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Unit 07   The Cold War Era

Unit 07 The Cold War Era






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    Unit 07   The Cold War Era Unit 07 The Cold War Era Presentation Transcript

    • With Mr. Luzadder 5th Grade Plain ElementarySimpsonville, South Carolina
    • • The student will demonstrate an understanding of the social, economic, and political events that influenced the United States Standard 5-5 during the Cold War era. Indicators • Summarize the impact of cultural developments in the United States following World War II, including the significance of pop 5-5.1 culture and mass media and the population shifts to the suburbs. (G, H) • Summarize changes in the United States economy following World War II, including the expanding job market and service 5-5.2 industry, consumerism, and new technology. (E, P, H) • Explain the course of the Cold War, including differing economic and political philosophies of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 5-5.4 (USSR) and the United States, the spread of Communism, McCarthyism, the Korean Conflict, the Berlin Wall, the space race, the Cuban missile crisis, and the Vietnam War. (P, G, E, H) • Explain the political alliances and policies that impacted the United States in the latter part of the twentieth century, including the North 5-5.5 Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the United Nations, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). (P, H, E, G) 5-SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST 2
    • The 1950s World War II 4
    • Arts & LiteratureMovies Book• Fantasia (1940) • Curious George• Citizen Kane (1941) Comics• Lassie Come Home (1942) • Superman• Bambi (1942) • Batman• Casablanca (1943) • Captain AmericaRadio Programs Songs• Dick Tracy • “Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy” • “I’m Dreaming of a White Christmas” • “Zip-A-Dee-Dooh-Dah” • “You Are My Sunshine”WORLD WAR II 5
    • What’s New1940 1947• Penicillin • The Slinky• Morton Salt • Elmers Glue• Tiffany’s become the first fully air- 1948 conditioned store. • The transistor• M & Ms • Polaroid camera1945 1949• The first atomic bomb was tested • Silly Putty1946 • The first atomic clock• Electric blanketWORLD WAR II 6
    • Births & Deaths1940 1946• Jack Nicklaus is born • Bill Clinton is born1941 1947• Jesse Jackson is born • Steven Spielberg is born• Wilma Rudolph is born • Henry Ford dies• Lou Gehrig dies 19481942 • Prince Charles is born• Muhammed Ali is born • Orville Wright dies• Aretha Franklin is born • Babe Ruth dies1943• Arthur Ashe is born• George Washington Carver diesWORLD WAR II 7
    • What Happened1940 1947• Winston Churchill becomes prime • The Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered minister of Great Britain. 19481941 • The Jewish state of Israel is• Japan bombs Pearl Harbor. proclaimed1944 • The Olympic Games are held in• Allied forces land at Normandy London1945 1949• Mussolini is killed • NATO is established• Hitler commits suicide • The Soviet Union tests its first atomic• Germany surrenders bomb.• Japan surrendersWORLD WAR II 8
    • U.S. Population1850 23,191,876 1940 132,122,4461860 31,443,321 1950 152,271,4171870 38,555,983 1960 180,671,1581880 50,189,209 1970 205,052,1741890 62,947,714 1980 227,224,6811900 76,094,000 1990 249,438,7121910 92,407,000 2000 281,421,9061920 106,461,000 2010 308,745,5381930 123,076,741WORLD WAR II 9
    • Average Wages1930 $ 1,970.00* .1940 $ 1,725.00*1950 $ 2,799.16*1960 $ 4,007.121970 $ 6,186.241980 $12,513.461990 $21,027.982000 $32,154.002010 $40,711.61*http://www.ssa.gov/oact/cola/AWI.html*ApproximatedWORLD WAR II 10
