How to Write a ResearchHow to Write a Research
Prof: Dr. Saleem KhanProf: Dr. Saleem Khan
Background InformationBackground Information
Literature ReviewLiterature Review
Cover PageCover Page
Table of ContentsTable of Contents
Common Mistake in Proposal WritingCommon Mistake in Proposal Writing
What is Research?What is Research?
““A diligent and systematic inquiry orA diligent and systematic inquiry or
investigation into a subject in order toinvestigation into a subject in order to
discover facts and principles”.discover facts and principles”.
1- Title:-1- Title:-
An effective title attracts the reader’sAn effective title attracts the reader’s
Should be precise, specific andShould be precise, specific and
2- Abstract2- Abstract
Need one page (150-200 words) abstract of theNeed one page (150-200 words) abstract of the
research proposal. It should be short preciseresearch proposal. It should be short precise
and complete. The abstract of Biologicaland complete. The abstract of Biological
Research must in brief contain the followingResearch must in brief contain the following
- Background- Background
- Aim of the Research- Aim of the Research
- Methods used- Methods used
- Results- Results
- Conclusion of the research experiment- Conclusion of the research experiment
3- Introduction:-3- Introduction:-
The introduction begins with a general statement ofThe introduction begins with a general statement of
the problem areathe problem area
With a focus on research problems to be followed by theWith a focus on research problems to be followed by the
Rationale/Justification for the proposed study.Rationale/Justification for the proposed study.
should stress on the research problem, which is oftenshould stress on the research problem, which is often
referred asreferred as
purpose of the studypurpose of the study
Rationale , JustificationRationale , Justification
States the Research Questions, its importanceStates the Research Questions, its importance
Major problems and sub problems to be addressed byMajor problems and sub problems to be addressed by
Identify key dependent and independent variablesIdentify key dependent and independent variables
Set the delimitations of your proposed researchSet the delimitations of your proposed research
Presents rationale of the proposed study and indicatePresents rationale of the proposed study and indicate
why it is worth doing.why it is worth doing.
4- Background Information:-4- Background Information:-
Identification of ProblemIdentification of Problem
Economic ImportanceEconomic Importance
Geographical situation (ResearchGeographical situation (Research
Environmental ConditionEnvironmental Condition
5- Literature Review:-5- Literature Review:-
- It serves several important functions- It serves several important functions
- Ensures that you are not reinventing the “wheele”- Ensures that you are not reinventing the “wheele”
- Demonstrates you r knowledge of the research- Demonstrates you r knowledge of the research
- Your ability to evaluate relevant literature information- Your ability to evaluate relevant literature information
- Understanding of research issues related to your- Understanding of research issues related to your
research questionresearch question
- convinces the reader that the research will make- convinces the reader that the research will make
significant andsignificant and
enough contribution to the literature.enough contribution to the literature.
8- Methods:-8- Methods:-
- The methods section is very important.- The methods section is very important.
- It tells how you to plain to tackle your research problem.- It tells how you to plain to tackle your research problem.
- It will provide your work plan and activities necessary for- It will provide your work plan and activities necessary for
Implementation of your research project.Implementation of your research project.
Appropriate Field design (Statistics)Appropriate Field design (Statistics)
Location of experimentLocation of experiment
No. of experiments and replicationsNo. of experiments and replications
Soil description (brief)Soil description (brief)
Prevailing temperature, humidityPrevailing temperature, humidity
Recording of data/parametersRecording of data/parameters
Dependent and Independent variablesDependent and Independent variables
Statistical analysis (Graphs, Tables)Statistical analysis (Graphs, Tables)
Analysis of VarianceAnalysis of Variance
Regression, InteractionRegression, Interaction
Separation of means: Fisher’s protected LSDSeparation of means: Fisher’s protected LSD
This a very important sectionThis a very important section
- Expected Results- Expected Results
- Problem/Objectives of the proposal- Problem/Objectives of the proposal
- Expected conclusion & recommendations- Expected conclusion & recommendations
- Suggested future research if any- Suggested future research if any
Obviously you do not have results at theObviously you do not have results at the
proposal stage. However, you need to haveproposal stage. However, you need to have
some idea about what kind of data you will besome idea about what kind of data you will be
collecting, and what statistical procedures will becollecting, and what statistical procedures will be
used in order to answer your research questionused in order to answer your research question
or test you hypothesisor test you hypothesis
10 Discussion:-10 Discussion:-
-- Potential impact of the proposedPotential impact of the proposed
- Limitation and weakness of the proposed- Limitation and weakness of the proposed
11- Cover Page11- Cover Page
The cover page must contain:The cover page must contain:
The name of the student, if it is a teamThe name of the student, if it is a team
work then the names of the teemwork then the names of the teem
The name of instructorThe name of instructor
Affiliated UniversityAffiliated University
Date of SubmissionDate of Submission
Title of ResearchTitle of Research
12- Acknowledgement12- Acknowledgement
This page comes after the cover pageThis page comes after the cover page
13- Table of Contents13- Table of Contents
This should guide the reader where to findThis should guide the reader where to find
the specific pages of the project. Numberthe specific pages of the project. Number
the pages of the research paper makethe pages of the research paper make
sure to number all diagrams, tables,sure to number all diagrams, tables,
1414-- Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing:-Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing:-
Failure to provide the proper context to frame theFailure to provide the proper context to frame the
research question.research question.
Failure to delimit the boundary conditions for yourFailure to delimit the boundary conditions for your
Failure to cite landmark studies.Failure to cite landmark studies.
Failure to accurately present the theoretical andFailure to accurately present the theoretical and
empirical contributions by other researchers.empirical contributions by other researchers.
Failure to stay focused on the research question.Failure to stay focused on the research question.
Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argumentFailure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument
for the proposed research.for the proposed research.
Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detailToo much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail
on major issues.on major issues.
Too much rambling going “all over the map” without aToo much rambling going “all over the map” without a
clear sense of direction.clear sense of direction.
Too many citation lapses and incorrect references.Too many citation lapses and incorrect references.
Too long or too short.Too long or too short.
Not following the APA styleNot following the APA style