Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply



Published on



  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. The Effect of Metals and Alloys Annealed and Non-annealed and Their Resistance to Fatigue
  • 2. Since 1934, more than 306 fatal accidents occurred because of metal fatigue. Problems like these are unavoidable, however, any way to prolong materials’ resistance to them are needed. This study involves various metals being annealed and then bent to determine whether or not the annealed metal lasts more bends than the not annealed ones. It was hypothesized that the annealed metals would last more bends before fracture than their non-annealed counterparts. Six different samples of 3 different materials will be used: bronze, aluminum, and copper wires (annealed to 500˚ F and non-annealed). Each one was taken and bent at a 90˚ angle in one direction, then in the other until the piece broke into 2 pieces. This cycle was repeated until all 24 were tested. The independent variable was whether the material was annealed or not, the dependent being the number of times the sample was bended before breaking. Although more testing will be necessary. The hypothesis was supported by the data collected, as all the annealed metals lasted more bends than that of the metals not annealed. It is now confident that annealing does have a positive effect on metals’ resistance to fatigue. However, this experiment was harder to perform than originally thought, as the first trial’s samples were incorrectly bent, forcing me to have to discard them and have 1 less trial. If this technique of annealing was applied to anything that is under constant stress such as planes, boats, buildings, etc. then they would potentially last longer saving materials and time in the future. It would save lives too for the people unfortunate enough to get trapped within one of these damaged structures. Although this is one step into improving metals resistance to fracture and overall durability, it is more than likely that this could play a part in a future experiment to further improve this further.
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
  • 3. Annealing is the process of heating a material to high temperatures and then cooling. It aligns the structure, adding malleability and flexibility.
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
    What does annealing metals or alloys do?
    What is fatigue?
    • Fatigue is a fracture that occurs due to cyclic loading on a material.
    What is an alloy?
    An alloy is a solid solution of multiple elements
    What is malleability?
    The extent to which solid materials may be deformed.
    What is load?
    The forces applied to a structure.
  • 4. 306 aircraft since 1934 suffered fatal accidents due to metal fatigue
    Of the 2700 liberty ships built in WWII, 400 were found to have been fatigued
    Buildings and any other metal-built structures are at risk
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
  • 5. To find better ways to prevent catastrophic failure such as previously mentioned
    Save lives and money for future damage
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
  • 6. If metals and alloys are annealed and their malleability is increased, would that improve their resistance to fatigue?
    When metals and alloys are annealed, it would take a longer amount of times and more load being put on it before it would fracture.
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
    Hypothesis/Problem Statement
  • 7. Independent- The different metals or alloys being used, annealed and non-annealed and different metals/alloys.
    Dependent-Number of loads put on before fracture occurs
    Controls-All non-annealed metals and alloys
    Constants- Temperatures at which metals are annealed (500 ˚F, load put on each material (same measure each is bent), same size and shape of every material
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
  • 8. Bend each of the metals and alloys at a 90˚ angle then set straight to 180˚ and repeated
    Do this for each material of both the annealed and non-annealed counterpart
    Repeat for each sample (Aluminum, copper, and bronze)
    For each set of alloys and metals, repeat for a total of 3 times
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
  • 9. Ben Staniewicz Period 6
    Data Table/Results
  • 10. Data: Part 2
    Number of Bends Before Fracture
  • 11. Data correctly taken and immediately recorded
    Multiple trials were performed, to ensure validity
    Easily reproducible
    It is possible that there was error because it was not entirely controlled
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
    Conduct of Study
  • 12. Samples may not have been bent at 90˚ exact, putting more pressure on 1 piece than another
    Certain metals were harder to bend than others, requiring more force to be put on them, further straying results
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
  • 13. Ensure that metals/alloys are bent to 90˚
    This would be done easily by using a piece of machinery to bend each one
    Have different and more metals in this experiment
    This could be done by making more metals participate, hopefully with closer malleability to eachother
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
    Recommendations to prove errors
  • 14. Data does seem to support hypothesis
    All annealed materials lasted more bends than the non annealed ones.
    Aluminum: 28, 26, and 27 bends before fracture.
    Annealed, it withstood 35, 36 and 35 bends before fracture.
    Copper: 38, 39 ,40 bends before fracture
    Annealed, it withstood 45, 44 ,and 46 bends
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
  • 15. As technology progresses and as the advancements put in place by this experiment are used, there will be far less metal fatigue.
    Although it is unavoidable, this will drastically reduce the amount of failure from this.
    This will, in turn, save countless sums of money, save people from the frustration of this happening (and the extra work to replace it), and possibly even save lives in the process.
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
  • 16. This shows that annealing does improve the metal’s resistance to fatigue
    With further testing to further prove it, it can be applied to those technologies which although costing more short-term, long-term costs will be saved
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
  • 17. Volti, Rudi. "metal fatigue." Science Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 8 Nov. 2010. <>.
    Kren, Lawrence. "Cracking the case of fatigue failure. (Stress and structures)."Machine Design 22 Nov. 2001: 50. Gale Science In Context. Web. 8 Nov. 2010.
    "New technique creates complex structures." Science Online. Facts On File, Inc. Web. 8 Nov. 2010. <>.
    Ben Staniewicz Period 6
    Works Cited