Baths of caracalla
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Baths of caracalla

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    Baths of caracalla Baths of caracalla Presentation Transcript

    • THERMES DE CARACALLA
      • ♂ EDDY FARHAN B FAIDI
      • 880921-11-5397 ♀ ‘ISMAH SUMAYYAH BT MOHD AMAR
      • 881203-56-6278
    • HISTORY OF BATHS OF CARACALLA
      • ROMAN BATH
      • EMPEROR CARACALLA
    • ROMAN BATH
      • Roman bathing, which consisted of the Roman baths (or thermae) and also balneum
      • Early Romans used baths, but seldom, and only then for heath and cleanliness
      • Existence in 25 BC with the first thermae built by the Emperor Argippa
      • Most Romans bathed in local neighborhood balneum, with an average of 5 bath houses per block
      • Popularity of these balneum led to the creation of the thermae
      • Each emperor tried to improve upon the design, grandeur, and popularity of the ones before him
      • In order to create popularity, the fees to bath were practically nonexistent
      • The best and most grand bath complexes were found within Rome, as it served as the capital of the empire
      • The success of the bath complexes owes much to the technological advances of the Greeks and early Roman
      • The improvement of the aqueduct, the architectural usage of vaulted ceilings, and the hypocaust heating system allowed these great complexes to be as magnificent as they were
    • ROMAN BATH
      • Romans were able to achieve this by heating the marble floor, which was raised on small columns or stacks of tiles to allow hot air from a fire to circulate underneath
      • Walls were also heated by earthenware pipes in the walls to ensure a hot and steamy environment
      • Bathers had to wear special shoes to prevent their feet from getting blisters from the floor
      • It took two to three days to heat a thermae, but as the baths were kept in constant use, the fire was never allowed to die
      • The baths in Rome served as an entertainment center, holding sports centers, swimming pools, gardens, libraries, areas for poetry and musical performances, restaurants, and sleeping quarters for visitors
      • The baths were opened daily from sunrise to sunset and open to all . The thermae could seat 1,600 bathers at one time
      • Most commoners went only once a day, but the Emperors or luxury bathe as many as 7-8 times daily
      • Typical Roman would start out with some easy exercise in the palaestra (exercise yard), attend to the bathing, anoint themselves with oil, and then eat some food
      • At the baths, even in the most corrupt of their civilization, the Romans tried to live up to the old maxim: "mens sana in corpore sano’ – a healthy mind in a healthy body
      • EMPEROR CARACALLA
      • The man behind the plan of the bath who ruled over the Roman
      • Empire from 211 AD-217 AD
      • Born in 188 AD, Caracalla (a nickname - it referred to a Gallic
      • cloak that he liked to wear) was the oldest son of Septimius
      • Severus, who was also a Roman emperor from 193 AD-211 AD
      • Caracalla or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus built his bath-house in 217 AD
      • The baths remained in use until the 6th century when the complex was sacked by the Ostrogoths during the Gothic War, destroying the hydraulic installations
      • The importance of Caracalla's rule is that he was trying to maintain the fragile peace that his father, Septimius Severus, had managed to achieve during his rule
      • The Baths of Caracalla show Caracalla's attempt to show the Roman people that he was there to support them and care for them. And while he was a bad ruler, he certainly had great taste in architecture
      • While Caracalla was in fact a cruel man, it should be noted that his reign did have some benefits for the Roman population
      • Caracalla was only 29 when he unfortunately murdered by one of his imperial bodyguards while relieving himself during his expeditions in Asia Minor
    • characteristics OF BATHS OF CARACALLA
      • ENTIRE BUILDING
      • BUILDING DIMENSION & MATERIAL
      • INTERIOR
      • SURROUNDINGS
      • SECTION
      • ELEVATION
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ 27 acres complex (11 hectares). Accommodate up to 2000 people per time. Main building at the centre and covered by a thick wall consists of libraries and gym and also gardens. 6 feet height for loading purpose. Main building have upper level for service and heating and lower level for water drainage. Heating reservoir by Aque Marcia Aqueduct. The bath was known because of the rich interiors of marble seats, mosaic walls and floors as well as fountain and statue. MAIN BUILDING
    • Principal dimensions Precinct maximum: 412x393 m Internal: 323x323 m Central Block overall: 218x112 m Swimming Pool: 54x23 m Frigidarium: 59x24 m, height . 41 m Caldarium: 35M diameter height . 44 m Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ Quantities of materials Pozzolanna: 341,000 m³ Quick lime: 35,000 m³ Tuff: 341,000 m³ Basalt for foundations: 150,000 m³ Brick pieces for facing: 17.5 million Large Bricks: 520,000 Marble columns in Central block: 252 Marble for columns and decorations: 6,300 m³ BUILDING DIMENSION AND BUILDING MATERIALS
