02-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Infinitives
The infinitive form of a verb is the verb in its basic form and ...
03-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Examples Of Infinitives
Examples of Infinitives as Nouns
 To dance was her ...
Examples of Infinitives as Adverbs
An adverb usually modifies a verb to tell us when, where, how, in
what manner, or to wh...
04-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Bare Infinitives (When Not Preceded by To)
Most infinitives are preceded by ...
05-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Sentences With Infinitives
An infinitive phrase is a group of words with an ...
06-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Infinitive Or -Ing?
Sometimes we need to decide whether to use a verb in it:...
 This includes too + adjective:
 The water was too cold to swim in.
 Is your coffee too hot to drink?
 The infinitive ...
09-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
THE MOST COMMON USES OF THE INFINITIVE ARE:
To indicate the purpose or inten...
After an adjective + noun when a comment or judgment is being
made:
It was a stupid place to park the car.
This is the rig...
10-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
A to-infinitive can be used to express purpose:
 I'm calling to place an or...
11-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Infinitive purpose
The infinitive of purpose can only be used if the doer of...
12-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
(BE) ADJ + THAT CLAUSE VS. (BE) ADJ + INFINITIVE CLAUSE
(BE ) ADJ + THAT CLA...
13-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
TOO + ADJECTIVE + INFINITIVE PHRASE
Too expresses that something is inadequa...
16-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
SUBJECT—INFINITIVE CLAUSE
An infinitive or infinitive clause tends to refer ...
17-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Gerunds (-ing forms)
When -ing forms are used like nouns, they are often cal...
18-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Forms of the gerund
Note the structure of present, perfect, passive and nega...
19-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Adding -ing/-ed
Often we need to add -ing or -ed to a verb to make other for...
20-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Spelling of Verb + ING
For many verbs we make the ING form by simply adding ...
Verbs ending with -ie
Change the -ie to -y and add -ING
 die - dying
 tie - tying
 lie – lying
Verbs ending with one vo...
24-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Verbs & Prepositions
Some verbs are usually followed by prepositions before ...
With ‘in’
 She believes in ghosts.
 Our company specializes in computer software.
 You have to work hard if you want to...
25-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
Prepositional Verbs
Prepositional verbs are a group of multi-word verbs made...
27-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
The - ing Form
English verbs have five basic forms: the base form, the - S f...
30-06-2014
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO
The -ing form is also used for gerunds (verbs which
are used as nouns).
Geru...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Junio - GRAMMAR

172

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
172
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Junio - GRAMMAR

  1. 1. 02-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Infinitives The infinitive form of a verb is the verb in its basic form and is usually preceded by to. For example: To run, to dance, to think The infinitive form is not always preceded by to. Look at these examples:  I need to run every day. (The infinitive form with the word to is called the full infinitive or to-infinitive.)  I must run every day . (After certain verbs, the to is dropped (more on this below) Note: The word to is not a preposition. It is often called the sign of the infinitive.  An infinitive is a non-finite verb. In other words, it cannot be the main verb in a sentence.  An infinitive can be used as a noun, an adjective or an adverb.
  2. 2. 03-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Examples Of Infinitives Examples of Infinitives as Nouns  To dance was her passion. (The infinitive is the subject of was.) Compare it to this:  Dancing was her passion. (This proves that the infinitive to dance is being used a noun.) Examples of Infinitives as Adjectives An adjective modifies a noun to tell us something about the noun color, type, or number.  Give him an ornament to polish. (The infinitive modifies ornament. This means it is functioning as an adjective.) Compare it to this:  Give him an ornament that he can polish. (The clause that he must polish is an adjective clause. This proves that the infinitive to polish is being used an adjective.)
  3. 3. Examples of Infinitives as Adverbs An adverb usually modifies a verb to tell us when, where, how, in what manner, or to what extent an action is performed. You have to bear this in mind when working out how infinitives function as adverbs.  The officer returned to help. (The infinitive modifies the verb returned. This means it is functioning as an adverb.) Compare it to this:  The officer returned so he could help. (The clause so he could help is an adverbial clause. This proves that the infinitive to help is being used an adverb.)
  4. 4. 04-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Bare Infinitives (When Not Preceded by To) Most infinitives are preceded by to, but after certain verbs, the to is dropped. The most obvious example is when an infinitive follows can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, or would. For example: More examples:  He should go home. (This is called a bare infinitive.)  They might finish by Wednesday. Bare infinitives also follow other verbs. The main ones are: feel, hear, help, let, make, see, and watch. This time, there is a direct object involved. For example:
  5. 5. 05-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Sentences With Infinitives An infinitive phrase is a group of words with an infinitive (it is NOT the whole sentence). Again, looking at the above example, what is the infinitive phrase? To help the poor people of the world. Infinitives and infinitive phrases can be both subjects and objects in sentences. Take a look at these examples: SUBJECT To study hard will increase your chances of getting into college. OBJECT Kathy wants to study with her friends. There are some verbs that are followed only by infinitives. For example: Hesitate She didn’t hesitate to tell the boss that some employees were stealing office supplies. Offer The Martin Family offered to watch their neighbor’s dog for the whole week. Promise The school promised to help me find an apartment. Want We want to visit all of the historic sites in Tehran.