    • Cost of a New Home Median Average .1930 $ 3,845*1940 $ 3,920*1950 $ 8,450*1960 $ 12,700*1970 $ 23,6001980 $ 62,900 $ 72,4001990 $125,000 $151,7002000 $163,500 $200,0002010 $218,000 $283,400http://www.census.gov/const/uspricemon.pdf *ApproximatedWORLD WAR II 11
    • Average Cost of a New Car1930 $600.00 .1940 $850.001950 $1,510.001960 $2,610.001970 $3,450.001980 $7,200.001990 $16,950.0020002010http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/WORLD WAR II 12
    • Average Cost of a Gallon of Gas1930 $ .10 .1940 $ .111950 $ .181960 $ .251970 $ .361980 $1.191990 $1.342000 $1.492010 $2.78WORLD WAR II 13
    • Average Cost of a Loaf of Bread1930 $ .09 .1940 $ .101950 $ .121960 $ .221970 $ .251980 $ .501990 $ .7020002010http://www.thepeoplehistory.comWORLD WAR II 14
    • Average Cost of 1lb. Of Hamburger1930 $ .12 .1940 $ .201950 $ .301960 $ .451970 $ .701980 $ .991990 $ .8920002010http://www.thepeoplehistory.comWORLD WAR II 15
    • Average Cost of a Movie Ticket1910 $ .07 .1920 $ .25*1930 $ .35*1940 $ .241950 $ .46*1960 $ .51*1970 $1.551980 $2.691990 $4.232000 $5.392010 $7.89WORLD WAR II 16
    • Cost of a Postage Stamp to Send 1 oz.1930 $ .02 .1940 $ .031950 $ .031960 $ .041970 $ .071980 $ .151990 $ .252000 $ .332010 $ .44WORLD WAR II 17
    • Life Expectancy Average Life Expectancy Average Life Expectancy After Age 65 Men Women Men Women1900 47.9 49.2 1900 + 11.5 + 12.21910 49.9 53.2 1910 + 11.2 + 12.01920 55.5 57.4 1920 + 12.2 + 12.71930 58.1 61.6 1930 + 11.7 + 12.81940 60.8 65.2 1940 + 12.7 + 14.71950 65.6 71.1 1950 + 13.1 + 16.21960 66.6 73.1 1960 + 13.2 + 17.41970 67.1 74.7 1970 + 13.8 + 18.61980 70.0 77.4 1980 + 14.6 + 19.11990 71.8 78.8 1990 + 15.3 + 19.62000 74.3 79.7 20002010 2010http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005148.html http://www.ssa.gov/history/lifeexpect.htmlWORLD WAR II 18
    • National Debt1850 $ 63,452,773.55 1950 $ 257,357,352,351.041860 $ 64,842,287.88 1960 $ 286,330,760,848.371870 $ 2,480,672,427.81 1970 $ 370,918,706,949.931880 $ 2,120,415,370.63 1980 $ 907,701,000,000.00*1890 $ 1,552,140,204.73 1990 $ 3,233,313,451,777.251900 $ 2,136,961,091.67 2000 $ 5,674,178,209,886.861910 $ 2,652,665,838.04 2010 $13,561,623,030,891.791920 $ 25,952,456,406.161930 $ 16,185,309,831.431940 $ 42,967,531,037.68WORLD WAR II 19
    • The Cold War Era The Cold War Era 20
    • Essential Questions What concerns did the United States have concerning Europe following World War II?THE COLD WAR ERA 21
    • The Cold War• The Cold War was a struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union from the late 1940s to the early 1990s that was fought with ideas, words, and money, but with no direct conflict between the two countries.• The Soviet Union was a communist country.• Communism is a political and economic system in which the government owns all businesses and land.THE COLD WAR ERA 22
    • The Cold War• The Truman Doctrine was the strategy that the United States would use to keep communism from spreading.• The Marshall Plan was a program under which the United States provided funds to help European countries rebuild after World War II.THE COLD WAR ERA 23
    • The United Nations The United Nations is an international organization formed in 1945 to promote peace and end conflict.THE COLD WAR ERA 24
    • The United NationsMap of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized bythe UN. Non-members shown: Vatican City, Palestinian territories, WesternSahara. 25
    • The United Nations United Nations General Assembly hall in New York City. 26
    • The United Nations The interior of the Security Council chambers. The Security Council is charged with maintaining peace and security among countries. The Security Council is made up of 15 member states, including 5 permanent members: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United 27 States.
