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Medication administration part 1
 

Medication administration part 1

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    Medication administration part 1 Medication administration part 1 Presentation Transcript

    • MedicationAdministration
    • Part 1Principles and Routes ofMedication Administration
    • Part 1 Topics Aseptic Technique Medication Administration Routes Medication Package Anatomy and Physiology Related to Medication Administration
    • Six Rights of Drug Administration Right person Right drug Right dose Right time Right route Right documentation
    • Knowing all drugadministration protocols is essential.
    • Always take appropriate bodysubstance isolation measures to reduce your risk of exposure during medication administration.
    • Body substance isolation equipment.
    • Medical Asepsis It is important to keep the ambulance and all the equipment clean. Sterile—free of all forms of life Medically clean—involves careful handling to prevent contamination
    • Treat all blood and body fluids as potentially infectious.
    • Needle Handling Precautions Minimize the tasks performed in a moving ambulance. Immediately dispose of used sharps in a sharps container. Recap needles only as a last resort.
    • Medication Administration and Documentation Record all information concerning the patient and medication including:  Indication for drug administration.  Dosage and route delivered.  Patient response to the medication—both positive and negative.
    • Percutaneous drug administration is drugs applied to and absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes.
    • Transdermal Absorbed through the skin at a slow, steady rate. Method: 1. BSI. 2. Clean administration site. 3. Apply medication. 4. Leave medication in place for required time. Monitor the patient for desirable or adverse effects.
    • Mucous Membranes Absorbed through the mucous membranes at a moderate to rapid rate.
    • Sublingual Medication AdministrationPlace the pill or direct spray between the underside of the tongue and the floor of the oral cavity.
    • Buccal Medication Administration Place the medication between the patient’s cheek and gum.
    • Eye Drop AdministrationUse a medication dropper to place the prescribed dosage on the conjunctival sac.
    • Nasal medication administration
    • Aural Medication AdministrationManually open the ear canal and administer the appropriate dose.
    • Pulmonary Drug Administration Medications are administered into the pulmonary system via inhalation or injection.
    • Small volume nebulizer
    • Nebulizer with attached face mask, bag-valve mask, andendotracheal tube.
    • Metered dose inhaler
    • Endotracheal Tube Several medications can be administered through an endotracheal tube:  Lidocaine  Epinephrine  Atropine  Naloxone
    • Enteral Drug Administration The delivery of any medication that is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Gastrointestinal tract
    • Oral Drug Administration Any medication taken by mouth and swallowed into the GI tract. Be sure the patient has an adequate level of consciousness to prevent aspiration.
    • Oral Drug Forms Capsules  Elixirs Tablets  Emulsions Pills  Lozenges Enteric coated/  Suspensions time release  Syrups capsules and tablets
    • Equipment for Oral Administration  Soufflé cup  Teaspoon  Medicine cup  Oral syringe  Medicine  Nipple dropper
    • Gastric Tube Administration Gastric tubes provide access directly to the GI system.
    • Confirm proper tube placement.
    • Withdraw the plunger while observing forthe presence of gastric fluid or contents.
    • Instill the medication into the gastric tube.
    • Gently inject the saline.
    • Clamp off the distal tube.
    • Rectal Administration The rectum’s extreme vascularity promotes rapid drug absorption. Medications do not travel through the liver, and are not subject to hepatic alteration.
    • Catheter placement on needleless syringe
    • Syringe attached to endotracheal tube
    • Prepackaged enema container
    • Parenteral Drug Administration Drug administration outside of the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Syringes and Needles Syringe. Hypodermic needle.
    • Kinds of Parenteral Drug Containers  Glass ampules  Single and multidose vials  Nonconstituted syringes  Prefilled syringes  Intravenous medication fluids
    • Ampules and VialsAmpules. Vials.
    • Information On Drug Labels  Name of medication  Expiration date  Total dose and concentration
    • Hold the ampule upright and tap its top to dislodge any trapped solution.
    • Place gauze around the thin neck…
    • …and snap it off with your thumb.
    • Draw up the medication.
    • Confirm the vial label.
    • Prepare the syringe and hypodermic needle.
    • Cleanse the vial’s rubber top.
    • Insert the hypodermic needle into the rubber top and inject the air from the syringe into the vial.
    • The nonconstituteddrug vial actuallyconsists of two vials,one containing apowdered medicationand one containing aliquid mixingsolution.
    • Nonconstituted drugs come inseparate vials. Confirm the labels.
    • Remove all solution from the vial containing the mixing solution.
    • Cleanse the top of the vial containing the powdered drug and inject the solution.
    • Agitate or shake the vial to ensure complete mixture.
    • Prepare a new syringe and hypodermic needle.
    • Withdraw the appropriate volume of medication.
    • In the Mix-O-Vial system, the vials arejoined at the neck. Confirm the labels.
    • Squeeze the vials together to break theseal. Agitate or shake to mix completely.
    • Withdraw the appropriate volume of medication.
    • Parenteral Routes Intradermal injection Subcutaneous injection Intramuscular injection Intravenous access Intraosseous infusion
    • Intradermal Injection
    • Assemble and prepare the needed equipment.
    • Check the medication.
    • Draw up the medication.
    • Prepare the administration site.
    • Pull the patient’s skin taut.
    • Insert the needle, bevel up at a 10°–15° angle.
    • Remove the needle and cover thepuncture site with an adhesive bandage.
    • Monitor the patient.
    • Subcutaneous Injection 45º
    • Subcutaneous Injection Sites
    • Prepare the equipment.
    • Check the medication.
    • Draw up the medication.
    • Prep the site.
    • Insert the needle at a 45° angle.
    • Remove the needle and cover the puncture site.
    • Monitor the patient.
    • Intramuscular Injection Sites Deltoid Dorsal gluteal Vastus lateralis Rectus femoris
    • Intramuscular Injection 90º
    • Intramuscular Injection Sites
    • Prepare the equipment.
    • Check the medication.
    • Draw up the medication.
    • Prepare the site.
    • Insert the needle at a 90° angle.
    • Remove the needle and cover the puncture site.
    • Monitor the patient.
    • Part 1 Summary Aseptic technique Medication administration routes Medication package Anatomy and physiology related to medication administration