How to Write a ResearchHow to Write a Research
ProposalProposal
Prof: Dr. Saleem KhanProf: Dr. Saleem Khan
 OutlinesOutlines
 TitleTitle
 AbstractAbstract
 IntroductionIntroduction
 Background InformationBackground Informati...
 What is Research?What is Research?
 ““A diligent and systematic inquiry orA diligent and systematic inquiry or
investig...
 1- Title:-1- Title:-
 An effective title attracts the reader’sAn effective title attracts the reader’s
interest.interes...
 2- Abstract2- Abstract
 Need one page (150-200 words) abstract of theNeed one page (150-200 words) abstract of the
rese...
 3- Introduction:-3- Introduction:-
 The introduction begins with a general statement ofThe introduction begins with a g...
 4- Background Information:-4- Background Information:-
 Identification of ProblemIdentification of Problem
 Economic I...
 5- Literature Review:-5- Literature Review:-
 - It serves several important functions- It serves several important func...
 8- Methods:-8- Methods:-
 - The methods section is very important.- The methods section is very important.
 - It tells...
 9-Results:-9-Results:-
 This a very important sectionThis a very important section
 - Expected Results- Expected Resul...
 10 Discussion:-10 Discussion:-
 -- Potential impact of the proposedPotential impact of the proposed
researchresearch
 ...
 11- Cover Page11- Cover Page
 The cover page must contain:The cover page must contain:
 The name of the student, if it...
 12- Acknowledgement12- Acknowledgement
 This page comes after the cover pageThis page comes after the cover page
 13- Table of Contents13- Table of Contents
 This should guide the reader where to findThis should guide the reader wher...
 1414-- Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing:-Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing:-
 Failure to provide the proper contex...
 ThanksThanks
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Writing a research proposal

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Writing a research proposal

  1. 1. How to Write a ResearchHow to Write a Research ProposalProposal Prof: Dr. Saleem KhanProf: Dr. Saleem Khan
  2. 2.  OutlinesOutlines  TitleTitle  AbstractAbstract  IntroductionIntroduction  Background InformationBackground Information  Literature ReviewLiterature Review  MethodsMethods  ResultsResults  DiscussionDiscussion  Cover PageCover Page  AcknowledgementAcknowledgement  Table of ContentsTable of Contents  Common Mistake in Proposal WritingCommon Mistake in Proposal Writing
  3. 3.  What is Research?What is Research?  ““A diligent and systematic inquiry orA diligent and systematic inquiry or investigation into a subject in order toinvestigation into a subject in order to discover facts and principles”.discover facts and principles”.
  4. 4.  1- Title:-1- Title:-  An effective title attracts the reader’sAn effective title attracts the reader’s interest.interest.  Should be precise, specific andShould be precise, specific and descriptivedescriptive
  5. 5.  2- Abstract2- Abstract  Need one page (150-200 words) abstract of theNeed one page (150-200 words) abstract of the research proposal. It should be short preciseresearch proposal. It should be short precise and complete. The abstract of Biologicaland complete. The abstract of Biological Research must in brief contain the followingResearch must in brief contain the following pointspoints  - Background- Background  - Aim of the Research- Aim of the Research  - Methods used- Methods used  - Results- Results  - Conclusion of the research experiment- Conclusion of the research experiment
  6. 6.  3- Introduction:-3- Introduction:-  The introduction begins with a general statement ofThe introduction begins with a general statement of the problem areathe problem area  With a focus on research problems to be followed by theWith a focus on research problems to be followed by the  Rationale/Justification for the proposed study.Rationale/Justification for the proposed study.  should stress on the research problem, which is oftenshould stress on the research problem, which is often referred asreferred as  purpose of the studypurpose of the study  Rationale , JustificationRationale , Justification  States the Research Questions, its importanceStates the Research Questions, its importance  Major problems and sub problems to be addressed byMajor problems and sub problems to be addressed by researchresearch  Identify key dependent and independent variablesIdentify key dependent and independent variables  Set the delimitations of your proposed researchSet the delimitations of your proposed research  Presents rationale of the proposed study and indicatePresents rationale of the proposed study and indicate why it is worth doing.why it is worth doing.
