Our presentation this week is on the topic of Heritage and Urban Character. We feel this topic was given a good introduction last week with the discussion about examples of heritage sites adding to urban character. Tonight we will complement that work by focusing on how heritage and urban character in the CBD are framed by the City of Melbourne. We will then look at the CBD with its imminent expansion into Carlton South, and hazard a guess as to how the processes of urban change will impact on the idea and experience of “place”. We have reproduced this image of an artist’s impression of the Windsor Hotel redevelopment as our title slide because it contrasts how contemporary global city aspirations are integrated (or not) with a recognised heritage site. Here the Windsor is dwarfed in the foreground. This raises the question, “What place does heritage have in urban character?”
We will look at Urban Character & Policy in three parts IN Part 1 Lan will address the first question from the tutorial last week: “How is the heritage of Melbourne defined?” She look at the current definition of Heritage and the proposed planning scheme amendment C186, “the Central City (Hoddle Grid) Heritage Review”, which highlights how heritage has been created and what it represents to the City of Melbourne. In Part 2 Nor will look at the second question covered last week, “What social and cultural processes help define places and communities?” First she will define urban character and look give some context to its creation and who the City of Melbourne intend it for. She will then look at Amendment C188 – Central City Built Form which provides design guidelines for development with a view to shaping urban character, and see what relation these guidelines have to heritage. This provides a working definition of heritage. In part 3 we look to answer the third tutorial question, How do we interpret 'places'? (Ben) by looking at the impact of C196 – City North Structure Plan on an area in Carlton that is to be included in the capital city zone. This change in zone will fundamentally change the urban character of several blocks adjacent the city and impact on existing heritage sites. In transforming a relatively non-descript area of land into an extension of the Capital City Zone, it demonstrates how places, like heritage are created and interpreted for us. We believe that these three planning scheme amendments demonstrate that heritage needs to be understood in a hierarchy of place meanings defined by the City of Melbourne, and that it is acknowledged as having relatively limited but significant impact on future urban character in Carlton South.
Last week, the presentation displayed some heritage sites to demonstrate what heritage is, and how it contributed to urban character for the Queen Vic Market, the Hoddle Grid lay out and Flinders Station. We are taking a broader approach by looking how all heritage sites are defined by policy and in relation to the built environment in general.
Within the current Melbourne Planning Scheme, the Heritage Overlay (Clause 43.01) and the Local Policy at Clause 22.04 – Heritage Places within the Capital City Zone aim to ensure that development does not adversely affect the significance of heritage places. Within the scheme, heritage places include individual heritage sites (including the listed heritage item and its associated land), as well as a number of heritage precincts . We have bolded some text here to highlight that Heritage is significant in that it makes Melbourne attractive. In this statement Heritage is aligned with the charm of having a lot of old buildings conveying a distinctive historical character. In this first photo we see the ANZ Gothic Bank on Colins St which is an example of a heritage site and the next photo shows “The Block” , an example of a heritage precinct. The final photos show the Queen Victoria Market which was covered last week. An example of how heritage is protected through policy is the Design and Development Overlay that ensures that a low scale built form character is a key characteristic of the Queen Victoria Precinct.
