes we set up a home network for them. Andwireless network which is currently running in our school(gymnasium Příbram) wascreated by me and my friend. Microsoft is sometimes an interesting company withfew good ideas but I do not want to claim that I hate Microsoft. Sometimes I fancytaking the computer with Windows and throwing it from the “windows”. There is oneessential problems. Many companies and people use these computers and theyhave majority of the market. I do not think that it can be changed during comingyears. 8
  • 9. Martin KrálPresent and future of these companies: In my opinion I think that computers companies will grow up for many yearsin the future. And why? Because all important services and life activities aredependent on the computers and technologies. And therefore these companies willbe here for us. As well as computer companies which are responsible for hardwareor operating systems, the internet services such as FaceBook or Twitter willprogress very fast. 5 years ago there were only a few people who knew Apple andtheir products but now when Apple had released most the famous mobile devicesiPhone, everybody knows it. It is because Apple came up with somethingrevolutionary. Before that nobody believed that we could control a mobile device bytouchinh the screen. It can remind you the movie Minority Report. I think that Apple has been growing thanks to iPhone and iPod which is themost revolutionary music player for anybody. In spite of the fact that there are somepeople who do not know what Apple is, the number of Mac, iPhone or iPod users ishigh. Many people think that the Apple’s products are very expensive and notunhandy for them but it is not true. At this time the products are not as costly as inprevious years. People with Mac are exceptional for me because everybody I knowand has an Apple laptop is very intelligent and does something interesting. Personally I believe that the number of users will not rise. If it increased thenApple could expect the same fate as Microsoft. The system would be proner toattacks and creating viruses provided that the amount of users would be high.Microsoft possesses a very big part of the market. It is about 80-90% of thecomputer market and it means that more than 80% people use a computer withWindows. It is terrible when I compare Windows with other systems like Linux orMac OS X. Maybe it is due to this high amount of users who work only withWindows that more people can attack computers with this system and the amountof viruses or spywares istherefore likely to grow.However t h e b a s e o fMicrosoft users is largeenough to survive in thefuture. Many big companiesare dependent onMicrosoft’s services andthese companies pay toMicrosoft incredible sumsof money. I believe that 9
  • 10. Martin KrálMicrosoft will introduce something revolutionary because Apple is far ahead thanksto devices such as tablet iPad. I follow everything that happens on this “computerscene” between the two large companies and I do not tell which one of them isgoing to win in the future but I know that both will be there for us for many yearsand we must use only these two companies’ products. In my view on the services which providers such as Google or FaceBookoffer we can observe some dissimilarities. I liked Google for many years becausethey had a vision as to their concepts and services for the future. But in last time Ihave been very dissapointed. Google comes up with concepts which look good butfinally nobody uses them. For example GoogleWave, they told us that it would bethe best service for sharing information, creating group work and any other niceideas. But since developing and beta-testing ended nobody has told us anythingabout it. With the arrival of FaceBook, Google has lost other places on the internetand FaceBook has been defeating Google in many ways like users time on serviceor sharing information across the internet. The same as Apple, Facebook embodiessomething revolutionary in the internet usage. We can be in contact witheverybody, we can plan some activities and we can do same thing which we coulddo on GoogleWave but with more features. And because of it Facebook is now themost profitable web service on the internet. It has most of active users and thanksto this number an advertisement is the best implementation idea which MarZuckerberg has had. 10
  • 11. Martin Král I have been using FaceBook for my work because I can contact people forwho I work very fast and they can reply to me. I am of the opinion that Facebookrepresents a new adjustement of email for common internet users. However thereis one big problems and that is privacy. We share information about us, about ourlife, about connecting to the internet and many other sensitive information whichsomebody could exploit. I can not imagine how it could be fixed, it is a problem forthe developers of this service but creating a piracy fixing software is very hard andnot applicable at this time. When we want to use the internet services then westagger on the border of security and risk. Developers can work on this and maybewe will see some really great improvements in the future. On the other hand we area civilization, which is not worried about these threats and if we like these serviceswe will use them. Therefore, I think that these services will be the most profitableones in the future.Sources:Books:Leander Kahney - Jak Myslí Steve JobsRichard L. Brandt - Jak Myslí Larry Page a Sergej BrinSteve Wozniak, Gina Smith - iWozothers knowledge about this companies are from the internetMovies:Pirates of Silicon ValleyThe Social NetworkInternet:Google.comApple.comimages from 11