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  1. 1. ITRI Cloud Operating System and OpenStack Tzi-cker Chiueh 闕志克 Cloud Computing Research Center for Mobile Applications (CCMA) 雲端運算行動應用研究中心 1
  2. 2. Cloud Data Center Solution• Renting rather than buying IT infrastructure  Build-up of cloud-scale data centers  Need for inexpensive integrated cloud data center solutions• The user pain point: integration Is it possible to build a cloud data center like “take a HW box, install OS on it, and have an AWS-like IaaS ready to go”?• A total IaaS solution for both public and private clouds2
  3. 3. Container Computer Architecture Physical Server VM0 VM1 VMn Layer-3 Border Routers Layer-2-Only Data Center Network IEL Load Balancing Traffic Shaping Intrusion Detection NAT/VPNCompute Server Storage Server 3
  4. 4. What is Cloud OS? ITRI Cloud OS ITRI Cloud OS Virtual Data Center Management Virtual Data Center Management Physical Data Center Management Physical Data Center Management Photo Video Web Sharing Streaming Conference CHTPCHome VDC VDC VDC Provision and Deploy Physical Cluster •Cloud Service•Cloud Application Infrastructure Administrator Developer •Carrier•Cloud Service Provider Monitor, Diagnose and Configure4 Monitor and Configure Physical Resources Virtual Resources
  5. 5. Cloud OS Service Model • Virtual data center consists of one or multiple virtual clusters, each of which comprises one or multiple VMs • Users provide a Virtual Cluster specification – No. of VM instances each with CPU performance and memory size requirement – Per-VM storage space requirement – External network bandwidth requirement – Security policy – Backup policy – Load balancing policy – Network configuration, e.g. public IP address and private IP address range – OS image and application image5
  6. 6. VDCM – Assets (VDC, VC, VM)2012/8/11 OpenStack APAC Conference 2012 6
  7. 7. PDCM Event Monitor2012/8/11 OpenStack APAC Conference 2012 7
  8. 8. PDCM Network Topology2012/8/11 OpenStack APAC Conference 2012 8
  9. 9. Key Cloud OS 1.0 Features – 1 • Physical resource management (PRM): BIOS – Centralized installation of all systems software – Start up, shut down, and recover a data center computer • Data center storage management: file management – Main storage (DMS) : Forming a highly available global storage pool from: a set of commodity JBOD storage servers – Secondary storage (DSS): Offering streamlined disk-based snapshot/backup with configurable policy, and scalable de-duplication • Virtualization management: process management – Resource provisioning management (RPM): allocate physical data center resources for a given virtual data center and auto-scaling – Dynamic virtual resource management (DVMM): use VM migration to support consolidation, load balancing and high availability9
  10. 10. Key Cloud OS 1.0 Features – 2 • Physical data center management (PDCM): system administration – Comprehensive SNMP-based monitoring – Integrated virtual/physical resource mapping view – Unified event logging – Integrated trouble ticking support • Virtual data center management (VDCM): system administration – VDC/VC/VM specification – Real-time resource usage and performance monitoring • Security: security – Inter-VDC isolation – Centralized L3 and distributed L7 and web application firewalling • Internet edge logic – Supporting inter-VM load balancing within a VC – DDoS attack mediation – Distributed traffic shaping10
  11. 11. Building Cloud Data Center Virtualization Primary/Secondary Management (VMWare) Physical Data Center Storage Management Management (Tivoli) (EMC)PhysicalResource Virtual Data CenterManagement Management (CA)(Dell) Server Load Balancing/ Traffic Shaping (F5) System Integration (IBM) Security (Checkpoint) (XXX): represents leader In the corresponding space11
  12. 12. ITRI Cloud OS’s Way Virtualization Primary/Secondary Management (ITRI) Physical Data Center Storage Management Management (ITRI) (ITRI)PhysicalResource Virtual Data CenterManagement Management (ITRI)(ITRI) Internet Edge Logic (ITRI) System Integration (ITRI) Security (ITRI)12
  13. 13. Strong Data Protection• N-way data replication vs. RAID – End to end data availability: disk, server, and network failures• Periodic snapshots for local data backup with de-duplication• Wide-area data backup – Snapshot frequency: a couple of hours to days• Wide-area data replication (Cloud OS 2.0) – Snapshot frequency: a couple of seconds to minutes13
  14. 14. High Availability • High availability support for Cloud OS subsystems – Active-passive: Linux HA + DRBD + edit logging/recovery – Active-active: MySQL and server load balancer • Disk state-preserving fail-over for applications running inside VDCs – Shared persistent state + VM restart + take-over • Memory state-preserving fail-over for applications running inside VDCs (Cloud OS 2.0) – Shared memory/persistent state + VM resume + take-over14