This map shows heritage sites spread across Melbourne’s CBD in orange and 10 heritage precincts outlined in red. They reflect a range of historical periods, some of which are listed here. It is worth noting the diversity of the built form: there are over 30 types of architecture styles represented across these sites. The precincts aren’t specifically representative of the key development periods. Some of the major Historical and Architectural events include: 1830’s: the Hoddle’s Grid 1850’s: first public railway (If short of time skip the following) 1860s: NeoGothic 1880’s: Gold rush and land boom, Victorian architecture, 'Marvellous Melbourne‘, a world city with suburban rail network 1890’s: Stock market Crash & highest skyscraper in southern hemisphere (Australian Building) 1900’s: Federal capital; population around 1 million people 1920-30s: Inter-War Art Deco 1960s: Much of early Melbourne character destroyed after the 1956 Olympic games by a wave of modernism and Internationalism 1990s: Postmodern architecture http://www.walkingmelbourne.com/architectural_guide.html (over 30 architectural styles)
Here is the Heritage Overlay Map. It highlights heritage places that are listed in the schedule. A Heritage Place has been designated with protection under the Melbourne Planning Scheme. A property shown on the schedule and map in the planning scheme is means that a planning permit is required to subdivide the land, construct a building or construct or carry out works, externally alter a building, externally paint the building if the schedule specifies external paint controls apply. A Heritage Place could include an individual site, a precinct area covering many sites, buildings, structures, archaeological sites, trees, gardens, The majority of the buildings within a precinct are graded heritage buildings, although modern or new buildings are also located within a heritage precinct. http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/BuildingandPlanning/Planning/heritageplanning/Pages/HeritageMelbourneplanningscheme.aspx Image Source: http://planningschemes.dpcd.vic.gov.au/melbourne/map.html#
The identification, assessment, and citation of heritage places has been undertaken as part of an ongoing heritage conservation process and their recognition and protection have been a crucial component of planning in Melbourne since 1985. C186 is considered the finalisation of this process as review all previous studies and and seek to have 99 properties added to the Heritage overlay. See page 11 of: http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/BuildingandPlanning/Planning/planningschemeamendments/Documents/AmendmentC186/C180_AND_C186_Pt1_Intro.pdf http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/BuildingandPlanning/Planning/planningschemeamendments/Documents/AmendmentC186/C186_Explanatory_Report.pdf http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/BuildingandPlanning/Planning/planningschemeamendments/Documents/AmendmentC186/C180_AND_C186_Pt1_Intro.pdf
There are a number of forces that contribute to the creation of urban character and we will highlight a few here by answering the question: What social and cultural processes help define communities and places?
Urban Character goes by a few names: Place identity, the character of the city, Urban form and character, Neighbourhood Character Urban Character is about the social and physical relations between people and built form. It is hard to define. It belongs to the public and at the same time to vested interests, in the context of changes to the social or built form, qualities or amenities of urban places. Urban character is multifaceted: It is usually recognisable character produced by a continuity or consistency of characteristics of social relations and built form. Urban character is like heritage and not static. It appears in urban or suburban contexts to describe current, past or desired socio-spatial states, and it can be — it can be damaged or enhanced by further intensification. Urban character is constructed in that it reflects the interests that it serves as much as it reflects any specific quality of place. The way in which a site contributes to character of an area can be contested as the idea of a place can impact the use or physical form. Last week the presentation included discussion on how an individual may experience urban character with a reference to Lynch’s design elements, as well as how a particular site, such as the Victoria Market is identified as a heritage site and adds to the character of an area. Our discussion will focus more on the Urban design strategy and the regulatory frameworks that have a major impact on maintaining or developing the character of a defined area. That is a focus on the production of urban character by the City of Melbourne, and it consumption by those who come into contact with it. (Dovey 2004, 9) http://www.abp.unimelb.edu.au/research/pdf/The_Character_of_Urban_Intensification_2011.pdf
Here are some of the ways in which Urban Character is understood:
Beyond the City of Melbourne’s official urban character, there are so many ways to view urban character, depending on who you are, it is useful to look at the development of public space in the city to see how that contributes to the universal experience of place and what is referred to as “liveability”. The 1985 Strategy Plan formed the foundation for the subsequent two decades of the city’s urban renewal. Culminating in publications such as Grids and Greenery (1987), which represented the first documented strategic direction for urban design, the 1985 plan presented a development framework and implementation priorities for land use, movement, built form, community services, city structure and the physical environment. That was followed by Places for People: Melbourne City 1994 , which incorporated both analysis and a set of overall recommendations. This was followed up with Places for People in 2004. The impact of two decades of are listed here. This was replaced in 2006 with “ Toward a Better Public Melbourne”: The City of Melbourne in 2020 will be inclusive and safe and will exhibit outstanding design qualities and sense of place, ensuring a socially, environmentally, culturally and economically sustainable future for its people.
