Culture & architecture of cambodia


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The culture & Architecture of Cambodia- an overview

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Culture & architecture of cambodia

  2. 2. C A Location of M Cambodia B O D I A N SCambodian TProvinces Y L E 2
  3. 3. • Cambodia is a land of • Cambodia is a land of C culture, tradition and enriching heritage A ethnic civilization. which has its own set of M• Cambodia records a racial or cultural tie ups. B prosperous and diverse • The natives are restricted O history which has its to a set of rules and D influence from the Indian protocols which define continent. the culture of I• The land of Cambodia is Cambodia . A even influenced by the • The ancient capital of the N customs of Thailand ad Khmer Empire was at Laos . Angkor, close to present- S• The Culture of Cambodia day Siem Reap. T is subjected to Indian • In the fifteenth Y customs, which century, the capital was developed its way of life moved to the area of the L from the religions of intersection of the Sap E 3
  4. 4. CLOCATION GEOGRAPHY & A• Cambodia lies DEMOGRAPHICS M between Thailand and Vietnam in • The majority of the B mainland southeast worlds Khmer live in O Asia, with a smaller Cambodia, the D stretch of the northern population of which is I border adjoining 80% Khmer. A Laos. • There are also N significant KhmerLANGUAGE populations native to• Khmer is the official Thailand and S language of Vietnam. T Cambodia - which is • Due to the Y immensely influenced Cambodian Civil L by Sanskrit and Pali. War, thousands of E• Cambodians from Khmer now reside in 4
  5. 5. Cambodian• The Culture of Cambodia KHMER language, people, or C is hierarchical in nature culture and thus A and follows certain suggests an ethnic and M guidelines. linguistic identity. B• As per the tradition of • Khmer people are the O Cambodia one is predominant ethnic supposed to show D group in respect to their elders. I Cambodia, accounting• At times, the elder of the for approximately 90% A family are denoted with of the 14.8 million1 N their family title as per people in the country. their higher rank or • They speak the Khmer S seniority language. T• Greeting is an important • The majority of the aspect of Cambodian Y Khmer follow the Khmer Etiquette wherein natives L style of address to one other with Buddhism, which blends E 5 palms folded as if in
  6. 6. • Cambodian Civilization • Cambodia has had a C primarily believes in the rich and varied A Buddhist culture wherein history dating back M about 95 percent practice many centuries. B the traditions of Theravada • Throughout Buddhist. Cambodias long O• While the rest of the history, a major source D population follow the of inspiration was from I principles of religion. A Islam, atheism, or animism • Throughout nearly two N• The Culture of Cambodia millennium, Cambodia initiated from the monarchy ns developed a of Angkor, which was a unique Khmer belief S prosperous empire that from the syncreticism T thrived along the of indigenous animistic Y northwestern provinces. beliefs and the Indian L• The Angkor kingdom once religions of Buddhism E 6 controlled most of the areas and Hinduism.
  7. 7. HISTORY C A• The golden age of • Cambodias M Cambodia was between unparalleled the 9th and 14th B achievements in century, during the art, architecture, musi O Angkor period, during c, and dance during D which it was a powerful this period have had I and prosperous empire a great influence on A that flourished and many neighboring N dominated almost all of kingdoms, namely inland Southeast Asia. Thailand and Laos.• Many temples from this • The effect of S period however, like Angkorian culture can T Bayon and Angkor Wat still be seen today in Y still remain those countries, as L today, scattered they share many E throughout close characteristics 7
  8. 8. C A M B O D I ACambodian Nwedding S T Y Cambodian L Festival E 8
  9. 9. RELIGIONS OF CAMBODIA C• Historically, Buddhis A m has been the M dominant Religion in B Cambodia, however O before its introduction D Hinduism also I flourished. A• Roman Catholicism was introduced by N French missionaries beginning in the S eighteenth century. T• Islam is practiced Y among the Chams. L• Among the Sino- E Khmer population 9
