Pure food – was enacted to imrove quality and labeling of drugs Federal food – empowered the FDA to set and enforce safety standards for drugs Comprehensive – replaced the harrison narcotic act, set a schedule of controlled substances from 1 to 5 with 1 being high abuse potential, severe dependance and no medical indications such as Heroin and LSD
Untoward = side effects that are harmful to patient
1. Right drug check name of drug b. If the drug is unfamiliar, seek information from an authoritative source. c. Read labels of drug containers accurately. d. Question the prescribing physician about the order if it is unclear or if the drug seems inappropriate for the client's condition. 2. Right dose Calculate doses accurately. d. Measure doses accurately. e. Question the prescribing physician about the dosage if it seems inappropriate for the client or does not fall within the margin of safety. 3. Right route a. Check that the medication can be given by the route prescribed. b. Give medications only by the route prescribed. c. Use correct techniques for all routes of administration. 4. Right time a. Schedule administration of a drug to maximize therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects. Ie epi every 5 min 5. Right client a. Check identification bands on institutionalized clients to ensure the name and number match exactly those on the medication administration record every time a medication is administered. 6. Right documentation Record the medication immediately following its administration on the official record. Reduce medication errors by following the 6 rights.
Pharmacology part 1
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OFPHARMACOLOGY
Part 1 Topics Drug Names Sources of Drug Products Drug Classifications Food & Drug Administration Medication Administration Properties of Drugs
Pharmacology is the studyof drugs and their actions on the body.
Drugs are chemicals used todiagnose, treat, and prevent disease.
Legal Knowing and obeying the laws and regulations governing medications and their administration is an important part of a paramedic’s career. These include federal, state, and agency regulations.
Federal… Pure Food & Drug Act of 1906 Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 Federal Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Act of 1938 Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention & Control Act of 1970
State vs. Local Standards They vary widely. Always consult local protocols and with medical direction for guidance in securing and distributing controlled substances.
Names of Drugs Chemical…states its chemical composition and molecular structure. Generic…usually suggested by the manufacturer. Official…as listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia. Brand…the trade or proprietary name.
Names of Drugs 7-chloro-1, 3-dihydro-1,Chemical Name methyl-5-phenyl-2h-1Generic Name diazepamOfficial Name diazepam, USP Valium®
Sources of Drug Information United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Physician’s desk reference (PDR) Drug information Monthly prescribing reference AMA drug evaluation
Components of a Drug Profile Name Routes of Classification Administration Mechanism of Contraindications Action Dosage Indications How Supplied Pharmacokinetics Special Side Effects Considerations
Names Most Frequently Include Generic and Trade Names
Classification The broad group to which a drug belongs. Knowing classifications is essential to understanding the properties of drugs.
Mechanism of Action The way in which a drug causes its effects; its pharmacodynamics.
Actions of Drugs Drugs that Act by Binding to a Receptor Site Drugs that Act by Changing Physical Properties Drugs that Act by Chemically Combining with Other Substances Drugs that Act by Altering a Normal Metabolic Pathway
Indications Conditions that enable the appropriate administration of the drug (as approved by the FDA).
Pharmacokinetics How the drug is absorbed, distributed, and eliminated; typically includes onset and duration of action.
Pharmacokinetics Absorption…a drug must find its way to the site of action. Distribution…a drug must then be distributed throughout the body.
Pharmacokinetics Biotransformation…the process of breaking down, or metabolizing, drugs. Elimination…drugs must eventually be excreted from the body.
Side Effects/Adverse Reactions The drug’s untoward or undesired effects.
Routes of Administration How the drug is given.
Contraindications Conditions that make it inappropriate to give the drug. …means a predictable harmful event will occur if the drug is given in this situation.
Dosage The amount of the drug that should be given.
How Supplied This typically includes the common concentration of the available preparations; many drugs come in different concentrations.
Drug Routes (1 of 2) Enteral: Deliver medications by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract. Oral, orogastric/nasogastric, sublingual, buccal, rectal.
Drug Routes (2 of 2) Parenteral: Delivers medications via routes other than the GI tract. Include intravenous, endotracheal, intraosseous, umbilical, intramuscular, subcutaneously, inhalation, topical.
