A decade of plus ca change? UK Digital Divides 1996-2006

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Paper presented at IR9, Kobenhavn, 18/10/2008

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A decade of plus ca change? UK Digital Divides 1996-2006

  1. 1. Technology And Social Change Research Centre A decade of plus ca change? UK Digital Divides 1996-2006 Ben Anderson IR9, Kobenhavn © 2008, University of Essex Saturday, 18 October 2008
  2. 2. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Contents • Why do we care? • UK trends in inequality: Access • UK trends in inequality: e-Commerce • Conclusions: Plus ca change? istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  3. 3. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Why do we care? • Access to & usage of public services • Increasingly online/technology mediated • The most in need are traditionally the technology laggards • -> issues of ‘addressable market’ • Access to & usage of private services • Online commerce may enable cost/time savings • But do the better off benefit the most? • Access to & usage of ‘social life’ services • Increasing role of technology mediated social relationships for support, information • Taken for granted…ness istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  4. 4. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Contents • Why do we care? • UK trends in inequality: Access • UK trends in inequality: e-Commerce • Conclusions: Plus ca change? istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  5. 5. Technology And Social Change Research Centre UK Household ICT access • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All households istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  6. 6. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Means of home internet access I • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All internet households istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  7. 7. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Means of internet access II • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All internet households istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  8. 8. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Social equity of ICT access • Lets play guess the technologies: • Household Internet Access • Fixed line telephone • Mobile telephone (1 or more) • By employment status of household response person • NS-SEC 1 (high), NS-SEC 2 (medium), NS- SEC 3 - (low) • Inactive - not working • Retired istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  9. 9. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Which one is this? • Access Gap = difference between highest & lowest • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All household response persons in each social group istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  10. 10. Technology And Social Change Research Centre And this? • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All household response persons in each social group istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  11. 11. Technology And Social Change Research Centre And this? • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All household response persons in each social group istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  12. 12. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Social equity of ICT access • Fixed line telephone • Mobile(s) • Internet access • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All household response persons in each social group istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  13. 13. Technology And Social Change Research Centre But what about other factors? • Year by year multivariate analysis - Household Internet Access • Also included - tenure, region, accommodation type (not shown) istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  14. 14. Technology And Social Change Research Centre But what about other factors? • Year by year multivariate analysis - Mobile telephony • Also included - tenure, sex, region, accommodation type (not shown) istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  15. 15. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Comparing effects • Year by year multivariate analysis • Major effects shown istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  16. 16. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Contents • Why do we care? • UK trends in inequality: Access • UK trends in inequality: e-Commerce • Conclusions: Plus ca change? istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  17. 17. Technology And Social Change Research Centre E-commerce Trends I • % bought at least one item online in last 3 months • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All households (left), All households with internet access (right) istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  18. 18. Technology And Social Change Research Centre E-commerce Trends II • Mean number of online purchases in last 3 months • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All households (left), All households with internet access (right) istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  19. 19. Technology And Social Change Research Centre E-commerce Trends III • Mean weekly value of online purchases • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All households (left), All households with internet access (right) istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  20. 20. Technology And Social Change Research Centre E-commerce Trends IV • Mean weekly value of online purchases (divided by income decile) • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All households (left), All households with internet access (right) istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  21. 21. Technology And Social Change Research Centre E-commerce Trends IV (reprise) • Mean weekly value of online purchases (divided by income decile) - 4 Q moving average • Source: Family Expenditure Survey/Expenditure and Food Survey 1996-2006, yearly n approximately 7,500 • Base: All households (left), All households with internet access (right) istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  22. 22. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Contents • Why do we care? • UK trends in inequality: Access • UK trends in inequality: e-Commerce • Conclusions istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  23. 23. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Access: Plus ca change? • For those who have internet access at home: • Mostly market provision -> social stratification persists • Lack of access in non-working, older age groups with low income & ‘social renters’ - persistent Access Gap • Mobile telephony • Purely market provision -> very little social stratification! • Even age effects are diluting - Access Gap is narrowing • Implications? • Public services - media channels and ‘reachable audience’ critical, emphasis on mobiles for access equity? • Justification for ‘mobile’ intervention measures? istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  24. 24. Technology And Social Change Research Centre E-Commerce: conflicting trends? • Given home-based internet access • ‘Lower status’ groups appear less likely to do it • And to purchase fewer items • And to spend less • But their spend, as a proportion of income, appears quite similar (except for the ‘retired’) • Future Research • Are there differences in items purchased? • Does overall consumption increase? • Is there evidence of time vs cost savings at different ends of the income range? Is this what the ‘inactive’ are doing? • How does location of access - home vs ‘institution’ - make a difference? istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex
  25. 25. Technology And Social Change Research Centre Thank you • benander@essex.ac.uk istr.essex.ac.uk/tasc © 2008, University of Essex

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