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ VESTIBULES FUNCTION LIKE A LOBBY OR AN ENTRANCE ROOM BETWEEN THE INTERIOR OF THE BUILDING AND OUTER SPACE. INTERIOR
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ APODYTERIUM (DRESSING ROOMS ) A FIRST STOP PLACE FOR BATHERS BEFORE THEY GET TO A STEP BY STEP BATHS. EQUIPPED WITH BENCHES AND OFTEN CUBICLES TO STORE BATHER’S CLOTHES. COMMONLY ONE SLAVE WILL STAY TO WATCH THE BATHERS BELONGINGS. INTERIOR
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ A FACILITIES SERVE FOR TRAINING IN BOXING AND PLAY A KIND OF BALL GAME. THOSE ACTIVITIES WILL MAKES BATHERS TO HAVE SOME MODERATE EXERCISE BEFORE THEY GET TO BATHS. PALAESTRAS (EXERCISE YARD) INTERIOR
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ CALIDARIUM A HOT ROOM WITH A HOT POOL OF WATER – 35M DIAMETER. THIS POOLS HELPS TO OPEN THE BATHERS PORES AND ALSO HELP THEM TO SWEATS. A wing of the underground levels under the caldarium. The large dimensions of the galleries derived from the necessity to bring in horse-drawn wagons full of wood. INTERIOR
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ TEPIDERIUM A WARM ROOM ALSO A PLACE WHERE THE BATHERS CAN HAVE A MASSAGE AND BODY HAIR REMOVED. BECOME THE MOST BUSY PLACE BECAUSE OF THE ACTIVITIES. INTERIOR
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ FRIGIDARIUM IS A COLD ROOM. THIS PLACE FUNCTIONED TO CLOSED THE PORES AND GET THE FINAL CLEANING STEP IN OVERALL BATHING STEPS. INTERIOR
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ NATATIO IS AN OPEN AIR SWIMMING POOL. THIS PLACE FUNCTIONED AS A PLACE FOR RELAX AND REFRESH THE BODY OF THE BATHERS. INTERIOR
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ GARDENS GARDENS THAT CONSIST STATUES, FOUNTAIN AND ANY OTHERS FEATURES. AFTER BATHING, PEOPLE CAN WALK AROUND THE GARDEN AFTER A TYPICAL DAY. SURROUNDINGS
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ GYMNASIA AND ADJACENT FACILITIES FROM THE MAIN BUILDING. PLACE WHERE PEOPLE HAVE EXERCISE SIMILAR TO PRESENT GYMNASIUM. SURROUNDINGS
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ STUDY ROOM OR A LIBRARIES FOR PEOPLE FACILITIES. HAVE TWO SEPARATED LIBRARIES WHICH IS ONE FOR LATIN AND ANOTHER FOR GREEK LANGUAGE. SURROUNDINGS
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ THE BUILDING HAVE TWO LEVELS WHICH IS THE LOWER LEVEL IS A PLACE FOR THE SYSTEM USED TO HEATING SEVERAL ROOMS AND ALSO FOR THE DRAINAGE. UPPER LEVEL IS A PLACE WHERE ALL FEATURES LIKE STATUE AND FOUNTAIN LOCATED AND FOR ALL HUMAN ACTIVITIES. SECTION
      • GROINS THREE ROUND ARCH
      • ARCHIVOLTS
      • ( Ornamental molding
      • following the curve on the
      • underside of an arch )
      • JAMB COLUMN
      • JAMB FIGURE
      • COLONNETTE
      • PIERS ( A small, relatively thin
      • column, often used for
      • decoration or to support
      • an arcade. )
      Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ SECTION
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ THE MAIN BUILDING CLEARLY SURROUNDED BY THE GARDEN. THE STRUCTURE IS MADE OUT FROM TOUGH BRICKS AND A MARBLE MATERIALS LIKE MOSAIC. ELEVATION
      • KEYSTONE
      • THREE ROUND
      • ARCHES
      • EXTRADOS
      • INTRADOS ( exterior curve
      • of arch )
      • VOUSSOIRS
      • SPRINGING IMPOST
      • ( the level where an ( The uppermost
      • arch or vault rises part of a column
      • from a support ) supporting arch )
      • JAMB
      Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ ELEVATION
    • ANALYSIS OF BATHS OF CARACALLA
      • PLAN
      • CIRCULATION
    • FROM THE SCHEMATIC PLAN CONSTRUCTED WE CAN SEE THAT THE BUILDING HAVE A BALANCE SIDES AND IN LINEAR ORGANISATION. ONE SIDE FOR MENS AND ANOTHER SIDE FOR WOMENS DEPARTMENT. THE IMPORTANT ROOMS OF APODYTERIUM AND PALAESTRAS IS AT THE SAME SIZED AND LOCATION AT THE TWO SIDES. AND THE CALDARIUM, TEPIDARIUM, FRIGIDARIUM AND NATATIO LOCATED IN LINE AT THE CENTRE OF THE MAIN BUILDING. Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ ANALYSIS OF PLAN
    • Bath Of Caracalla_______________________ THE BUILDING IS CONSTRUCTED WITH THE BEST BUILDING CIRCULATION. BUT THIS BATH OF CARACALLA DOES NOT FUNCTION AS A PUBLIC BATH ONLY. IT ALSO FUNCTION AS A SOCIAL CENTRE WHERE BUSINESS AND TRADES ALSO HAPPENED AMONG PEOPLE HERE. WE CAN SAY THAT THIS BUILDING FUNCTIONED LIKE A LEISURE MALL IN THIS PRESENT. 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 ANALYSIS OF CIRCULATION
    • references;
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baths_of_Caracalla
      • http://ehsworldlanguages.com/Forum.html
      • http://www.rome-guide.it/english/monuments/monuments_caracalla.html
      • http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia_of_history/R/Roman_baths.html
      • http://crushedpineapple.tripod.com/history.htm
      • http://honorsaharchive.blogspot.com/2007/01/baths-and-bathing-in-ancient-roman.html