  10. 10. BUDDHISM IN CAMBODIA C A• Buddhism has existed in Cambodia since at least M the 5th century AD. B• Theravada Buddhism O has been the D Cambodian state I religion since the 13th • In later history, a second A century AD.• The history of Buddhism stream of Buddhism N in Cambodia spans entered Khmer culture nearly 2000 during the Angkor S years, across a number empire. T of successive kingdoms • For the first 1000 years of Khmer history, Cambodia Y and empires. L• Buddhism entered was ruled by a series of Hindu kings with an E Cambodia through two 10 occasional Buddhist
  11. 11. HINDUISM IN CAMBODIA C• Being the very oldest A and the first religion to M be followed in B Cambodia, Hinduism O was made the main D religion of the Khmer I Empire. A• Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empires N official religions.• Cambodia is the home S to one of the only two T temples dedicated to Y Brahma in the world. L• Angkor Wat Hindu E temple is the biggest 11
  12. 12. SYMBOLS OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION C• There is a general A assumption that M degrees of wealth B can and should be O publicly known. D• Folk categorization I distinguishes between the poor A familys house of N bamboo and thatch, the more S economically T secure familys Y traditional wood house on L stilts, and the E 12
  13. 13. SYMBOLISM C• The most A important cultural M symbol is the B ancient Khmer O temple Angkor D Wat, along with I the ancient A Khmer Empire and its N monumental antiquities. • Classical dance, also an S• Pictures and bas- important national T relief carvings of symbol, consciously tries in Y the four-faced costume and gesture to L tower of the recreate Angkorean bas-reliefs. E Bayon at Angkor 14
  14. 14. ARCHITECTURE OF CAMBODIA C• Several religious and • The Khmer temple is a A secular architectures brilliant example of M witnessed its architecture, which is B development in the confined on all ends by O region of Cambodia the concentric series of D during the ancient times. walls. I• During the period of • The central sanctuary is Angkor, only temples the main attraction of the A and other religious temple which is based in N buildings were the middle. constructed of stone. • The gallery is a S Non-religious buildings passageway along the T such as dwellings were enclosed wall with an Y constructed of opening to one or both perishable materials sides. L such as wood, and as • The temple is comprised E 15
  15. 15. ARCHITECTURAL DECORATION C• The MOTIFS OF • Most of the Cambodia A APSARAS AND Architecture were fitted M DEVATAS have always with blind doors and B been an important windows which helped O element as far in maintaining D Architecture in Cambodia evenness in the I is concerned. entrance way.• Several celestial dancing • The central sanctuary A apsaras, heavenly is the place where the N nymphs and female primary deity mainly deities adorn the walls of resides. S the ancient temples which • COLONETTES were T seem to be a part of the widely used as an Y Indian mythological embellishment along the doorways. L figures.• The dancing apsaras can • The Corbel arch is E 16
  16. 16. C A M B O BAYON D I A NANGKOR WAT S T Y L E 17
  19. 19. • Angkor Wat is a temple • Prior to this time the C complex at temple was known as A Angkor, Cambodia, built by Preah Pisnulok (Vara M the king Suryavarman II in Vishnuloka in B the early 12th century as Sanskrit), after the O his state temple and posthumous title of its capital city. D founder.• The 12th century temple of • Constructed under the I Angkor Wat is the direction of the Khmer A masterpiece of king Suryavarman II, it N Angkorian architecture- was to serve as the first Hindu, dedicated to monarchs personal S the god Vishnu, then mausoleum and as a T Buddhist. temple to the Hindu• It is the worlds largest god Vishnu. Y religious building. • The temple is made of L• Angkor Wat, means "City sandstone, and is E 20 Temple"; Angkor is a intricately decorated
  20. 20. • Angkor Wat combines two • The temple preserves the C basic plans of Khmer style of the Khmer A temple architecture: the period, in the form of M temple mountain and the towers that are shaped B later galleried like lotus O temple, based on early buds, cruciform D South Indian Hindu terraces and axial architecture, with key galleries that connect I features such as the enclosures. A Jagati. • Unlike most Angkorian N• It is designed to represent temples, Angkor Wat is Mount Meru, home of the oriented to the west. S devas in Hindu mythology: • Some believe that this T within a moat and an outer deviation from the usual wall 3.6 kms long are orientation Y of Khmer three rectangular temples towards the L galleries, each raised east, is because it is E 21 above the next.
