SNViz                     Analysis-oriented Visualization for the Internet of Things                   Giacomo Ghidini1   ...
Outline   1    Introduction   2    Visualization for the Internet of Things   3    SNVizGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and ...
Introduction  Outline   1    Introduction   2    Visualization for the Internet of Things   3    SNVizGhidini, Gupta & Das...
Introduction  Century of Cities  The vision. . . and some facts           “The 19th century was a century of empires, the ...
Introduction  Internet of Things (IoT)            The Internet is evolving from network of computers to network of devices...
Introduction  Representational State Transfer7 (ReST)             “The main idea of REST is to design applications which i...
Introduction  Sensor.Network8            Data storage and exchange platform                   Removes coupling between dev...
Internet of Things Visualization  Outline   1    Introduction   2    Visualization for the Internet of Things   3    SNViz...
Internet of Things Visualization  Why Visualization?           Scenario                   Partially structured data from  ...
Internet of Things Visualization  Visualization and the DIKW Pyramid             Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Pyramid...
Internet of Things Visualization  Related Work           Generic frameworks                   Sensor.Network10            ...
SNViz  Outline   1    Introduction   2    Visualization for the Internet of Things   3    SNVizGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWM...
SNViz  Problem                                                                 Brush-and-linking           Analyze data by...
SNViz  Architecture                            Sensor.Network Viz                                    Sensor.Network       ...
SNViz  Visualization Libraries/Toolkits            Graphical systems (e.g., Processing13 )                   Low-level abs...
SNViz  Protovis15            Marks                   Graphical primitives (e.g.,                   lines, bars, dots)     ...
SNViz  Implementation            Client-side AJAX                   HTML, JavaScript                   JSON wire format   ...
SNViz  Demo 1/2  Bicycle Ride                Sensor.Network Viz                        Original visualizationGhidini, Gupt...
SNViz  Demo 2/2  Tomato FarmGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs)       SNViz   Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010   19...
SNViz  Analysis of SNViz           Flexible visualization for the Urban Internet of Things                   Custom visual...
SNViz  More Applications           Sun SPOT Visualization                   Each Sun SPOT is a data                       ...
Conclusions  Conclusions           Developed a modular and extensible Web-based visualization for the Web           of Thi...
Conclusions  Acknowledgments                                  Roger Meike and all the folks                   on the IoTA ...
Conclusions  References          AT&T.          AT&T Adds Nearly 900,000 Connected Devices to Network in 2Q; Now Services ...
Conclusions  Credits   Roger Meike’s Blog, http://blogs.sun.com/roger/entry/the_tomato_forest_connecting_external   Protov...
Conclusions                                                           SNViz                     Analysis-oriented Visualiz...
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SNViz: Analysis-oriented Visualization for the Internet of Things

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The Internet is evolving from a network of comput- ers to a network of devices, e.g., phones, smart meters, traffic cameras, and air quality sensors. In this Internet of Things, large amounts of data generated by everyday objects can often be organized into data streams, where each data stream is a time series of sensor values sampled together. Visualization is an easy-to-use, efficient, and effective method to present this heterogeneous data to large and diverse audiences, and enable its analysis by users without programming background. Although general data-storage and sharing systems for the Internet of Things, like Pachube and Sensor.Network, offer some basic visualizations, they do little to help users understand relations and patterns hidden in the data, nor do they support live updates to the underlying data streams. Other systems, like Biketastic and the Copenhagen Wheel, feature more complex visualizations but are tailored for a specific application domain and do not address heterogeneous data streams. In this paper, we present SNViz, a Web browser-based AJAX application built using Protovis for visual analysis of large, heterogeneous, and live data streams in the Internet of Things. Besides offering panning and zooming for a detailed look at smaller data subsets, SNViz offers brush-and- linking across multiple visualizations. The latter is invaluable in helping users understand and analyze relationships and patterns hidden in the data. Although SNViz currently works by accessing JSON representations of data streams from Sensor.Network over HTTP, it can be extended to work with other data sources (e.g., wireless sensor network devices or smartphones) and even customized for specific applications.

This work was presented at the Internet of Things conference (www.iot2010.org).