  6. 6. 06-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Infinitive Or -Ing? Sometimes we need to decide whether to use a verb in it:  -ing form (doing, singing) or  Infinitive form (to do, to sing). When to use the infinitive  The infinitive form is used after certain verbs: - forget, help, learn, teach, train - choose, expect, hope, need, offer, want, would like - agree, encourage, pretend, promise - allow, can/can't afford, decide, manage, mean, refuse For example:  I forgot to close the window.  Mary needs to leave early.  Why are they encouraged to learn English?  We can't afford to take a long holiday.   The infinitive form is always used after adjectives. For example: - disappointed, glad, happy, pleased, relieved, sad, surprised  I was happy to help them.  She will be delighted to see you.
  7. 7.  This includes too + adjective:  The water was too cold to swim in.  Is your coffee too hot to drink?  The infinitive form is used after adjective + enough:  He was strong enough to lift it.  She is rich enough to buy two. When to use -ing  The -ing form is used when the word is the subject of a sentence or clause:  Swimming is good exercise.  Doctors say that smoking is bad for you.  The -ing form is used after a preposition:  I look forward to meeting you.  They left without saying "Goodbye."  The -ing form is used after certain verbs: - avoid, dislike, enjoy, finish, give up, mind/not mind, practice  I dislike getting up early.  Would you mind opening the window?
  8. 8. 09-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO THE MOST COMMON USES OF THE INFINITIVE ARE: To indicate the purpose or intention of an action (where the 'to' have the same meaning as 'in order to' or 'so as to'): She's gone to collect her pay cheque. The three bears went into the forest to find firewood. As the subject of the sentence: To be or not to be, that is the question. To know her is to love her. (Note: this is more common in written English than spoken) With nouns or pronouns, to indicate what something can be used for, or what is to be done with it: Would you like something to drink? I haven't anything to wear. The children need a garden to play in. After adjectives in these patterns: It is + adjective +to-infinitive It is good to talk It is + adjective + infinitive + for someone + to-infinitive. It is hard for elephants to see mice It is + adjective + infintive + of someone + to-infinitive. It is unkind of her to say that.
  9. 9. After an adjective + noun when a comment or judgment is being made: It was a stupid place to park the car. This is the right thing to do. It was an astonishing way to behave. With too and enough in these patterns: too much/many (+ noun) + to-infinitive There's too much sugar to put in this bowl. I had too many books to carry. too + adjective + to-infinitive This soup is too hot to eat. She was too tired to work. too + adverb + to-infinitive
  10. 10. 10-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO A to-infinitive can be used to express purpose:  I'm calling to place an order for delivery.  Dina went to the door to open it.  To pass this test, you need to achieve a score of 60% or more. In order and so as can be used before a to-infinitive for emphasis in more formal styles:  He took a book with him in order to have something to read on the train.  The parties started negotiations so as to reach an agreement as soon as possible.  In order to attract a wider audience, we need to rethink our marketing strategy. The negative is always in order not + to-infinitive or so as not + to- infinitive:  He tiptoed through the hall so as not to be heard.  In order not to lose time, we must act at once.
  11. 11. 11-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Infinitive purpose The infinitive of purpose can only be used if the doer of the action expressed by the infinitive is the same as the subject of the main clause. If the subjects are different, we can use so + that-clause with the present simple tense or with the modal verbs may, can, will, might, could or would:  Jerry works hard so that his family has everything they need.  I'll leave the door open so that you can come in.  Tina gave me a shopping list so that I wouldn't forget anything. In order + that-clause is also possible in this case; however, it is more formal and less common. In the, that-clause, we can use the modal verbs may, shall, might or should:  Our company does everything in order that all complaints may be dealt with fairly and effectively. With the verbs come and go, we can use the infinitive of purpose in any present or past tense or if these verbs are used as gerunds:  I'm just coming to help.  We went to talk to a lawyer.  Have you thought of going to see a doctor? But if come and go are used as infinitives or as imperatives, we use and instead of to:  I must go and check the heater.  He will come and dance with you.  Go and fetch a glass.