  22. 22. SYMBOLISM C• Spread over an area of • Based on Dravidian A more than 200 architecture, it was M hectares, the Angkor Wat designed as a B was built using the two pyramid representing O fundamental plans of the structure of the D Khmer architecture: THE UNIVERSE. I TEMPLE MOUNTAIN AND • The highest level at THE GALLERIED the center of the A TEMPLE. temple represented N• According to the Temple MOUNT MERU, the Mountain plan, the temple home of the Hindu S is depicted as Mount gods, with the five T Meru, the abode of Hindu towers on the highest Y Gods. level representing the• The wall and moat five peaks of the L enclosing the mountain. E 23
  23. 23. STRUCTURE COUTER STRUCTURE INNER STRUCTURE A• The temple complex is • The inner structure M enclosed within a 190 m contains the temple, that B wide moat. stands on a raised O• A stretch of 30 m wide terrace made of three D open ground separates rectangular I the moat from the 4.5 m galleries, rising to a A high outer wall that central tower. surrounds the temple on • The three galleries are N all four sides. believed by some to• Entry to the temple represent Brahma - the S complex is guarded by creator according to T an impressive Hindu mythology, the Y tower, which is on each moon and Vishnu the L side of the outer wall, is Hindu god who is E known as the gopura. supposed to be the 24
  26. 26. C A M B O D I A N S T Y LWest Gallery. 2. East Gallery. 3. North Gallery. 4. South Gallery. 5 Cruciform E 27 Galleries. 6 Central Shrine. 7. View from West 8. North "Library”
  28. 28. C A M B O D I A N S T YThe inner sanctuary of Angkor Wat, seen from Lthe east E 29
  29. 29. • Grand mausoleum- • The main temple is built C temple complex, the on three levels. A Angkor Wat was not • The first level consists of M just centers for ritual AN OPEN GALLERY, with B performances and the inner wall continuously O worship, but also covered with bas-relief D centers for displays of depicting scenes from the wealth and Mahabharata & the I magnificence that Ramayana. A advertised and • A flight of stairs leads to the N procured the kings second level WHICH IS heavenly status LESS ORNATE. S through the reliance on • A very steep stairway leads T religious symbolism up to the TOP LEVEL (the Hindu & Buddhist Y WITH ITS CENTRAL religions) that were SANCTUARY. L then embedded into • Its unusual west-facing E 30 the artwork and
  30. 30. SCULPTURE,RELIEFS & DECORATIONS C• Reliefs such as these are A neither decoration, mere M visualizations of scriptural B stories, nor are they even O just parts of the temples ritual processional system‘. D• by depicting the glorification I of both Vishnu and himself A as one of Vishnus N transformations, they are bringing to light S Suryavarmans desire and T concern with establishing his place in the cosmic scheme. Y• Essentially, they are L "politically interpretative E 31 versions of mythology
  33. 33. SUBJECTS OF THE BAS-RELIEFS CAmong the monuments many bas- A reliefs are: • Apsaras are M• Depictions of Suryavarman seated beautiful, super B on his throne, receiving natural female O declarations of loyalty from his top beings. D officials. • They are• He is shown progressing down a youthful and I hillside atop an elegant, and A elephant, accompanied by his superb in the art N generals & the high priest. of dancing.• Heavily-armed soldiers are shown • They are often S protecting him and his court. the wives of the T• Depictions of war elephants were Gandharvas the significant because they were both court musicians Y an impressive and important of Indra. L means of maintaining power on • They dance to E 34 land--given their height which was the music made
  34. 34. COSMOLOGICAL SYMBOLISM C• "Angkor Wat was a temple A and mausoleum, as well M as a giant astronomical B observatory. O• At the western entrance, the D sun rises over the central I lotus tower on the day of the spring equinox. A• As the sun moves during N the seasons, its rays illuminate the bas-reliefs on S the walls on the third T gallery. Y• It shines on the creation in summer, on a bloody battle L in autumn, and then leaves The deity in the E 35
  35. 35. C A M B O D I The Churning of the A Ocean N S T Y L E 36NAGA/SERPENTINE MOTIFS OF ANGKOR
  37. 37. C• THE BAYON is a well- • The Bayons most A known and richly distinctive feature is M decorated Khmer the multitude of B temple at Angkor in serene and massive Cambodia. O stone faces on the• Built in the late 12th many towers which D century or early 13th jut out from the upper I century as the official terrace and cluster A state temple of the around its central N Mahayana Buddhist peak. King Jayavarman • The temple is known S VII, the Bayon stands also for two at the centre of impressive sets of T Jayavarmans bas-reliefs, which Y capital, Angkor Thom. present an unusual L• Following combination of E 38 Jayavarmans death, it mythological, histor
  38. 38. • BAYON TEMPLE is a • There are 51 smaller C Buddhist temple but towers surrounding A retains elements of Hindu Bayon, each with four M cosmology and imagery. faces of its own. B• Standing in the exact O center of the walled city, it D represents the intersection of heaven I and earth. A• It is known for its N enigmatic smiling faces of Avalokiteshvara and S its extraordinary bas- T reliefs. Y• Bayon is known for its huge stone faces of the L bodhisattva E 39
  40. 40. C A M Outer B galleryCentral OTower/ Inner gallery DSanctuary I A N S T Y The Upper terrace L E 41
  41. 41. • The central sanctuary is • Above, the structure C a huge mass, the dark of triple tower makes A centre of which is the great faces of M surrounded by a narrow Avalokiteçvara, castin B corridor. g his benevolent gaze O• It is a fine big statue of in all directions. D Buddha sitting on the • The doors have the coils of Naga and in the appearance of pointed I shelter of his head. bows, before they A• The surrounding wall is were high rectangular N opened up by five bays 7 meter by 3. 50 gates, 4 on the axis of meter strengthened S the Bayon, the fifth is in with powerful leaves. T the axis of Phimeanakas • The road which and the second Angkor. Y crosses the moat was• These entrances are decorated with two L splendid examples of imposing balustrades; E 42 carving in the very spirit
  42. 42. • Bayon Temple is • The towers at the C surrounded by two long Bayon, were enormous A walls bearing an Lingas sculptured with M extraordinary collection faces, sheltering those B of bas-relief scenes of worshipped in the shrines legendary and inside. O historical events. • This theory was based on D• In all, there are total of the certain belief that the I more than 11,000 carved Bayon was a Hindu A figures over 1.2km of temple dedicated to N wall which were Siva. probably originally • But this theory had to be painted and gilded. abandoned when the S• The bas-reliefs on the pediment representing T outer wall (160m x Lokeçvara was Y 140m) and on the inner discovered, which had L gallery differ completely formerly been hidden by E 43 and seem to belong to the central mass.
