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Chapter 15 The Geography of Travel

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PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

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  • 1. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Chapter 15 The Geography of Travel Castle of Almourol, Portugal, Photo by Jose Manuel © 2013 Contents  Looks at patterns and flows of travelers throughout the world.  Examines models that explain existing travel patterns.  Describes current travel patterns and flows. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 1
  • 2. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Purpose Applying specific models used to explain travel patterns, students will be able to predict future travel patterns and new travel market opportunities. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Learning Objective 1: Demand/Origin and Destination/Resources and Flows Explain the impact of demand/origin and destination/resource factors on travel flows. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 2
  • 3. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Theoretical Models of Travel Flows  By analyzing existing tourist flows, we can learn about the movements of tourists, and form general principles.  Williams and Zelinsky  Travel flows are not random  Travel flows have distinctive patterns Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Williams and Zelinsky’s Flow Factors  Spatial distance  Presence or absences of past or present international connectivity  Reciprocity of travel flows  Attractiveness of one country for another  Known or presumed cost of a visit within the destination country  Influence of intervening opportunities  Impact of specific, non-recurring events  The national character of the citizens of originating countries  The mental image of the destination country in the minds of the citizens of originating countries Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 3
  • 4. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Simplest Model of a Travel Flow  Origin Point  Transportation Link  Destination Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Leiper’s Tourism System Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 4
  • 5. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Demand and Origin Factors  Demand for tourism occurs at the origin:  Suppressed demand  Potential demand  Deferred demand  Effective demand  Travel propensity is a measure of actual demand Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Demand and Origin Factors  Paid vacations, a healthier population, and greater educational opportunities = more demand.  Demand affected by:  The growth, development, distribution and density of the population  Politics in the country of origin  Other tourism (international affected by domestic)  Demographics, values, and lifestyle choices of population Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 5
  • 6. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Destination and Resource Factors  Climate  Affected by water and land features  Climate change  Land surface conditions  Mountains, plateaus, hill lands, or plains  ¾ of the earth is mountain or hill land  Most of the population lives on plateaus or plains  Destination safety  Terrorism Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa World Climates Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 6
  • 7. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Transit Routes  Majority of travel is by road  Offers flexibility  Can transport a lot of luggage Rail travel  Relaxing  Can get up and walk around Air travel  Mass tourism  Fast Sea  Nowadays, sea travel is basically cruising and ferry crossings Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 7
  • 8. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Learning Objectives 2 and 3: Current and Future Travel Flows in the World  Indicate the magnitude of worldwide travel flows and identify the major reasons for these flows.  Project future major travel flows. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Travel Flows Trends  People have ventured farther from home.  There has been a constant north- south movement.  Despite a recent loss of market share, Europe has maintained its prominent role as a destination and region of origin. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 8
  • 9. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Global Travel Flows  Tourism is the world’s largest industry and generator of jobs.  Tourism experienced a number of challenges since 2000 (e.g., 9-11, SARS).  In 2010, China climbed to #3 in international tourism spending worldwide.  1 billion worldwide tourist arrivals reach in 2012. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Global Travel Flows International Tourist Arrivals:  2012: 1 billion (approx. estimate)  2011: 990 million  2010: 942 million  2009: 884 million  2008: 924 million  2007: 908 million  2006: 850 million  2005: 799 million  2004: 763 million  2003: 692 million  2002: 702 million UNWTO World Tourism Barometer,  2001: 682 million Vol.10, November 2012  2000: 674 million Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 9
  • 10. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Global Travel Flows International Tourist Arrivals:  UNWTO forecasts that arrivals will increase by an average of 43 million per year.  Total worldwide arrivals are projected to reach 1.8 billion by 2030. Source: Tourism Towards 2030, UNWTO Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Global Travel Flows  U.S., Canada and Mexico account for about two-thirds of total arrivals in the Americas.  Australasia and the Pacific Islands are gaining in Asia.  In Africa, South Africa is showing the most growth.  Middle East growth has been fueled by Egypt.  Most countries outbound long-haul will grow faster than short-haul. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 10