Enteral – examples (1 of 2) Oral (PO) — good for self-administering drugs. Orogastric (OG) / Nasogastric (NG) — alternate method to providing PO medications. Sublingual (SL) — excellent absorption without problems of gastric acidity.
Enteral – examples (2 of 2) Buccal — between the cheek/gum. Similar to sublingual. Rectal (PR) — reserved for unconscious or vomiting patients.
Parenteral – examples (1 of 3) Intravenous (IV) — preferred route in emergencies. Endotracheal (ET) — alternate route in emergencies for select medications. Intraosseous (IO) — alternative use in emergencies, mostly in pediatrics.
Parenteral – examples (2 of 3) Umbilical — provides alternate access in newborns. Intramuscular (IM) — slower absorption than IVs. Subcutaneous (SQ) — slower absorption than IM.
Parenteral – examples (3 of 3) Inhalation — very rapid absorption via the lungs. Topical — delivers drugs directly to the skin.
Most emergency medications are givenintravenously to avoid drug degradation in the liver.
Drug Forms Solid Forms: Such as pills, powders, suppositories, capsules. Liquid Forms: Such as solutions, tinctures, suspensions, emulsions, spirits, elixirs, syrups.
Solid Forms Pills—drugs shaped spherically to be swallowed. Powders—not as popular as they once were. Tablets—powders compressed into disk-like form. Suppositories—drugs mixed with a waxlike base that melts at body temperature. Capsules—gelatin containers filled with powders or tiny pills.
Liquid Forms (1 of 2) Solutions—water or oil-based. Tinctures—prepared using an alcohol extraction process. Suspensions—preparations in which the solid does not dissolve in the solvent. Emulsions—suspensions with an oily substance in the solvent.
Liquid Forms (2 of 2) Spirits—solution of a volatile drug in alcohol. Elixirs—alcohol and water solvent; often with flavoring. Syrups—sugar, water, and drug solutions.
Special Considerations Pregnant Patients Pediatric Patients Geriatric Patients
Pregnant Patients Ask the patient if there is a possibility that she could be pregnant. Some drugs may have an adverse effect on the fetus of a pregnant female. Teratogenic drug…is a medication that may deform or kill the fetus.
Providing Patient Care Using Medications (1 of 4) Know the precautions and contraindications for all medications you administer. Practice proper technique. Know how to observe and document drug effects.
Providing Patient Care Using Medications (2 of 4) Maintain a current knowledge in pharmacology. Establish and maintain professional relationships with other healthcare providers. Understand pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Providing Patient Care Using Medications (3 of 4) Have current medication references available. Take careful drug histories including: Name, strength, dose of prescribed medications; Over-the-counter drugs; Vitamins; Herbal medications; Allergies.
Providing Patient Care Using Medications (4 of 4) Evaluate the patient’s compliance, dosage, and adverse reactions. Consult with medical direction as needed.
Know the 6 Rights of Medication Administration Right Medication Right Dosage Right Time Right Route Right Patient Right Documentation
Responses to Drug Administration (1 of 5) Side Effect—unintended response to a drug. Allergic Reaction—hypersensitivity. Idiosyncrasy—drug effect unique to an individual.
Responses to Drug Administration (2 of 5) Tolerance—decreased response to the same amount. Cross Tolerance—tolerance for a drug that develops after administration of a different drug. Tachyphylaxis—rapidly occurring tolerance to a drug.
Responses to Drug Administration (3 of 5) Cumulative effect—increased effectiveness when a drug is given in several doses. Drug dependence—the patient becomes accustomed to the drug’s presence in his body. Drug interaction—the effects of one drug alter the response to another drug. Drug antagonism—the effects of one drug block the response to another drug.
Responses to Drug Administration (4 of 5) Summation—also known as additive effect, two drugs with the same effect are given together — similar to 1+1=2. Synergism—two drugs with the same effect are given together and produce a response greater than the sum of their individual responses — similar to 1+2=3.
Responses to Drug Administration (5 of 5) Potentiation—one drug enhances the effect of another. Interference—the direct biochemical interaction between two drugs; one drug affects the pharmacology of another drug.
Factors Affecting Drug Response Age Time of Administration Body Mass Pathology Sex Genetics Environment Psychology
Part 1 Summary Drug Names Sources of Drug Products Drug Classifications Food & Drug Administration Medication Administration Properties of Drugs