  43. 43. THE OUTER CGALLERYDEPICTIONS OF HISTORICAL EVENTS AND AEVERYDAY LIFE M• The outer wall of the • The subjects of the reliefs outer gallery features a include: B series of bas-reliefs • a naval battle between O depicting historical Khmer and Cham forces; D events and scenes • More scenes from civilian I from the everyday life depicting a A life of the Angkorian market, open-air Khmer. cooking, hunters, and N• The bas-reliefs are women tending to highly detailed and children; S informative in • a marching Khmer army T themselves. with Y• The outer gallery musicians, horsemen, and L encloses a courtyard officers mounted on E in which there are two elephants, followed by 44
  44. 44. C• Unfinished reliefs show • A scene of royal an army marching entertainment including A through the forest, then athletes, jugglers and M arguments and fighting acrobats, a procession B between groups of of animals, ascetics O Khmers; sitting in a forest, and D• a scene depicting a more battles between I combat between Khmer Khmer and Cham A warriors, then a scene in forces; which warriors pursue • A land battle between N others past a pool in Khmer and Cham which an enormous fish forces, both of which S swallows a small deer; are supported by T• then a royal elephants: the Khmer Y procession, with the king appear to be winning. L standing on an • a military procession elephant, preceded by including both Khmers E 45
  45. 45. THE INNER CGALLERY• The inner gallery is • The subjects of the A raised above ground reliefs include: M level and has doubled • Freeing of a goddess B corners, with the original from inside a O re-dented cross-shape mountain. later filled out to a • a king fighting a D square. gigantic serpent with I • .• Its bas-reliefs, later his bare hands A additions of Jayavarman • depictions of the N VIII, are in stark contrast construction of a to those of the outer. Vishnuite temple S• The inner gallery are • The Churning of the T decorated for the most Sea of Milk part with scenes from Y Hindu mythology. L• Some of the figures E 46 depicted are
  46. 46. THE UPPER TERRACE - 200 FACES OF CLOKESVARA A• The inner gallery is nearly • In addition to the mass of filled by the upper the central tower, smaller M terrace, raised one level towers are located along B higher again. the inner gallery (at the O• The lack of space corners and D between the inner gallery entrances), and on I and the upper terrace chapels on the upper suggests that the upper terrace. A terrace did not figure in • The faces of Lokesvara N the original plan for the follow and dominate with temple, but that it was their multiple presence in S added later following a the whole of upper T change in design. terrace. Y• Originally, it is • At one point, the temple believed, the Bayon had was host to 49 such L been designed as a towers; now only 37 E 47
  47. 47. THE CENTRAL TOWER & SANCTUARY C• Like the inner gallery, the A central tower was originally M cruciform but was later B filled out and made O circular. D• It rises 43 m above the I ground. A• At the time of the temples foundation, the principal N religious image was a statue of the Buddha, 3.6 m S tall, located in the sanctuary T at the heart of the central Y tower. L• The statue depicted the E Buddha seated in 48
  48. 48. C A M B O D I A N S T Y LSome of the towers of the Bayon showing faces of E 49
  50. 50. C A M Reliefs of B apsaras at O Bayon D I A N S TSmiles of YAvalokiteshvara L E 51
  51. 51. C AStone bas-relief at MBayon temple Bdepicting the Khmer Oarmy at war with the DCham I A N A scene from the southern gallery S depicts a naval battle; T this section shows Y Cham warriors in a boat and dead Khmer L fighters in the water. E 52
  52. 52. C A M Reliefs of battle B scenes on O Bayon Temple D I A NA market Sscene in the Tsouthern Ygallery shows Lthe weighingof goods; the E 53