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Sociology as a humanistic and scientific discipline

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  • 1. CHAPTER 1SOCIOLOGY AS A HUMANISTICAND SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE
  • 2. A. IMPORTANCE OF SOCIOLOGY
  • 3. 1. We become more understanding, broad-minded, and tolerant
  • 4. 2. It enables us to learn the application ofscientific methods and techniques to our dailylife problems.
  • 5. 3. Enables us to see the connection between ourown personal forces in the bigger social worlddaily which influence life.
  • 6. 4. It furnishes interested people andspecialized sciences with principles andscientific data which they can use in theirwork.
  • 7. 5. It undertakes scientific sociologicalresearches and inquiry on immediate andcontemporary social problems
  • 8. 6. It has made great strides in the study ofcriminology, ethnic relation, socialprocesses, the family, population and collectivebehavior.
  • 9. 7. Provides insights into the interrelationshipof human beings within the group so that we maylive in harmony with others.
  • 10. 8. The results of sociological investigationsprovide a better background for meeting andsolving social problems.
  • 11. 9. The results of sociological inquiry can help dispelpopular myths, superstition, and stereotypes with accurateknowledge about human behavior and human societies.
  • 12. 10. It broadens our experiences as we learn todiscard our prejudices and biases as we becomemore understanding and tolerant of the customsof other people.
  • 13. 11. Results of sociological investigationare useful to everyone.
  • 14. B. AREAS OF SOCIOLOGY
  • 15. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
  • 16. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
  • 17. SOCIAL CHANGE
  • 18. HUMAN ECOLOGY
  • 19. POPULATION STUDIES
  • 20. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY AND RESEARCH
  • 21. APPLIED SOCIOLOGY
  • 22. C. PIONEER/FORERUNNERS OF SOCIOLOGY
  • 23. Henri Sain-Simon (1760-1825) He based his ideas on the assumption that the law of human behavior could be determined in the same manner that the law of nature had been arrived at by natural scientist.
  • 24. Auguste Comte (1978-1857) He advocated the idea of “positivism” or the use of empirical investigation to understand society and social phenomenon
  • 25. Herbert Spencer (1830-1903) Scientist who argued that human societies go through an evolutionary process and who coined the concept “survival of the fittest”
  • 26. Karl Marx (1818-1883) He believed that the misery and exploitation of the working lower classes in society was caused by capitalism the existing industrial order.
  • 27. Emil Durkheim (1858-1917) He focused on the characteristics of social groups, particularly the cohesion or non-cohesion of religious groups.
  • 28. Max Weber (1864-1920) His works dwelt on the significance of subjective meanings people give to their interactions with others.
  • 29. OTHER PIONEERS
  • 30. Walter Bagehot (1826- 1877), English
  • 31. Ludwig Gumplowicz (1838- 1909, Polish)
  • 32. Gustav Ratzer Hoofers (1842- 1912, Austrian)
  • 33. Jacquez Novicow (1849- 1912, Russian)
  • 34. Achille Loria (1857- 1943, Italian)
  • 35. Adolphe Coste (1842- 1901, French)
  • 36. Benjamin Kid (1858- 1916, English)
  • 37. William Graham Sumner (1840- 1913, American)
  • 38. Albion Small (1854- 1926, American)
  • 39. Lester Ward (1841- 1913, American)
  • 40. Franklin Giddings (1855- 1931, American)
  • 41. OTHER EARLY THEORISTS
  • 42. Adolfe Quetelet (1796- 1874, Belgian)
  • 43. Frediric Le Hay (1806- 1882, French)
  • 44. Edward Taylor (1832- 1917, British)
  • 45. Lewis Morgan (1818- 1881, American)
  • 46. Arthur de Gobineau (1816- 1882, English)
  • 47. Henry Buckle (1821-1862)
  • 48. Nicholas Danilevsky (1822- 1885, Russian)