  • 11. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel United States  2012: 66.5 million (estimate) Inbound international  2011: 62.7 million visitors: 2000-2017  2010: 59.8 million  2009: 55.0 million  2008: 57.9 million  2007: 56.0 million  2006: 51.0 million  2005: 49.2 million  2004: 46.1 million  2003: 41.2 million  2013: 69.2 million (estimate)  2002: 43.6 million  2014: 72.2 million (estimate)  2001: 46.9 million  2015: 74.9 million (estimate)  2000: 51.2 million  2016: 77.6 million (estimate)  2017: 80.5 million Source: Office of Travel & Tourism Industries, Fall 2012 Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa International Travelers to USA in 2011 Top 10 (Source: OT&TI) Country Arrivals % Change (millions) 2010-11 1. Canada 21.34 +7% 2. Mexico 13.49 +0% 3. United Kingdom 3.84 +0% 4. Japan 3.25 -4% 5. Germany 1.82 +6% 6. Brazil 1.51 +26% 7. France 1.50 +12% 8. South Korea 1.15 +3% 9. China 1.09 +36% 10. Australia 1.04 +15% Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 11
  • 12. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel United States Inbound international travel:  Growth in overseas visitors to U.S.  Importance of Canada, Mexico, Japan, U.K., Germany, Brazil  Chinese inbound rapidly growing  Top destination states for overseas visitors are Florida, California, New York Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa United States Domestic travel:  Baby boomers generate the most travel  Greatest demographic change: rise in household incomes  Auto travel accounts for ¾ of all travel in the U.S. Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 12
  • 13. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Canada Inbound international travel:  2011: 24.08 million  2010: 24.67 million  2009: 24.70 million  2008: 27.37 million  2007: 30.37 million  2006: 33.39 million  2005: 36.16 million  2004: 38.84 million Source: Statistics Canada  2003: 38.90 million Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa International Travelers to Canada in 2011: Top 10 (Source: Statistics Canada) Country Trips (‘000) 2010-2011 Change % 1. United States 19,559 -3.2% 2. United Kingdom 680 -4.5% 3. France 359 +5.4% 4. Germany 316 -4.9% 5. China (Mainland) 244 +25.0% 6. Australia 242 +4.1% 7. Japan 211 -10.4% 8. South Korea 151 -8.0% 9. India 139 +9.1% 10. Mexico 132 +9.7% Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 13
  • 14. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel Canada  Inbound international travel  U.S. travelers the major market  Challenge for Canada: convince U.S. domestic travelers to go north  Most common reason for visiting: to vacation  Summer most popular season, but winter and off-season travel is growing  Outbound international travel  In the U.S., Florida and the southern states are the main sun destinations Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Europe’s Tourist Flows  France:  Number one destination in the world  Germany:  World’s most prolific international travelers  Italy:  Importance of art cities  Spain:  80 percent of visitors from Europe  U.K.:  Domestic vacations more important than overseas Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 14
  • 15. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel United Kingdom  2011: 30.6 million Inbound international  2010: 29.8 million travel  2009: 29.6 million  2008: 31.9 million  2007: 32.8 million  2006: 32.7 million  2005: 30.0 million  2004: 27.8 million  2003: 24.7 million  2002: 24.2 million  2001: 22.8 million  2000: 25.2 million Source: Office for National Statistics Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa United Kingdom Top 10 inbound travel markets (2011): 1. France: 3.633 million 2. Germany: 2.947 million 3. USA: 2.846 million 4. Irish Republic: 2.574 million 5. Spain: 1.836 million 6. Netherlands: 1.789 million 7. Italy: 1.526 million 8. Australia: 1.093 million 9. Poland: 1.057 million 10. Belgium: 0.984 million Source: VisitBritain Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 15
  • 16. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel International Travelers to Australia in 2011: Top 10 (Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics) Country Visitors (‘000) 1. New Zealand 1,172.7 2. United Kingdom 608.3 3. China 542.1 4. United States 456.2 5. Japan 332.6 6. Singapore 318.5 7. Malaysia 241.2 8. South Korea 197.8 9. Hong Kong 166.4 10. Germany 153.8 Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao Barbosa Emerging Markets  China  Future number one destination  70 million outbound travelers in 2011; 100% more than 10 years ago  Forecast to grow to 100 million outbound by 2020  India  20 percent annual growth Photo 1 by Jose Manuel; Photo 2 by Mauricio Abreu.; Photo 3 by Paulo © 2013 Magalhaes.; Photo 4 by Jose Manuel; Photo 5 by Joao BarbosaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 16
  • 17. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 15Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Geography of Travel THE TOURISM SYSTEM Chapter 15 Chapter Summary Highlights  Travel movements occur because of the interaction between the characteristics of the origin, destination, and transit routes that join them.  By examining existing flows of tourists both within and between countries, it is possible to develop principles and models to explain traveler movements.  These principles can then be used to explore the potential for movements between tourist origins and new destinations. Dolphins, Azores, Photo by Norberto Diver © 2013Robert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 17