  12. 12. 12-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO (BE) ADJ + THAT CLAUSE VS. (BE) ADJ + INFINITIVE CLAUSE (BE ) ADJ + THAT CLAUSE A that-clause may be used after a particular group of adjectives expressing emotion. We are happy that you are here. We were pleased that we received the letter. They were sad when they heard about his death. They were excited when they heard about the birth of her baby. (BE) ADJ + INFINITIVE-CLAUSE An infinitive or infinitive clause may also be used after the verb. We are happy to see you here. We were pleased to receive the letter. They were sad to hear about his death. They were excited to hear about the birth of her baby.
  13. 13. 13-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO TOO + ADJECTIVE + INFINITIVE PHRASE Too expresses that something is inadequate (below what is desirable) or excessive (above what is desirable). The expression is complemented by an infinitive. Jill is too young to drive. (She cannot / may not drive.) The car is too comlex for her to drive. (She cannot drive it.) The driving test is too difficult for her to pass. (She cannot pass it.) ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH + INFINITIVE PHRASE Enough expresses that something is adequate, within what is desirable. The expression is complemented by an infinitive. The infinitive may include a subject introduced by for. [for her] to do. Jill is old enough to drive. (She can / may drive.) The car is simple enough for her to drive. (She can drive it.) The driving test is easy enough for her to pass. (She can pass it.)
  14. 14. 16-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO SUBJECT—INFINITIVE CLAUSE An infinitive or infinitive clause tends to refer to activities in a more general way. The infinitive is a reduced verbal form that 1) is not marked for— tense, or person and 2) does not commonly have a subject. When in the subject position, it is usually followed by be or a stative verb. An infinitive is less commonly used to begin a sentence than a gerund except in dictionary definitions and quotes. INFINITIVE CLAUSE VERB COMPLEMENT 1a.To start a sentence with an infinitive (existing) sounds awkward. 2a. To speak five languages well (prediction) is may be an advantage. 3a.To be around her all day ¹becomes would be tiring. SUBJECT - GERUND CLAUSE A gerund or gerund clause is more commonly used at the beginning of a sentence than an infinitive or infinitive clause. In most cases, gerunds or infinitives functioning as subjects are interchangeable. Sometimes, a slight difference in meaning exists. The infinitive may suggest a future, predicted or imagined activity, while a gerund suggests an ongoing, existing, habitual activity. See 2a. vs. 2b. or 3a. vs. 3b. GERUND CLAUSE VERB COMPLEMENT 1b.Starting a sentence with a gerund (existing) sounds fine. 2b. Speaking five languages well (existing) is may be an advantage. 3b. Being around her all day becomes is tiring.
  15. 15. 17-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Gerunds (-ing forms) When -ing forms are used like nouns, they are often called gerunds.  Smoking is injurious to health.  I like shooting.  Trespassing is prohibited.  Trading means buying or selling securities, goods and services.  We got the job finished by working fourteen hours a day.  To become a successful investor consider enrolling in an options trading education program.  My English writing skills improve with every grammar exercise I do. Grammar notes Note that a gerund is used like a noun. But when there is a noun which has a similar meaning to an -ing form, the noun is preferred.  We are waiting for his arrival. (NOT We are waiting for his arriving.)
  16. 16. 18-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Forms of the gerund Note the structure of present, perfect, passive and negative –ing forms.  I like shooting. (present)  She loves being looked at. (passive)  He was charged with having committed arson. (perfect)  He complained of having been tortured by the police. (perfect passive)  Not knowing what to do, she went home. (negative) A gerund can be the subject, object, object of a preposition or complement of a verb.  Flying makes me sick. (subject)  We don't allow smoking in our house. (object)  My favourite activity is reading. (complement)  I don’t believe in buying wine as an investment. (object of a preposition) Gerund with its own object A gerund can have its own object. Compare:  Smoking is injurious to health.  Smoking cigarettes is injurious to health. (The noun cigarette is the object of the gerund smoking.)  I love reading.  I love reading novels. (Novels is the object of reading)  Killing foxes is a horrible pastime.  I love driving a fast car.
