Medication administration part 1Presentation Transcript
Part 1Principles and Routes ofMedication Administration
Part 1 Topics Aseptic Technique Medication Administration Routes Medication Package Anatomy and Physiology Related to Medication Administration
Six Rights of Drug Administration Right person Right drug Right dose Right time Right route Right documentation
Knowing all drugadministration protocols is essential.
Always take appropriate bodysubstance isolation measures to reduce your risk of exposure during medication administration.
Body substance isolation equipment.
Medical Asepsis It is important to keep the ambulance and all the equipment clean. Sterile—free of all forms of life Medically clean—involves careful handling to prevent contamination
Treat all blood and body fluids as potentially infectious.
Needle Handling Precautions Minimize the tasks performed in a moving ambulance. Immediately dispose of used sharps in a sharps container. Recap needles only as a last resort.
Medication Administration and Documentation Record all information concerning the patient and medication including: Indication for drug administration. Dosage and route delivered. Patient response to the medication—both positive and negative.
Percutaneous drug administration is drugs applied to and absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes.
Transdermal Absorbed through the skin at a slow, steady rate. Method: 1. BSI. 2. Clean administration site. 3. Apply medication. 4. Leave medication in place for required time. Monitor the patient for desirable or adverse effects.
Mucous Membranes Absorbed through the mucous membranes at a moderate to rapid rate.
Sublingual Medication AdministrationPlace the pill or direct spray between the underside of the tongue and the floor of the oral cavity.
Buccal Medication Administration Place the medication between the patient’s cheek and gum.
Eye Drop AdministrationUse a medication dropper to place the prescribed dosage on the conjunctival sac.
Nasal medication administration
Aural Medication AdministrationManually open the ear canal and administer the appropriate dose.
Pulmonary Drug Administration Medications are administered into the pulmonary system via inhalation or injection.
Small volume nebulizer
Nebulizer with attached face mask, bag-valve mask, andendotracheal tube.
Metered dose inhaler
Endotracheal Tube Several medications can be administered through an endotracheal tube: Lidocaine Epinephrine Atropine Naloxone
Enteral Drug Administration The delivery of any medication that is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract.
Oral Drug Administration Any medication taken by mouth and swallowed into the GI tract. Be sure the patient has an adequate level of consciousness to prevent aspiration.
Oral Drug Forms Capsules Elixirs Tablets Emulsions Pills Lozenges Enteric coated/ Suspensions time release Syrups capsules and tablets
Equipment for Oral Administration Soufflé cup Teaspoon Medicine cup Oral syringe Medicine Nipple dropper
Gastric Tube Administration Gastric tubes provide access directly to the GI system.
Confirm proper tube placement.
Withdraw the plunger while observing forthe presence of gastric fluid or contents.
Instill the medication into the gastric tube.
Gently inject the saline.
Clamp off the distal tube.
Rectal Administration The rectum’s extreme vascularity promotes rapid drug absorption. Medications do not travel through the liver, and are not subject to hepatic alteration.
Catheter placement on needleless syringe
Syringe attached to endotracheal tube
Prepackaged enema container
Parenteral Drug Administration Drug administration outside of the gastrointestinal tract.
Syringes and Needles Syringe. Hypodermic needle.
Kinds of Parenteral Drug Containers Glass ampules Single and multidose vials Nonconstituted syringes Prefilled syringes Intravenous medication fluids
Ampules and VialsAmpules. Vials.
Information On Drug Labels Name of medication Expiration date Total dose and concentration
Hold the ampule upright and tap its top to dislodge any trapped solution.
Place gauze around the thin neck…
…and snap it off with your thumb.
Draw up the medication.
Confirm the vial label.
Prepare the syringe and hypodermic needle.
Cleanse the vial’s rubber top.
Insert the hypodermic needle into the rubber top and inject the air from the syringe into the vial.
The nonconstituteddrug vial actuallyconsists of two vials,one containing apowdered medicationand one containing aliquid mixingsolution.
Nonconstituted drugs come inseparate vials. Confirm the labels.
Remove all solution from the vial containing the mixing solution.
Cleanse the top of the vial containing the powdered drug and inject the solution.
Agitate or shake the vial to ensure complete mixture.
Prepare a new syringe and hypodermic needle.
Withdraw the appropriate volume of medication.
In the Mix-O-Vial system, the vials arejoined at the neck. Confirm the labels.
Squeeze the vials together to break theseal. Agitate or shake to mix completely.