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  1. 1. Computer System Hardware PROCESS INPUT OUTPUT STORAGE
  2. 2. Input Devices <ul><li>An input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a computer ). Input and output devices make up the hardware interface between a computer as a scanner or 6DOF controller . </li></ul><ul><li>Note that direct input is almost necessarily absolute, but indirect input may be either absolute or relative. For example, digitizing Graphics tablets that do not have an embedded screen involve indirect input, and sense absolute positions and are often run in an absolute input mode, but they may also be setup to simulate a relative input mode where the stylus or puck can be lifted and repositioned </li></ul>Next
  3. 3. Input Devices <ul><li>Keyboards </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse </li></ul><ul><li>Joystick & wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging-video-audio devices </li></ul>
  4. 4. Keyboards <ul><li>A keyboard is a human interface device which is represented as a set of buttons. Each button, or key, can be used to either input a linguistic character to a computer, or to call upon a particular function of the computer. Traditional keyboards use spring-based buttons, though newer variations employ virtual keys , or even projected keyboards . </li></ul><ul><li>keyboard is used to type text and numbers into a word processor , text editor or other program. In a modern computer, the interpretation of keypresses is generally left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other and reports all keypresses to the controlling software. </li></ul>Next
  5. 5. Keyboard . . .(cont) <ul><li>Typewriter keys : The standard alphabetic and numeric characters you would find on a typewriter </li></ul><ul><li>Function keys : Special keys that perform some specific function for the application being run </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric keypad : Used for mathematical operations </li></ul><ul><li>Directional keys : Used to move the cursor around the screen </li></ul>Back
  6. 6. Pointing Devices <ul><li>A pointing device is any human interface device that allows a user to input spatial data to a computer. In the case of mice and touch screens, this is usually achieved by detecting movement across a physical surface. Analog devices, such as 3D mice, joysticks , or pointing sticks , function by reporting their angle of deflection. Movements of the pointing device are echoed on the screen by movements of the cursor , creating a simple, intuitive way to navigate a computer's GUI . </li></ul>Back
  7. 7. The Mouse <ul><li>The mouse is a pointing device that rolls around on a flat surface and controls the location of the pointer on the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>The mouse performs the following functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointing: Placing the on-screen pointer at a specific place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clicking: Pressing and releasing the mouse button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dragging: Holding down the mouse button and dragging an object to a new location by dragging the mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-clicking : Pressing and releasing the mouse button twice very quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-clicking: Pressing the right mouse button </li></ul></ul>Back
  8. 8. Joystick and Wheel <ul><ul><li>Joystick and wheel: Joysticks consist of a metal or plastic handle mounted on a base that you can move in any direction to move the pointer or other object. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These typically are used for video games. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most have buttons that can be pushed or clicked to control input/output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trackball : This is like a mouse turned upside down. You roll a ball around with your fingers to control the location of the pointer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These frequently are found on notebook computers. </li></ul></ul></ul>Back
  9. 9. Imaging-Video-audio Input Devices <ul><li>Video input devices are used to digitize images or video from the outside world into the computer. The information can be stored in a multitude of formats depending on the user's requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>In the fashion of video devices, audio devices are used to either capture or create sound. In some cases, an audio output device can be used as an input device, in order to capture produced sound. </li></ul>Bluetooth adapter HOME
  10. 10. Output <ul><li>An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer ) to the outside world. </li></ul><ul><li>In computing, input/output , or I/O, refers to the communication between an information processing system (such as a computer ), and the outside world. Inputs are the signals or data sent to the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent by the system to the outside. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common input devices used by the computer are the keyboard and mouse. The keyboard allows the entry of textual information while the mouse allows the selection of a point on the screen by moving a screen cursor to the point and pressing a mouse button. The most common outputs are monitors and speakers. </li></ul>Next
  11. 11. Output <ul><li>Monitors are used to display video output to a user. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors may be monochromatic or color. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monochromatic monitors display output in a single-color display. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors that influence the quality of a monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen size : The diagonal measurement in inches of the display area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution : The number of pixels that can be displayed in the display area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dot pitch : The distance between each pixel in the display area </li></ul></ul>Next
  12. 12. Output Devices <ul><li>Printers are used to create a hard copy of a document or image. </li></ul><ul><li>Printers vary by speed, quality, and price </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular types of printers are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser: Produce images using the same techniques as copier machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ink jet : Use fine nozzles to spray ink onto the page as the paper passes through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dot matrix : Work similarly to a typewriter in that ink is transferred to the paper by some part of the printer striking a ribbon to transfer an image. </li></ul></ul>HOME
  13. 13. Storage Devices <ul><li>A data storage device is a device for recording (storing) information (data). </li></ul><ul><li>A storage device may hold information, process information, or both. A device that only holds information is a recording medium . Devices that process information (data storage equipment) may either access a separate portable (removable) recording medium or a permanent component to store and retrieve information. </li></ul><ul><li>A storage device may hold information, process information, or both. A device that only holds information is a recording medium . Devices that process information (data storage equipment) may either access a separate portable (removable) recording medium or a permanent component to store and retrieve information. </li></ul>Media storage Personal storage device Data storage Next
  14. 14. Storage Devices <ul><li>Electronic data storage is storage which requires electrical power to store and retrieve that data. Most storage devices that do not require vision and a brain to read data fall into this category. </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic data may be stored in either an analog or digital format on a variety of media. This type of data is considered to be electronically encoded data, whether or not it is electronically stored in a semiconductor device , for it is certain that a semiconductor device was used to record it on its medium. Most electronically processed data storage media (including some forms of computer data storage ) are considered permanent (non-volatile) storage, that is, the data will remain stored when power is removed from the device. In contrast, most electronically stored information within most types of semiconductor (computer chips) microcircuits are volatile memory , for it vanishes if power is removed </li></ul>Home
  15. 15. Computer Process <ul><li>The CPU determines which of </li></ul><ul><li>the millions of switches that it </li></ul><ul><li>contains should be turned on </li></ul><ul><li>or off by processing program </li></ul><ul><li>statements that tell it what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer programs are written in programming languages </li></ul><ul><li>Each program statement causes one or more actions to occur in the CPU. </li></ul>HOME