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601 l6-interview-100923151533-phpapp01

  1. 1. LIS 601 The Reference Interview Reference Observation Project Fall 2010 Lori Bell
  2. 2. Reference Service History <ul><li>Green, Samuel Swet. Personal Relations Between Librarians and Readers. Library Journal 1 (October 1876 ): 74-81. </li></ul><ul><li>First mention of reference-like services. </li></ul><ul><li>Child, William B. Reference Work at the Columbia College Library. Library Journal 16 ( 1891 ): 298. </li></ul><ul><li>First mention of the term “reference” in connection with service. </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  3. 3. Reference Interview <ul><li>Communication tool </li></ul><ul><li>Information problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking about information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disciplined & systematic thinking through information structure </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  4. 4. Reference Interview Formats <ul><li>Synchronous Modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-face (FTF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web (IM, chat, videostreaming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual World (IM, chat, voice chat) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous Modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FAX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email or Web Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voicemail </li></ul></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  5. 5. Reference Interview Essentials <ul><li>In order to find the best source of the information needed: </li></ul><ul><li>Find out specifically what the person wants and the purpose or use for that information </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  6. 6. Taylor’s Levels of Information Need <ul><li>Visceral need </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious need </li></ul><ul><li>Formalized need </li></ul><ul><li>Compromised need </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  7. 7. Non-verbal Communication Techniques <ul><li>Approachability  Accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearing ready to interact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouragers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-authoritarian posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appear interested </li></ul></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  8. 8. Verbal Communication Techniques <ul><li>Acknowledging statements </li></ul><ul><li>Open questions* </li></ul><ul><li>Closed questions </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing/restating </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragers </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up questions* </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  9. 9. Reference Negotiation Process Bell LIS 601 2010 Person asks librarian Librarian asks person
  10. 10. The WORF Reference Technique <ul><li>W = Welcoming , open attitude & body language </li></ul><ul><li>O = ask Open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>R = Rephrasing or Restating (not repeating) the question </li></ul><ul><li>F = ask Follow-u p questions </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  11. 11. Reference Interview Controversy <ul><li>Face-Value Rule (Wilson) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users are responsible for asking good questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relational Rule (Radford) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users attribute success to helpful librarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users are customers who need to be satisfied with reference service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interview Rule (Ross) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Save the time of the user (Ranganathan) </li></ul></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  12. 12. What would you ask the person after asking you, the reference librarian? <ul><li>Do you have any books on writing? </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  13. 13. What would you ask the person after asking you, the reference librarian? <ul><li>Can broken plates be repaired? </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  14. 14. What would you ask the person after asking you, the reference librarian? <ul><li>Do you have any books on eating? </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  15. 15. How We Used to Talk to Users <ul><li>L: Good morning. Can I help you? </li></ul><ul><li>P: Hi, do you have any books on impressionist painters? </li></ul><ul><li>L: Yes, we do. Are you interested in a particular painter or a group of impressionist painters? </li></ul><ul><li>P: Oh, a particular one. Renoir. </li></ul><ul><li>L: Are you interested in biographies about him or in his paintings? </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  16. 16. How We Used to Talk to Users <ul><li>P: His paintings. </li></ul><ul><li>L: Do you have a particular painting you want to see or examples of his work? </li></ul><ul><li>P: No, a particular painting…I think it’s called The Boating Party. </li></ul><ul><li>L: Yes, we have books that contain that painting. Here they are. </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  17. 17. How We Talk to Users Now <ul><li>L: Good morning. Can I help you? </li></ul><ul><li>P: Hi, do you have any books on impressionist painters? </li></ul><ul><li>L: Yes, we have quite a few. It will help me in suggesting books to you if I know a little more about what you are doing. Is there something specific about impressionist painters that you are looking for? </li></ul><ul><li>P: Yes, I want to see a copy of Renoir’s picture, The Boating Party. </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  18. 18. How We Talk to Users Now <ul><li>L: We have a number of books with copies of that picture in them. Is there something particular about that painting that you want to find out? </li></ul><ul><li>P: Yes, I want to find out the size of that painting in inches. The book I have at home has centimeters. </li></ul><ul><li>L: We have several books with copies of that painting that give the size in inches. Would you like to see one? Or, I could find a scale that allows you to convert from centimeters to inches. </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  19. 19. How We Talk to Users Now <ul><li>P: Oh, I’d like the scale because I have some other paintings in my books at home that I am curious about as well. </li></ul><ul><li>L: When I give you the scale to convert from centimeters to inches will that be all you need today…or is there another way I can help you? </li></ul><ul><li>P: No, the scale is what I need. Thank you. </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  20. 20. Student Interview Formula <ul><li>Are you writing a report [paper]? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What aspect of the topic do you want to write about? </li></ul><ul><li>What time period do you want to cover? </li></ul><ul><li>What formats of material can you use? </li></ul><ul><li>How long does it have to be? </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  21. 21. Student Interview Formula <ul><li>When is it due? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a copy of your assignment? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have your notes about the assignment? </li></ul><ul><li>Are pictures or illustrations required? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the whole class working on this topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What have you done so far? </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  22. 22. Reference Observations <ul><li>Why do people ask ambiguously or provide incomplete information at first? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does approachability help? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do open questions help? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does restating or paraphrasing help? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do follow-up questions help? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do closed questions help? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does instruction help? </li></ul></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  23. 23. Reference Observation Project <ul><ul><li>View and review several videos and apply the ALA RUSA Behavioral Standards for Reference and Information Service criteria to selected interviews. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Interviewing You Tube Channel http://www.youtube.com/user/DNahlRef </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visit the Reference Desk in Second Life to observe live reference interviewing in a virtual world. Save chat logs and apply RUSA criteria to select interviews. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymize chat logs and do not use real or SL names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolig Loon, CVL Reference Coordinator, Info Island international </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypatia Dejavu, Head of CVL Reference, Info Island international </li></ul></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  24. 24. Reference Observation Project <ul><ul><li>Peek 360 CVL Reference Desk: http://peek360.avatrian.com/viewer.php?id=400 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reference Desk Schedule in Second Life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Calendar: http://bit.ly/aUQZOJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bookmark this link to have the Ref calendar available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Times are Pacific Standard Time (SLT=PST), 3 hours later than Hawaii time (HST) (On Nov 4 daylight savings changes to 2 hours later) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reference Desk SLURL (to Teleport, click or paste into browser): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://slurl.com/secondlife/Info%20Island%20International/128/128/2 </li></ul></ul></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  25. 25. Reference Interview Analysis <ul><li>Sample annotated transcript : </li></ul><ul><li>P: I have to find out about Julian of Norwich and I don’t know how to look for that. </li></ul><ul><li>L: Do you have to write a report? [ closed question; interest ] </li></ul><ul><li>P: Yes, I had to choose an author. </li></ul><ul><li>L: I majored in English (with a smile). Do you need a variety of sources? [ closed question; interest ] </li></ul><ul><li>P: Yes </li></ul><ul><li>L: Since you want anything about or by her you can search by Author or Keyword. (A list of results is returned.) [ instructing, searching ] </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010
  26. 26. Due Next Week <ul><li>Ex 2 Encyclopedia searches </li></ul><ul><li>TEXT CHAPTER 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments pp. 10-18 Bibliography Plan </li></ul>Bell LIS 601 2010