  7. 7.  4- Background Information:-4- Background Information:-  Identification of ProblemIdentification of Problem  Economic ImportanceEconomic Importance  Geographical situation (ResearchGeographical situation (Research Location)Location)  Environmental ConditionEnvironmental Condition
  8. 8.  5- Literature Review:-5- Literature Review:-  - It serves several important functions- It serves several important functions  - Ensures that you are not reinventing the “wheele”- Ensures that you are not reinventing the “wheele”  - Demonstrates you r knowledge of the research- Demonstrates you r knowledge of the research problemproblem  - Your ability to evaluate relevant literature information- Your ability to evaluate relevant literature information  - Understanding of research issues related to your- Understanding of research issues related to your research questionresearch question  - convinces the reader that the research will make- convinces the reader that the research will make significant andsignificant and  enough contribution to the literature.enough contribution to the literature.
  9. 9.  8- Methods:-8- Methods:-  - The methods section is very important.- The methods section is very important.  - It tells how you to plain to tackle your research problem.- It tells how you to plain to tackle your research problem.  - It will provide your work plan and activities necessary for- It will provide your work plan and activities necessary for  Implementation of your research project.Implementation of your research project.   Appropriate Field design (Statistics)Appropriate Field design (Statistics)  Location of experimentLocation of experiment  No. of experiments and replicationsNo. of experiments and replications  Soil description (brief)Soil description (brief)  Prevailing temperature, humidityPrevailing temperature, humidity  Recording of data/parametersRecording of data/parameters  Dependent and Independent variablesDependent and Independent variables  Statistical analysis (Graphs, Tables)Statistical analysis (Graphs, Tables)  Analysis of VarianceAnalysis of Variance  Regression, InteractionRegression, Interaction  Separation of means: Fisher’s protected LSDSeparation of means: Fisher’s protected LSD
  10. 10.  9-Results:-9-Results:-  This a very important sectionThis a very important section  - Expected Results- Expected Results  - Problem/Objectives of the proposal- Problem/Objectives of the proposal  - Expected conclusion & recommendations- Expected conclusion & recommendations  - Suggested future research if any- Suggested future research if any  Obviously you do not have results at theObviously you do not have results at the proposal stage. However, you need to haveproposal stage. However, you need to have some idea about what kind of data you will besome idea about what kind of data you will be collecting, and what statistical procedures will becollecting, and what statistical procedures will be used in order to answer your research questionused in order to answer your research question or test you hypothesisor test you hypothesis
  11. 11.  10 Discussion:-10 Discussion:-  -- Potential impact of the proposedPotential impact of the proposed researchresearch  - Limitation and weakness of the proposed- Limitation and weakness of the proposed researchresearch
  12. 12.  11- Cover Page11- Cover Page  The cover page must contain:The cover page must contain:  The name of the student, if it is a teamThe name of the student, if it is a team work then the names of the teemwork then the names of the teem members.members.  The name of instructorThe name of instructor  Affiliated UniversityAffiliated University  Date of SubmissionDate of Submission  Title of ResearchTitle of Research
  13. 13.  12- Acknowledgement12- Acknowledgement  This page comes after the cover pageThis page comes after the cover page
  14. 14.  13- Table of Contents13- Table of Contents  This should guide the reader where to findThis should guide the reader where to find the specific pages of the project. Numberthe specific pages of the project. Number the pages of the research paper makethe pages of the research paper make sure to number all diagrams, tables,sure to number all diagrams, tables, accuratelyaccurately
  15. 15.  1414-- Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing:-Common Mistakes in Proposal Writing:-  Failure to provide the proper context to frame theFailure to provide the proper context to frame the research question.research question.  Failure to delimit the boundary conditions for yourFailure to delimit the boundary conditions for your research.research.  Failure to cite landmark studies.Failure to cite landmark studies.  Failure to accurately present the theoretical andFailure to accurately present the theoretical and empirical contributions by other researchers.empirical contributions by other researchers.  Failure to stay focused on the research question.Failure to stay focused on the research question.  Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argumentFailure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument for the proposed research.for the proposed research.  Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detailToo much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail on major issues.on major issues.  Too much rambling going “all over the map” without aToo much rambling going “all over the map” without a clear sense of direction.clear sense of direction.  Too many citation lapses and incorrect references.Too many citation lapses and incorrect references.  Too long or too short.Too long or too short.  Not following the APA styleNot following the APA style
  16. 16.  ThanksThanks
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