    • The United Nations “Knotted Gun” outside the United Nations headquarters. 28
    • The United Nations The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO, is a military alliance among the nations of Western Europe and the United States in which they agreed to help each other if attacked by the Soviet Union.THE COLD WAR ERA 29
    • The United Nations NATO countries in blue (2009)RECONSTRUCTION 30
    • Essential Questions What was the Berlin Airlift?THE COLD WAR ERA 31
    • The Berlin Airlift East & West Germany 32
    • The Berlin Airlift• Berlin was located 100 miles inside the Soviet occupation zone. Like the country of Germany, Berlin, the former capital of Germany, was divided into four sectors.• A formal agreement was never made with the Soviet Union allowing access to Berlin by road or train.• On April 1, 1948, the Soviets began restricting traffic between the American, British and French occupation zones and Berlin. They also announced that no cargo could leave Berlin by rail without the permission of the Soviet commander.THE COLD WAR ERA 33
    • The Berlin Airlift• On June 24, the Soviets severed communications between the non-Soviet zones and Berlin. They also stopped all rail and barge traffic in and out of the city.• On June 25, the Soviets cut off electricity and stopped supplying food to the civilian population in the non-Soviet sectors of Berlin.• Automobiles were allowed to go to the western zones from Berlin, but this required a 14 mile detour to a ferry crossing.THE COLD WAR ERA 34
    • The Berlin Airlift• The United States and Great Britain flew over 200,000 flights that provided 13,000 tons of food daily. Seventeen American and eight British aircraft crashed during the airlift. A total 101 people were killed in the operation.THE COLD WAR ERA 35
    • The Berlin Airlift C-47s unloading at Tempelhof Airport in Berlin during the Berlin Airlift. 36
    • The Berlin Airlift Berlin civilians watching an airlift plane land at Templehof Airport in 1948 37
    • The Berlin Wall• The Berlin Wall was a barrier built by East Germany that completely enclosed the city of West Berlin, separating it from East Germany, including East Berlin. The wall included guard towers and large concrete walls. East Germany began building the wall in August of 1961.• There were eight border crossings between East and West Berlin, which allowed visits into East Berlin by West Berliners, West Germans, Western foreigners and citizens of other socialist countries, if they received the necessary permission.THE COLD WAR ERA 38
    • The Berlin Wall• While the Berlin Wall existed, around 5,000 people successfully defected to West Berlin. During these same years, at least 136 deaths of people trying to defect from East Germany have been confirmed.THE COLD WAR ERA 39
    • The Berlin Wall East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall in 1961 40
    • The Berlin Wall East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall in 1961 41
    • The Berlin Wall Eastern Bloc countries, also known as Communist Bloc countries or Soviet Bloc countries, were Eastern European communist countries that aligned themselves with the Soviet Union. 42
    • Essential Questions What was the Korean War?THE COLD WAR ERA 43
    • The Korean War• The Korean War was a military conflict between the Republic of Korea, backed by the United Nations, and the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, backed by China and the Soviet Union. The war began in June of 1950 and an armistice was signed in July of 1953.THE COLD WAR ERA 44
    • Essential Questions What was the Red Scare?THE COLD WAR ERA 45
    • The Red Scare• Joseph McCarthy was a senator from Wisconsin. In 1950 he gave a speech in which he claimed that communists were working in the State Department. His accusation was investigated by a Senate committee but was found to be groundless. Undeterred, McCarthy continued his battle by accusing various public figures of being communists often with little, if any, evidence.THE COLD WAR ERA 46
    • The Red ScareMcCarthyism is “the practice of makingaccusations of disloyalty, especially of pro-Communist activity, in many instancesunsupported by proof or based on slight,doubtful, or irrelevant evidence.”Source: "mccarthyism." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 09 Apr.2012. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mccarthyism>.THE COLD WAR ERA 47
    • Essential Questions What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?THE COLD WAR ERA 48
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis• The Cuban Missile Crisis was a time of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over nuclear missiles in Cuba.THE COLD WAR ERA 49
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis On October 14, 1962, a U-2 spy plane piloted by Major Richard S. Heyser photographed the Soviet military installing nuclear warhead missiles in Cuba. 50
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis Adlai Stevenson shows aerial photos of Cuban missiles to the United Nations in November 1962. 51
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis U-2 reconnaissance photo, Cuba, 1962 52