Amendment C188 – Central City Built Form This is the current built form strategy pursued by the City of Melbourne. It focuses on identifying provisions that: · Maintain and enhance the quality of the public domain · Strengthen sense of place and accommodate anticipated demand for redevelopment and additional floor space (City of Melbourne 2011, 7) A significant tool of the strategy is the Building design guidelines that reflect the existing character while facilitating new development. It is worth noting that Heritage is accounted for only via Strategy 5 (Character Areas) and in the building controls acknowledgement of the heritage fabric. (City of Melbourne 2011, 64)
Here the City of Melbourne outlines the built form’s contribution to the city’s urban character and it’s relationship to heritage. Heritage informs the built form of the city and vice versa. “ The location of heritage sites/precincts, civic/ public open space and major civic buildings is often an indication as to why specific height controls exist” Similarly, Buildings must respect the character of surrounding heritage buildings and areas through scale, massing and form.
The Built form review is aligned with the history of development in the CBC. These images highlight the gradual evolution of built form, from the Victorian era through to preferred future development. Significantly the focus is on “evolution” as a preferred mechanism for change. Providing a sense of Place needs to evolutionary.
So far we have outlined what heritage means and its function, how it is implemented, its current state via the heritage overlay, how the controls work with in the development of the built form. We have also touched on how urban character is context dependent on the definition of publics and communities that share the space and how urban strategy, planning policy and urban design are the most appropriate means of understanding urban character and heritage.
So far we have outlined what heritage means and its function, how it is implemented, its current state via the heritage overlay, how the controls work with in the development of the built form. We have also touched on how many publics and communities share the space and how urban strategy, planning policy and urban deign are the most appropriate means of understanding urban character and heritage. I will now turn briefly to our assignment topic with a view to looking at what questions this line of thinking invites. First, here’s the area. The Blue in this map highlights the current zoning of the CBD and immediate surrounds. The Capital City Zone in the CBD is, in a nutshell, the regulates land use with as of right uses for apartments, education, offices, retail, restaurants. On the right is an image of the anticipat If we return to 22.04 of the planning scheme that Lan read out, the scheme aims to conserve and enhance heritage precincts by ensuring that any new development within the precinct complements the intrinsic character, scale , form and appearance of the area. This is directly at odds with the Ministers intention to increase urban development and remove height controls.
It is the State Planning Minister, Matthew Guy’s vision to expand the central business district and encourage high-rise towers from Carlton to the Shrine, and from Richmond to the West Gate Bridge. It is his solution to solve greater Melbourne’s long term population/housing issue and more significantly is a part of a vision for a particular type of city and coul d “see the city transformed into a Manhattan-style metropolis, five times its present size.” It is contrary to the City of Melbourne current urban character with its Global City Aspirations as based on being a city for the people and a compact city. Six key goals have been set to achieve this vision: 1.A city for people 2.A prosperous city 3.An eco-city 4.A knowledge city 5.A creative city 6.A connected city All this raises the question, what will be the impact of the idea of “place”? http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/doyle-backs-bold-city-expansion-plans-20120217-1tcuj.htmlhttp://www.theage.com.au/victoria/doyle-backs-bold-city-expansion-plans-20120217-1tcuj.html http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/more-news/mega-melbourne-plan-for-skyscrapers/story-fn7x8me2-1226273223639
Carlton A Vision 2010 , an Integrated Local Area Plan published by the City of Melbourne outlines the current Urban character and heritage of Carlton, prior to capital city expansion. It states four goals: – Conserve character of urban environment – Ensure services for residents and students – Regional and global roles in international education, R&D, medical and tourism – Enhance Precincts The urban character could be currently be described as • 19th Century Building and Streetscapes, squares and gardens
The Plan provides a framework to guide the development of City North as an extension of the Central City and consolidate the State significant knowledge precinct with a range of commercial, residential and retail activities. To create a precinct with a 6 to 15 storey built form scale as characterised by the university, research and medical buildings, stepping down at the interface to the lowerscale surrounding established neighbourhoods. To create a central city precinct with a scale of buildings distinct from the very tall built form in the Hoddle Grid area to the south. Development will occur in accordance with design guidelines that create a similar effect on public space & heritage to those in the CBD
What are the prospects for regulating urban places that are not identified by their uniformities or consistencies? If a valued urban character is produced by an unregulated market then what is the role of regulation in protecting it? And to what degree can character or heritage be a cover for market-led development? Tonight we will complement that work done last week by focusing on how heritage and urban character in the CBD are framed by the City of Melbourne. We then looked at the CBD with its imminent expansion into Carlton South, looked at how the processes of urban change will impact on the idea and experience of “place”.