  17. 17. 19-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Adding -ing/-ed Often we need to add -ing or -ed to a verb to make other forms of the verb, for example: I was talking when John arrived. Spelling Rule Just add -ing or -ed to the end of the base verb:  work > working > worked  play > playing > played  open > opening > opened Exceptions If the base verb ends in: do this: and add: For example: consonant + vowel + consonant and a stressed syllable double the final consonant -ing -ed stop > stopping > stopped begin > beginning tap > tapping > tapped But, for example: open > opening > opened (because no stress on last syllableof open) consonant + -e remove the -e -ing -ed phone > phoning > phoned dance > dancing > danced make > making rake > raking > raked -ie change the -ie to -y -ing lie > lying die > dying nothing -d lie > lied die > died
  18. 18. 20-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Spelling of Verb + ING For many verbs we make the ING form by simply adding -ING to end of the verb.  eat - eating  speak - speaking  cook - cooking  start - starting  do - doing  stay - staying  fix - fixing  try – trying Verbs ending with -e (with the exception of verbs ending in -ee and - ie) Drop the -e and add ING  hope - hoping  ride - riding  make - making  write - writing Verbs ending with -ee Just add -ING  agree - agreeing  flee - fleeing  see – seeing
  19. 19. Verbs ending with -ie Change the -ie to -y and add -ING  die - dying  tie - tying  lie – lying Verbs ending with one vowel and one consonant (with the exception of w, x, and y) For one syllable verbs Double the consonant and add -ING  jog - jogging  sit - sitting  run - running  stop - stopping For two syllable verbs If the 1st syllable is stressed, just add ING  answer - answering  offer - offering  listen - listening  visit - visiting If the 2nd syllable is stressed , double the consonant and add ING  admit - admitting  prefer - preferring  begin - begining
  20. 20. 24-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Verbs & Prepositions Some verbs are usually followed by prepositions before the object of the verb. These are called dependent prepositions and they are followed by a noun or a gerund (‘ing’ form).  He’s waiting for a bus. For is the dependent preposition for ‘wait’ We can use other prepositions with ‘wait’ – e.g. He waited at the bus stop – but ‘for’ is the dependent preposition. Here are some other verbs with their dependent prepositions. Verbs with ‘for’  He apologized for being late. You can also ‘apologies to someone’  I applied for the job but I didn’t get it.  How do you ask for a coffee in Polish?  She spent many years caring for her aged parents.  I can’t go out tonight because I have to prepare for my interview tomorrow. With ‘from’  This spray should protect you from mosquitoes.  Has he recovered from his illness yet?  He won an award because he saved someone from drowning.  I suffer from hay fever.
  21. 21. With ‘in’  She believes in ghosts.  Our company specializes in computer software.  You have to work hard if you want to succeed in life. With ‘of’  I don’t approve of your language, young man.  Our dog died of old age.  This shampoo smells of bananas. With ‘on’  The film is based on the novel by Boris Pasternak.  If you make so much noise I can’t concentrate on my work.  Come on! We’re relying on you!  We don’t agree on anything but we’re good friends. With ‘to’  Can I introduce you to my wife?  Please refer to the notes at the end for more information.  Nobody responded to my complaint. With ‘with’  I agree with everything you’ve said.  My secretary will provide you with more information if you need it. There are many more verb + dependent preposition combinations – make a note of them as you meet them.
  22. 22. 25-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO Prepositional Verbs Prepositional verbs are a group of multi-word verbs made from a verb plus another word or words. Many people refer to all multi-word verbs as phrasal verbs. Prepositional verbs are made of: Verb + preposition Because a preposition always has an object, all prepositional verbs have direct objects. Prepositional verbs Meaning Examples direct object believe in have faith in the existence of I believe in God. look after take care of He is looking after the dog. talk about discuss Did you talk about me? wait for await John is waiting for Mary. Prepositional verbs cannot be separated. That means that we cannot put the direct object between the two parts. For example, we must say "look after the baby". We cannot say "look the baby after": Prepositional verbs are inseparable. Who is looking afterthe baby? This is possible. Who is looking the baby after? This is not possible.
  23. 23. 27-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO The - ing Form English verbs have five basic forms: the base form, the - S form, the - ing form, the past form, and the past participle form. The - ing ending for English verbs is used in several different situations: 1. The -ing ending is used to show the progressive aspect (progressive / continuous verb tenses). The progressive aspect shows that an action is / was / has been / had been / will be (etc.) in progress at a particular time or during a particular period of time. It often suggests that the action is / was / has been / had been / will be (etc.) long or uninterrupted. All of the English tenses can use the progressive aspect-- and in both active and passive sentences. Progressive aspect always has at least two parts: the verb be (which is often contracted) and an - ing verb: He's studying. They were going home when I saw them. You've been working too hard! We'd been talking about you before you called. At 1:00 AM, I'll be sleeping. John might be working. I'm not sure The operation is being performed right now. The letters were being typed when I left.
  24. 24. 30-06-2014 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE CHIMBORAZO The -ing form is also used for gerunds (verbs which are used as nouns). Gerunds can be used as nouns for subjects and subject complements: Learning a language isn't easy. Talking to Bill was a lot of fun. Communicating by e-mail has become very common. His hobby is collecting stamps. ______________________________________ Gerunds can also be used as nouns for objects of verbs and prepositions: They dislike studying. For exercise, he recommends swimming. He doesn't care about being on time. They're tired of listening to you. Did he succeed in solving the problem?

×