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Chapter 16 Modes of Travel
 

Chapter 16 Modes of Travel

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PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

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    Chapter 16 Modes of Travel Chapter 16 Modes of Travel Document Transcript

    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Chapter 16 Modes of Travel Castle of Almourol, Portugal, Photo by Jose Manuel © 2013 Contents  Examines the history and current trends in the major modes of transportation.  Explains how people select their preferred transportation modes. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 1
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Purpose Through an understanding of a model of travel mode selection, students will be able to explain how tourists travel. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Learning Objective 1: Transportation Mode Selection Show how knowledge of the criteria people use to select their preferred modes of transportation can be used to influence that choice. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 2
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Transportation Mode Selection Decisions Affected by:  Characteristics of the mode  Destination features  Motivation for travel and personal attitudes and values  Characteristics of the trip Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Travel Alternatives Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 3
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Transportation Mode Selection Model Why do people decide one mode over another?  Functional utility  Aesthetic or emotional reasons  Social or organizational utilities  Curiosity utility  Availability of the mode  Impact of unexpected events Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Travel Mode Selection Model Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 4
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Learning Objective 2: Reasons for Changes in Transportation Use Identify the reasons for the changes in passenger use of the various transportation modes. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Travel by Train Popular because:  Safety  Ability to look out of trains and see interesting things en route  Ability to get up and walk around  Arriving at the destination rested and relaxed  Personal comfort Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 5
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Travel by Train Negative perceptions of rail travel:  Slowness in reaching destination  Relatively inflexible departure times  Lack of quality in food service Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Travel by Train  Advent of high-speed trains:  TGV (France), Bullet (Japan), Gao Tie (China)  Trains as tourism attractions:  The Orient Express  Palace on Wheels, India  Algoma Central Railway, Canada  The Ghan, Australia  Napa Valley Wine Train, USA Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 6
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Travel by Ship  1957: peak of transatlantic ship travel  1958: more passengers on transatlantic air than ship  1960-75: declining volumes of scheduled liner passengers  1970-on: growth in cruise ship passengers Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Cruises  Cruises have taken the place of scheduled liner services  Negative perceptions of cruises  Isolation, storms, seasickness  Ships are slow, cramped and boring, with regimented activities Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 7
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Cruises: Increasing Concerns with Safety  Concerns with the safety of traveling on cruises have increased, especially with the partial sinking and resultant passenger deaths on the Costa Concordia off of Italy in early 2012.  There have also been several incidences of food-borne illness outbreaks on cruise ships in recent years. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Cruises  Positive impact of airline deregulation in U.S. on cruise travel  Importance of incentive travel to cruise lines  Trend to larger cruise ships as well as niche cruising  Developing cruise traffic as a means of tourism development Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 8
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Cruises  Caribbean:  Main cruise destination  First destination that was developed  Panama Canal important to cruising  Asia fastest-growing market  Cruiser segments  Restless baby boomers; enthusiastic baby boomers; luxury seekers, consummate shoppers; explorers; and ship buffs  Special-interest cruises  Cruises as tourist attractions Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Major Cruise Routes in the World Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 9
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Travel by Automobile  Led to demise of train travel  Spread benefits of tourism more widely  More random pattern of travel movements  Attractive attributes of automobile travel  Control over the route and steps en route Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Travel by Automobile  Control of departure time  Ability to carry baggage and equipment easily  Low out-of-pocket expense of traveling with three or more persons  Freedom to use automobile at destination  Safe mode of transportation  Like of driving as a recreational experience Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 10
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Travel by Air  1960s: number of intercity air passengers greater than train  1978: airline deregulation begins in U.S.  Scheduled and charter air services  Advanced purchase excursion fares (APEX)  Popularity of charters in Europe  Problems with safety of air travel  Hub-and-spoke systems  Concerns with airport security Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Travel by Air  After World War II, air travel skyrocketed  1970 – introduction of wide-bodied jets  Nonstop flights offer greater fuel efficiency  Lower costs  Better use of money and resources  1978 – U.S. airline deregulation  Charter flights generally more profitable Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 11
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Travel by Air  The 555-seat Airbus A380 was introduced into service in 2007, first by Singapore Airlines.  Boeing 787 Dreamliner was introduced into service in 2011; several problems occurred with this new aircraft in 2012 and 2013.  Great concerns now with carbon emissions of airline industry and impact on the global environment. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Travel by Bus and Motor Coach  1980s: deregulation of bus industries in U.S. and U.K.  Benefits of touring by motor coach  Companionship/making friends  Convenience  Expertise  Safety  Price Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 12
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Travel by Bus and Motor Coach Negative images of motor coach tours:  Negative perceptions of the bus  Regimentation, inflexibility, and passivity of tours  Having to be part of a group  Infirm, older, and inexperienced travelers Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Learning Objective 3: Marketing of Passenger Transportation Show how the characteristics of demand and supply affect the marketing of passenger transportation. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 13
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Marketing of Passenger Transportation Demand:  Past trends cannot always be relied upon  Overcapacity  Instantaneous demand  Variability of demand  Certain modes offer more than one type of service  Business, first-class, etc. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Marketing of Passenger Transportation Demand:  Business vs. pleasure travel  Business travel may be constrained by the company  Pleasure travelers may be more choosy Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 14
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel Characteristics of Supply  Sunk costs (example: plane):  Costs relatively the same to fly it full or empty  Best to sell every seat  High fixed costs, low incremental costs  Labor  Restrictions on hours  Demand may be instantaneous, but supply is not Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Marketing Strategies  Product, promotion, place and price  Airlines  Long flights are more economic  “Hub and spoke” model  Extending the network: (a) franchising; (b) block spacing; (c) code-sharing; (d) Alliances  Frequent-flyer programs  Vertical integration  Contribution theory Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 15
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 16Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Modes of Travel THE TOURISM SYSTEM Chapter 16 Chapter Summary Highlights  Developments in transportation impact where tourism is developed and the type of development that occurs.  Destinations have to ensure that access to the destination is made as easy as possible for their visitors.  It is important to know the barriers that inhibit the use of a particular transportation mode to develop programs to overcome them. Dolphins, Azores, Photo by Norberto Diver © 2013Robert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 16