Carlton south heritage & urban character talk
City of MelbourneHeritage, Urban Character & The Expansion of The Capital City Zone Windsor Hotel Development – Artist Impression. Image Source: http://www.melbourneheritage.org.au/news/
PART ONE – HERITAGE How is heritage defined by the City of Melbourne? We look at current policy and the proposed Planning Scheme Amendment C186 – Central City (Hoddle Grid) Heritage Review which looks to add up to 99 sites for heritage protection.PART TWO – URBAN CHARACTER What social and cultural processes help define places and communities? We look at some constructions of the urban character and the proposed Amendment C188 – Central City Built Form which proposes how Melbourne city should feel and function at street level.PART THREE – FUTURE HERITAGE AND URBAN CHARACTER How do we interpret places? We look at the proposed Planning Scheme Amendment C196 – City North Structure Plan and hazard to guess what this will mean to the area of Carlton that will be added to the Capital City Zone in terms of “place”, specifically the changes to urban character and heritage.
PART ONE – HERITAGEHow is the heritage defined by the City of Melbourne?
Heritage in the Capital City ZoneMelbourne Planning Scheme,Clause 22.04“The heritage of the Capital City Zonearea, comprising individual buildings,precincts, significant trees, and aboriginalarchaeological sites, is a significant partof Melbourne’s attraction as a place inwhich to live, visit, do business andinvest. It is also important for culturaland sociological reasons, providing adistinctive historical character and asense of continuity. Much ofMelbourne’s charm is provided by itsolder buildings, which, while notalways of high individual significance,together provide cultural significanceor interest, and should be retained intheir three dimensional form, not as twodimensional facades as has sometimesoccurred .”
Heritage PrecinctsThe key development periods are:1. Frontier Town: to 1852 4. The City Beautiful: 1900-19292. Gold: 1952-1859 5. The New Image: 1930-19563. Boom and bust: 1860-1900 6. The Urban Spurt: 1956-1975
Heritage Production in Capital City ZoneThe Heritage Overlay,Clause 43.01Heritage precincts and sites are identified in the Heritage OverlayHeritage Places and elements of the city that contribute to heritage places have statutory protectionThe Heritage Overlay outlines how the site is to be treatedThe majority of the buildings within a precinct will be graded heritage buildings
Planning Scheme Amendment C186 Central City (Hoddle Grid) Heritage Review Major heritage reviews have been conducted by the City of Melbourne in 1985, 1993, 2002 Planning Scheme Amendment C186 – Central City (Hoddle Grid) Heritage Review is the latest in 2011 C186 reviews all previous studies and seeks to have 99 properties added to the Heritage overlay. The Amendment has been on hold with the Planning Minister the same time as he prepares to unveil his plans to increase CBD density even further.
PART TWO – URBAN CHARACTERWhat social and cultural processes help define communities and places?