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis Rudolf Anderson, Jr. 53
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis• On a reconnaissance flight over Cuba to photograph the construction of ballistic missile sites and nuclear storage facilities on October 27, Major Rudolf Anderson, Jr. was shot down by a Soviet SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile. He was the only direct human casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was flying a U-2 spy plane.THE COLD WAR ERA 54
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis The Lockheed U-2R/TR-1 is single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude (70,000 feet) surveillance aircraft flown by the United States Air Force. 55
    • The Cuban Missile Crisis 56
    • The Berlin Wall Rudolf Anderson, Jr. received the first Air Force Iron Cross ever awarded. The Iron Cross is the second highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of the United States Air Force. 57
    • Air Force Cross CitationThe President of the United States of America, authorized by Title 10, Section 8742,United States Code, takes pride in presenting the Air Force Cross (Posthumously) toMajor Rudolf Anderson, Jr., United States Air Force, for extraordinary heroism inconnection with military operations against an armed enemy while serving as Pilot of aU-2 airplane with the 4080th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, Strategic Air Command(SAC), from 15 October 1962 to 27 October 1962. During this period of great nationalcrisis, Major Anderson, flying an unescorted, unarmed aircraft, lost his life whileparticipating in one of several aerial reconnaissance missions over Cuba. Whileexecuting these aerial missions, Major Anderson made photographs which provided theUnited States government with conclusive evidence of the introduction of long-rangeoffensive missiles into Cuba and which materially assisted our leaders in charting thenations military and diplomatic course. Through his extraordinary heroism, superbairmanship, and aggressiveness in the face of the enemy, Major Anderson reflected thehighest credit upon himself and the United States Air Force.THE COLD WAR ERA 58
    • Rudolf Anderson • Rudolf Anderson Jr. was born in Spartanburg, SC, on September 15, 1927. • He graduated from Greenville High School in 1944. • He graduated from Clemson University in 1948 with a degree in textile engineering. • He and his wife, Frances, had three children. • He was buried at Woodlawn Memorial Park on November 6, 1962 59
    • Rudolf Anderson 60
    • Rudolf AndersonOn May 19, 1963, this F-86 Saber Jet, similar to the ones which he flew in Korea, wasdedicated in his honor. The Saber Jet was Major Anderson’s favorite plane to fly. 61
    • Rudolf Anderson • Dedicated to Major Rudolf Anderson Jr. • Sept. 15, 1927 – Oct. 27, 1962 • In a period of great international stress he performed his duty of great responsibility with honor. He was awarded the distinguished service medal and gave his life that America could proceed on a course toward peace without the threat of tyrants. 62
    • Rudolf Anderson • While on a thirteen mile high reconnaissance mission over Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, On October 27, 1962, Major Rudolf Anderson, Jr., a U-2 pilot, was shot down by a Soviet SA-2 surface-to-air missile. He was the only man of any nationality to lose his life in the conflict and that was the key event that avoided war with the U.S.S.R. • Major Anderson was a senior pilot with over 3,000 hours flying time, of which over 1,000 hours were as a U-2 pilot. • He served in the Korean War as a reconnaissance pilot and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross with two Clusters. 63
    • Rudolf Anderson • President John F. Kennedy awarded Major Anderson the Distinguished Service Medal and the first Air Force Cross posthumously. • Major Anderson’s shoot down and Supreme Sacrifice over Cuba was particularly significant in had this not happened, experts of the Cuban Missile Crisis agree that the United States would have stumbled into a cold war. • On May 19, 1963, this F-86 Saber Jet, similar to the ones which he flew in Korea, was dedicated in his honor and was re-dedicated on its 35 th anniversary, May 19, 1998. The Saber Jet was Major Anderson’s favorite plane to fly. 64
    • Essential Questions What was the Vietnam Conflict?THE COLD WAR ERA 65
    • The Vietnam Conflict• The Vietnam Conflict was a conflict in the 1960s and 1970s in which the United States sent soldiers to South Vietnam to try to prevent communists from taking over the nation.THE COLD WAR ERA 66
    • Essential Questions What was the Space Race?THE COLD WAR ERA 67
    • The Space Race• The space race was a race between the United States and the Soviet Union to explore outer space during the Cold War.THE COLD WAR ERA 68
    • The Space Race John Glenn was the first American astronaut to orbit Earth. 69
    • The Space Race Neil Armstrong was an American astronaut who was the first person to walk on the moon, in 1969. 70
    • The Space Race Neil Armstrong, Alan Shepherd, Buz Aldrin 71
    • The Space Race Neil Armstrong stepping onto the moon’s surface 72
    • The Space Race An American astronaut on the Moon 73