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SNViz: Analysis-oriented Visualization for the Internet of Things

  1. 1. SNViz Analysis-oriented Visualization for the Internet of Things Giacomo Ghidini1 2 Dr. Vipul Gupta2 Dr. Sajal K. Das1 1 Center for Research in Wireless Mobility and Networking University of Texas at Arlington {giacomo,das}@uta.edu 2 Sun Labs, Oracle vipul.x.gupta@oracle.com Urban Internet of Things Workshop 2010 November 29, 2010 IBM Japan Hakozaki HQ/Royal Park Hotel Tokyo, JapanGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 1 / 26
  2. 2. Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization for the Internet of Things 3 SNVizGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 2 / 26
  3. 3. Introduction Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization for the Internet of Things 3 SNVizGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 3 / 26
  4. 4. Introduction Century of Cities The vision. . . and some facts “The 19th century was a century of empires, the 20th century was a century of nation states. The 21st century will be a century of cities” – Wellington E. Webb, former mayor of Denver, CO1 Continuous urbanization2 In 2010, 50% of the world’s populations is living in urban areas This figure will reach 70% by 2050 Most liveable cities3 Mid-sized Located in developed country with low population density How can the Internet of Things help provide high quality of life in large cities? 1 Webb, First Transatlantic Summit of Mayors, 2001 2 U.N., World Population Prospects, 2007 3 Economist Intelligence Unit, Global Liveability Report, 2010Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 4 / 26
  5. 5. Introduction Internet of Things (IoT) The Internet is evolving from network of computers to network of devices4 AT&T added 900,000 connected devices in Q2, totaling 6.7M5 Non-phone consumer products and machine-to-machine (M2M) units Smart objects Connection between physical and cyber worlds Sensors generate large amount of data The network world is the computer How to integrate devices, services, and users in the Web? 4 Duffy Marsan, Network World 2010 [3] 5 AT&T News Release, July 23, 2010 [1]Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 5 / 26
  6. 6. Introduction Representational State Transfer7 (ReST) “The main idea of REST is to design applications which implement their functionality completely as a set of URI-addressable resources, with HTTP being the access method for interacting with them. In such an application, there is no need for any special interface, the application fully blends into the Web [. . . ]” – Erik Wilde, UC Berkeley6 6 Wilde, Putting Things to REST, 2007 [9] 7 Fielding, Ph.D. Thesis, 2000 [4]Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 6 / 26
  7. 7. Introduction Sensor.Network8 Data storage and exchange platform Removes coupling between devices, services, and users Data stream Time series of a set of values (e.g., temperature, pressure, acceleration) Data points can be added to, edited, and removed from a data stream Users visualize data streams on line charts, scatter charts, maps, . . . REST-based API Users access it via a Web browser Any device can access it via HTTP 8 Gupta et al., IEEE PerCom Workshops, 2010 [7]Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 7 / 26
  8. 8. Internet of Things Visualization Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization for the Internet of Things 3 SNVizGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 8 / 26
  9. 9. Internet of Things Visualization Why Visualization? Scenario Partially structured data from heterogeneous sources Users with limited or no programming background Efficiency Large amount of data presented in compact form Effectiveness Rely on human vision and processing for analysis Ease of use No specialized data analysis software requiredGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 9 / 26
  10. 10. Internet of Things Visualization Visualization and the DIKW Pyramid Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Pyramid9 Information depends on data, knowledge depends on information, . . . Ascent of DIKW pyramid is required to acquire wisdom from data Sound visualization can help ascend the DIKW pyramid 9 Ackoff, Journal of Applied System Analysis, 1989Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 10 / 26
  11. 11. Internet of Things Visualization Related Work Generic frameworks Sensor.Network10 No interaction among views of data set Application-specific systems Biketastic11 Copenhagen Wheel12 Rich visualizations restricted to a specific domain SNViz tries to bring visualization to the foreground striking a balance between flexibility and customization 10 Gupta et al., IEEE PerCom Workshops, 2010 11 Reddy et al., CHI 2010 12 MIT SENSEable City Lab, 2010Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 11 / 26
  12. 12. SNViz Outline 1 Introduction 2 Visualization for the Internet of Things 3 SNVizGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 12 / 26
  13. 13. SNViz Problem Brush-and-linking Analyze data by In multiview representation of brush-and-linking; multidimensional data, data points highlighting; and selected (brush) in one view are panning and zooming highlighted (link) across all views Challenges Multiple large, heterogeneous, live data streams Multiple values in multiple charts in a Web browserGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 13 / 26
