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  • 1. By Ben Coley and Hannah Cook
  • 2.  Buddhist Art  Iconography of Tantric Bodhisattva—practices of Tantric Buddhism include techniques for visualizing deities;  bodhisattvas are beings who are well advanced on the path to enlightenment Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara—gilt-bronze sculpture; distinguished by princely garments, third eye, wheel on his palm; combination of details and textures creates decorative effect
  • 3.  Jain Art-Jain religion traces its roots to a leader called Mahavira A Manuscript Leaf From the Kalpa Sutra Kalpa Sutra-explicates the lives of the pathfinders; first Jain manuscript on paper rather than palm leaf Detail of a Leaf with The Birth of Mahavira-depicts birth of Mahavira; vibrant colors and crisp outlines which brings an energy that suggests an entrance of divinity into the world; linked to Sanskrit calligraphy
  • 4.  Hindu Art-Hinduism becomes dominant religion; ornamented individual temples; Vijayanager is mightiest Hindu kingdom  Temple at Madurai-dedicated to the goddess Minakshi and Sundareshvara; center of Madurai life; thousand pillar halls, ritual-bathing pools, entrance hallways called gopuras  Gopuras-tower above temple site and surrounding city; has roots in the vimana, or pyramidal tower characteristic in earlier temples
  • 5.  Theravada Buddhism in Burma and Thailand Burma  Numerous monuments built to follow the Theravada Buddhism scriptures  Port city of Rangoon-A center of Theravada devotion amid symbolic ornamentation Thailand  Sukhotai kingdom-embraced Theravada Buddhism  Buddha calling the Earth to Witness-highest expression of Theravada Buddhism
  • 6.  Vietnamese Ceramics  Hoi an ―hoard‖-variety of ceramic forms made by Vietnamese potters; painted in under glaze cobalt blue and embellished with over glaze enamels Indonesian Traditions-Hindu revival that led to the maintaining of Hindu epics, especially the Ramayana  Ramayana Scene-Javanese version of Ramayana epic; rhythmic surface ornamentation—wayang style
  • 7.  Mughal Period—Mughal Dynasty made the most inspired and lasting contributions to the art of India  Mughal Architecture  Introduction of two fundamental Islamic structures—the mosque and tomb  Synthesized Indian, Persian, and Central Asian elements for forts, palaces, mosques, tombs, and cenotaphs-monument to someone who is buried elsewhere  Buland Darvasa (The Lofty Gate)-gateway is dignified in proportions but monumental in scale
  • 8.  Mughal Architecture (Cont’d)  The Taj Mahal-Most famous of all Indian Islamic structures Tomb rises before spacious garden; the tomb is raised rather than on own marble platform; at each corner of the platform, a minaret or slender tower, defines the surrounding space Tomb is basically square but its chamfered, or sliced- off Surfaces of the Taj Mahal are embellished with the utmost subtlety.
  • 9.  Mughal Painting-imperial atelier (workshop of painters); Persian styles become more vigorous, and naturalistic Painting in the Court of Akbar Akbar Inspecting The Construction of Fatehpur Sikri- documents Akbar’s inspection of the stone masons and other craftsmen, and an ambitious rendering of the Buland Darwaza (The Lofty Gate) Hamza’s Spies Scale The Fortress- From Hamzanama, Persian classic about the adventures of Hamza, Muhammad’s Uncle; this particular illustration shows Hamza’s spies scaling a fortress wall and surprising some men while they sleep
  • 10.  Painting in the Court of Jahangir- Unlike Akbar, Jahangir preferred courtly life instead of an adventurous one  Jahangir in Darbar-shows emperor Jahangir holding an audience, or darbar at court. Jahangir is depicted on a balcony under a canopy. Rajput Painting-more abstract and poetic than Mughal style  Krishna and the Gopis-Illustration is from a manuscript of the Gita Govinda; blue god Krishna sits with a group of cowherd women; Radha peers through the trees, appearing jealous.  Hour of Cowdust-shows influence of Mughal naturalism on the later schools of Indian painting. Krishna is depicted returning to the village with his fellow cowherds and their cattle; the scene embodies the sublime purity and grace of the divine
  • 11.  Late 1700s- India’s regional princes regained their control, causing Mughal Empire to shrink Mughal Empire only encompasses small area around Delhi after it shrinks in size 17th and 18th centuries- British take mercantile interests in the British East India Company 19th century- British take control of India
  • 12.  Political concerns of British Empire extend to art, especially architecture Major Indian cities such as Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras took on European styles of architecture
  • 13.  1911-British Empire moves India’s capital from Calcutta to the westernized city of New Delhi India Gate constructed in New Delhi as war memorial Within the building of the India Gate, Lutyens combined Classical and Indian art to create a ―Delhi Order‖
  • 14.  1905- artist Abanindranath Tagore rejected Western style by creating ―Mother India‖ –she became nationalistic icon
  • 15.  1947- Brithish Empire relinquished it’s ―Jewel in the Crown‖ which was partitioned to form the countries of India and Pakistan
  • 16.  Following Indian independence, a modern, internationalist approach to art took place. This style combines art from several different periods of Indian history This art is stylistically abstract, creating pieces that are free of specific religious associations Example: Gandhi Bhavan
  • 17.  Modern Indian artists tend to focus on traditional Indian culture, regional art, as well as folk art