Defining Urban CharacterUrban character is about the social and physical relations between people and built form (Dovey, 2004).Urban character is multifaceted and contradictory: – Public Realm & Vested Interest – Continuity & Change – Dynamic & Static – Constructed & Intrinsic – Contestable & Defined by policy – Scale – Local Vs Global etcUrban design and regulatory frameworks have a major impact on the character of the city
City of Melbourne: Sense of PlaceUrban Character is dependent on context and scale:Policy Basis The Municipal Strategic Statement provides broad urban characteristics Local Policy on Urban Design is about the experiencePlace Marketing Melbourne as one of the most liveable cities of the world is attractive to visitors.Audience Contexts International audience – tourists, students, investors Residents – increased numbers changing the character of the city Local city visitors – workers, shoppers, event attendees etc
Urban Character and Public SpaceThe Impact of Urban Design on UrbanCharacter: Places for People 2004 – A larger residential community – An increasing student population – Improved streets for public life – New squares, promenades and parks – A revitalised network of lanes and arcades – More places to sit and pause – City-wide art programs – Attractions and places to go – A 24-hour city – Better cycle and public transport access – An integrated policy for street treatment and furniture – A greener city – A remarkable increase in public life
Amendment C188 – Central City Built FormBuilt Form Strategy 2011 Building Design Guidelines The built form impacts on economics that drive development in a number of ways. The Built Form Strategy identifies a preferred built form for the whole CBD as the individual precincts, and supports those public realm assets by addressing : p height h scale s setbacks s percentage of activation at lower levels l location of building services l incorporation of heritage fabric i parking provision - podiums vs basement, crossovers b intensity of development
Character, Built Form and Heritage“Built form controls have successfully maintained an attractive, fine grain, pedestrian-scale environment, despite some minor breaches of the controls. The location of heritage sites/precincts, civic/ public open space and major civic buildings is often an indication as to why specific height controls exist” (See the map opposite)(City of Melbourne 2011, 24)The Retail Core 40m height control area has become a valued part of this character. The Review proposes re-conceptualising this as a Civic Core, and extending it along Elizabeth and Swanston Streets.(City of Melbourne 2011, 20) Note: These pink/purple colours highlight the Special Height Control Areas are intrinsic aspects of Melbourne’s sense of place and identity.
Evolution of Urban CharacterThe preferred built form therefore provides a human scale street environment that feels safe, engages interest and feels welcoming. To provide a sense of place, it needs to be evolutionary, to maintain a sense of continuity with the familiar, and build on those aspects of Melbourne that people know and love. (City of Melbourne 2011, 8)
PART THREE – FUTURE HERITAGE AND URBAN CHARACTERHow do we interpret places?
Capital City Zone ExpansionExisting Capital City Zone Land affected by the amendment includes Carlton South
Processes of Urban ChangePlanning Scheme Amendment C196 – City North Structure PlanIt is the State Planning Minister, Matthew Guy’s vision to expand the central business district and encourage high-rise towers from Carlton to the Shrine, and from Richmond to the West Gate BridgeIt is his solution to solve greater Melbourne’s long term population/housing issue.It is contrary to the City of Melbourne current urban character with its Global City Aspirations as based on being a city for the people and a compact city.It implements changes to the zone from Mixed Use to Capital City Zone, the schedule to the zone and building controls
Urban Character & Heritage: CarltonCarlton A Vision 2010, an Integrated Local Area PlanCurrent State:• 19th Century Building and Streetscapes, squares and gardens• Major Education, research, medical, cultural and sporting facilities• Culturally diverse residents including Lygon St Cultural precinct• According to locals, the built form and character are important: – Local Area as Village – Streetscape proportions – Sense of openness – Streets for walking – Local area amenity• The area where th CCZ is to be expanded is mainly mixed use, with some public use zones and some heritage sites
Current Building Stock& HeritageThe current heritage overlay contains a few dozen sites.They are mainly Victorian houses along Grattan and Peel Streets, and the oldest factories.A review of heritage sites conducted in 2011 was done of the heritage in the area and many factory and warehouse buildings of the Interwar period and some WWII were assessed and recommended for addition to the overlay.Heritage additions significant contribution to urban character as the number of sites reflect former use and development of the suburb.
Planning Scheme Amendment C196 – City NorthThe Planning scheme amendment provides a framework to guide the development Capital City Functions as an extension of the CBD as a knowledge and innovation precinctTo create a precinct with a 6 to 15 storey built form scale as characterised by the university, research and medical buildings, stepping down at the interface to the lowerscale surrounding established neighbourhoods.To create a central city precinct with a scale of buildings distinct from the very tall built form in the Hoddle Grid area to the south.Development will occur in accordance with design guidelines that create a similar effect on public space & heritage to those in the CBD
Development, Heritage & Urban CharacterThe proposed development in City North/Carlton South will impact the Heritage and Urban Character.Lack of recognised heritage or urban characterUrban Character is multifaceted and like heritage, it needs to defined to be protected.If urban character evolves, what impact will the City North frame work have on continuity?While a sense of place, urban character and heritage are contestable, they are inextricable from physical form.