  14. 14. SNViz Architecture Sensor.Network Viz Sensor.Network Web browser Internet Web server No standalone app Scatter chart, RESTful API line chart, map,... Well-known protocol Datastream GET Chart Chart metadata HTTP Requests 1:n 1:n Datastream GET Event Bus Event Bus data HTTP Responses JSON content ... ... Datastream ... Datastream Compact data Local copy of data representation No plug-ins required Or any other tech HTML & Javascript Java ServletsGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 14 / 26
  15. 15. SNViz Visualization Libraries/Toolkits Graphical systems (e.g., Processing13 ) Low-level abstraction Tedious for complex work Visualization systems (e.g., Google Chart Tools14 ) High-level abstraction Customized solutions not allowed Does a solution exist between these extremes? 13 Resig, 2010 [8] 14 Google, 2010 [5]Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 15 / 26
  16. 16. SNViz Protovis15 Marks Graphical primitives (e.g., lines, bars, dots) Data-driven Mark features function of data Extensible Proper abstraction level Control re-rendering Figure: Minard’s Napoleon 15 Bostock & Heer, 2009 [2]Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 16 / 26
  17. 17. SNViz Implementation Client-side AJAX HTML, JavaScript JSON wire format Google Web Toolkit16 Develop Web application in Java Translate it into HTML and JavaScript Deploy it to a Web server/Servlet container Visualizations Protovis Google Chart Tools 16 Google, 2010 [6]Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 17 / 26
  18. 18. SNViz Demo 1/2 Bicycle Ride Sensor.Network Viz Original visualizationGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 18 / 26
  19. 19. SNViz Demo 2/2 Tomato FarmGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 19 / 26
  20. 20. SNViz Analysis of SNViz Flexible visualization for the Urban Internet of Things Custom visualizations can be easily added Supports analysis of live data Panning and zooming Brush-and-linking Responsive and compact Client-side JavaScript processing 855 KB HTML and JavaScript, incl. 479.9 KB Protovis 2.95 seconds to load Web page (if caching enabled)Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 20 / 26
  21. 21. SNViz More Applications Sun SPOT Visualization Each Sun SPOT is a data Sensor.Network Multiple data stream Sensor.Network Viz sources Sun SPOT WoT Data Source Employed in the Java One Web browser Internet Web server Hands-on Lab 2010 Datastream GET Chart Chart metadata Web of Things Visualization HTTP Requests 1:n 1:n Datastream GET Event Bus Event Bus Internetworked devices data HTTP Responses JSON content implement RESTful protocol Datastream ... Datastream ... ... Everything is a data stream (RSS for data) HTML & Javascript Personal data stream mash-ups can be createdGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 21 / 26
  22. 22. Conclusions Conclusions Developed a modular and extensible Web-based visualization for the Web of Things Addressed challenges due to large, heterogeneous, and live data streams Enabled compact representation of data and analysis of patterns and relationshipsGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 22 / 26
  23. 23. Conclusions Acknowledgments Roger Meike and all the folks on the IoTA (Internet of Things Actualized) research group at Sun Labs, OracleGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 23 / 26
  24. 24. Conclusions References AT&T. AT&T Adds Nearly 900,000 Connected Devices to Network in 2Q; Now Services Nearly 6.7 Million Connected Devices, 2010. Michael Bostock and Jeffrey Heer. Protovis: a graphical toolkit for visualization. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 15(6):1121–8, 2009. Carolyn Duffy Marsan. 10 Fool-proof Predictions for the Internet in 2020, 2010. Roy Thomas Fielding. Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures. PhD thesis, University of California Irvine, 2000. Google. Google Chart Tools / Interactive Charts, 2010. Google. Google Web Toolkit, 2010. Vipul Gupta, Poornaprajna Udupi, and Arshan Poursohi. Early Lessons from Building Sensor.Network: an Open Data Exchange for the Web of Things. In 8th IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom 2010 Workshops), pages 738–744, March 2010. John Resig. Processing.js, 2010. Erik Wilde. Putting Things to REST, 2007.Ghidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 24 / 26
  25. 25. Conclusions Credits Roger Meike’s Blog, http://blogs.sun.com/roger/entry/the_tomato_forest_connecting_external Protovis Brush + Link, http://vis.stanford.edu/protovis/ex/brush.html Protovis Minard’s Napoleon, http://vis.stanford.edu/protovis/ex/napoleon.htmlGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 25 / 26
  26. 26. Conclusions SNViz Analysis-oriented Visualization for the Internet of Things Giacomo Ghidini1 2 Dr. Vipul Gupta2 Dr. Sajal K. Das1 1 Center for Research in Wireless Mobility and Networking University of Texas at Arlington {giacomo,das}@uta.edu 2 Sun Labs, Oracle vipul.x.gupta@oracle.com Urban Internet of Things Workshop 2010 November 29, 2010 IBM Japan Hakozaki HQ/Royal Park Hotel Tokyo, JapanGhidini, Gupta & Das (CReWMaN and Sun Labs) SNViz Urban IoT Workshop – 11/29/2010 26 / 26

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