• The Bauhaus, an innovative German school of art and design was founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius, the school uses a foundations course and workshop experiences to train students in theory and form, materials, and methods of fabrication.• Buildings are simple, functional, and industrial. Devoid of any applied ornament, they often appear asymmetrical and three dimensional, such that one must experience the building from all sides.• The Bauhaus taught design in conjunction with modernism. In its Design, spaces took on a quality related to the abstract character of the current painting and sculpture (Cubism and related movements).• Ornament came solely from the visual effects created by combinations of materials.• The Goal was to unify art and technology, creating an aesthetic suited to the modern mechanistic world by relating materials, from, and function inSan O P O S T visual R N I S M - B A U H A U S B A U H A U T abstract M O D E vocabulary.
• Building Types: schools, offices, and government buildings.• Architects orient buildings so that they receive the most sun exposure to take advantage of natural light.• Structures sit on flat plains of grass.• The most important construction materials include steel, glass, and reinforced concrete, sometimes a brick masonry applied on the face of the concrete.• Exteriors are plain, simple, and unornamented.• Windows were fixed in grid patterns. BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
BAUHAUS DESSAU Main Bauhaus school buildingthe sheer glass wall with no outersupport BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
• The basic structure of the Bauhaus consists of a clear and carefully thought-out system of connecting wings, which correspond to the internal operating system of the school.• Gropius extensive facilities for the Bauhaus at Dessau combine teaching, student and faculty members housing, an auditorium, and office spaces.• Instead of making the walls the element of support, as in a brick-• The technical construction of built house, our new space-saving construction transfers the whole the building is demonstrated load of the structure to a steel or concrete framework. by the latest technological development of the time: a skeleton of reinforced concrete with brickwork, mushroom-shaped ceilings on the lower level, and roofs School and workshop are connected through a two-story bridge, which covered with asphalt tile that spans the approach road from Dessau can be walked upon. BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
HARVARD GRADUATE CENTER• It was designed by The Architects’ Collaborative.• The group of eight buildings arranged round small and large courtyards has a good community feel about it and is humanly scaled.• The dormitory blocks are constructed in reinforced concrete with exterior walls of buff-colored brick or limestone and the community buildings are in steelwork.• Block-mass buildings connected by flat-roof Exterior view of the Harvard canopies. Graduate center• No exteriorU Sor O superficialD E R N I S M - B A U H A U S BAUHA T POST MO
Exterior view of the Harvard Graduate centerExterior view of the HarvardGraduate center - Dormitories BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
Masters’ House by Walter GropiusBAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
Tugendhat House by MiesBAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
FURNITURE SYMBOLS & MOTIFS• Unornamented and radically • There is no vocabulary for different, Bauhaus furnishings suit motifs because buildings are Bauhaus concepts of the modern generally unadorned. home. • Some works include unique• Designs stress simplicity, architectural details that are functionality, excellent a part of the building construction, and hygienic structure. industrial materials. D E C O R AT I V E A R T S• Furniture is lightweight and space saving. • After 1923, the metals• Standardization of form and workshop produced many interchangeable parts are key ash trays, tea and coffee design considerations. services, kettles, dresser• Furnishings are movable to sets, and pitchers in brass, support flexible arrangements. bronze, and silver.• Designs, of metal, are simple and • Forms are simple and functionalH A U S T O PnoS T M O D E R N I S M - B A U H A U S no applied BAU with O applied geometric with
Wassily Chair by Marcel bruer MR Chair by Mies Desk by Marcel BruerBAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
Marcel Bruer Nesting Tables Bauhaus Chair by Marcel BruerBAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
Bauhaus Bed Bauhaus Bench Barcelona Table Bauhaus Coffee Table Bauhaus Sideboard Bauhaus TableBAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
Cantilever Chair Arm Chair by CorbusierFolding Table, byGustavHassenpflug BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
German(Barcelona) Pavilion statue Wall Hangings from Bauhaus Decorative Arts, Metalwork by Brandt BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS
• Walter Gropius was born in Berlin in 1883. The son of an architect, he studied at the Technical Universities in Munich and Berlin.• He joined the office of Peter Behrens in 1910 and three years later established a practice with Adolph Meyer.• Gropius is best known through the influence of the German Design school called the Bauhaus, established under Gropius’s direction at Weimar in 1919.• After the closing of the Bauhaus in 1932, Gropius’s influence continued through his work in England and subsequently, in the United states, as well as through his leadership of the architectural department at Harvard university from 1937.• Under Gropius’s direction, Harvard became the first American design school to accept the ideas of the modern movement.• Gropius created innovative designs that borrowed materials and methods of construction from modern technology. This advocacy of industrialized building carried with it a belief in team work and an acceptanceU S standardization E R N I S M – W A LT E R G R O P I U S B A U H A of T O P O S T M O D and prefabrication.
• Bauhaus, at M A J O R Germany, Dessau, W O R KS 1919 to 1925.• Gropius House, at Lincoln, Massachusetts, 1937.• Harvard Graduate Center, at Cambridge, Massachusetts, Glass wall admits light into mudroom and entry hall, GROPIUS HOUSEyet protects privacy of main entrance. 1950.• Modest in scale, revolutionary in impact.• Combined the traditional elements of New England architecture — wood, brick, and fieldstone — with innovative materials rarely used in domestic settings at that time — glass block, acoustical plaster, and chrome banisters, along with the latest technology in fixtures. H A U S T O P O S T M O D E R N I S M – W A LT E R G R O P I U S BAU
These eaves protect the southern-facing rear from excessivesunlight. The openings between the eaves and wall promoteair circulation. Upstairs deck, outside Gropius daughters room. B A U H A U S T O P O S T M O D E R N I S M – W A LT E R G R O P I U S
Gropius designedCups Gropius F51 Sofa Gropius F51 Arm Chair Newspaper shelf by Gropius Gropius D51 Sofa B A U H A U S T O P O S T M O D E R N I S M – W A LT E R G R O P I U S
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