  15. 15. Multi-Dimensional Load Balancing Multi-homing load balancing Intra-VDC inter-VM load balancing Network-wide link-level load balancing Inter-storage-server load balancing Inter-physical-server Thermal capacity load balancing load balancing15
  16. 16. Cloud Security• Any security breaches that are possible for a physical data center are equally likely for a virtual data center – L4/L7 and Web Application Firewall• New security concerns – Interference between tenants on the same physical machines • Inter-VDC isolation vs. VLAN isolation16
  17. 17. OpenStack• Open Stack core: – Nova: VM provisioning – Glance: VM image upload and delivery – Swift: Object data storage• RPM vs. Nova – Boot from remote cloned volume – Dynamic load balancing – Power consolidation – Dedicated physical machine pool17 – Auto-scaling
  18. 18. OpenStack-Compatible Cloud OS OpenStack APISecurity PRM/PDCM Security PRM/PDCMDirectory Directory Server VDCM/RS Server VDCM/RS IEL IEL APIs with VDC concept APIs with VDC concept NovaDMS/DSS VMM VMM lite Volume DMS/DSS CPU API OpenStack compatible Volume Network Walrus NC API OpenStack Nova API Glance/Swift create/start/stop/delete/migrate VMs create/start/stop/delete/migrate VMs Xen Xen Xen Xen KVM Xen Qemu HyperV
  19. 19. Cloud OS 2.0 • OpenStack Compatible: – Nova’s compute, volume and network API – OpenStack web service API – Target date: 10/1/2012 • Data center federation: Support for multi-site data centers • Network virtualization: Support for hybrid cloud • Wide-area data replication • Memory de-duplication19
  20. 20. Cloud Data Center Network • Cloud data centers are Big and Shared • Scalable and available data center fabrics – Not all links are used – No load-sensitive routing – Fail-over latency is high (> 5 seconds) • Network virtualization: Each virtual data center (VDC) gets to define its own network – All VMs in a VDC belong to one flat subnet – Each VDC has its own private IP address space – Each VDC has a set of public IP addresses – Each VDC has a set of external VPN connections – Per-VDC Internet traffic shaping policy, intra-VDC and inter-VDC firewalling policy, and server load balancing policy20
  21. 21. Peregrine • A unified Layer-2-only network for LAN and SA • Centralized control plane and distributed data plane • Use only Commodity Ethernet switches – Army of commodity switches vs. few high-port-density switches – Requirements on switches: run fast and has programmable routing table • Centralized load-balancing routing using real-time traffic matrix – Support for incremental and QoS-aware routing • Fast fail-over using pre-computed primary/back routes • Native support for network virtualization – Private IP address space reuse – Multi-tenancy VPN, NAT and traffic shaping – Intra-VDC or inter-VDC firewall21
  22. 22. Software Architecture22
  23. 23. Load Balancing Routing • Collection of real-time traffic matrix – Traffic volume between each pair of VMs – Traffic volume between each pair of PMs • Load balancing routing algorithm – Loads on the physical links – Number of hops – Forwarding table entries – Prioritization • Computed routes are installed on switches23
  24. 24. When a Network Link Fails27
  25. 25. Private IP Address Space Reuse • Requirement: Every VDC has a VDC ID and its own full 24-bit private IP address space (10.x.x.x), even though multiple VDCs run on top of the same data center network • Two approaches: – Ethernet over TCP/UDP: • Every Ethernet packet is encapsulated inside an TCP/UDP packet or TCP/UDP connection as an Ethernet link • Needs to implement in software such Ethernet switch functions as source learning, flooding, VLAN, etc. • Can work with arbitrary IP networks – Multi-tenancy-aware IP-MAC mapping: our approach • Runs directly on L2 networks, no need for Ethernet switch emulation • Inter-virtual-data-center isolation25
  26. 26. Peregrine Summary • Peregrine is a network system technology, not a network device technology, and consists of – A hypervisor module running on every compute node – A route server and an ARP server – A VDC-aware VPN • Runs directly on commodity Ethernet switches and NICs: fully leverages the benefit of I/O virtualization, which encourages direct NIC access from VM • Under development: Refactor Peregrine as a Quantum plug-in26
  27. 27. Conclusion • Cloud computing is all about consolidation of IT infrastructures and usage-based resource allocation – Data center as a computer paradigm • Cloud-scale data center industry is emerging – Integration is a real user pain point – An integrated solution with lesser components is much more desirable than an un-integrated set of more capable components • ITRI’s integrated data center solution, Container Computer 1.0 + Cloud OS 1.0, is expected to provide 70% of the functionalities at 1/3 cost of leading solutions from US – Virtual data center service abstraction27
  28. 28. Thank You! Questions and Comments? tcc@itri.org.tw28