Chapter 13 Travel Purchase
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Chapter 13 Travel Purchase

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PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

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    Chapter 13 Travel Purchase Chapter 13 Travel Purchase Document Transcript

    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Chapter 13 Travel Purchase © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Contents  Examines the buying-process stages that people go through when making travel choices.  Reviews suggested models of how people choose their travel destinations. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 1
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Purpose Having learned about how people make travel decisions and destination choices, students will be able to suggest appropriate communications strategies. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Learning Objective 1: Buying Process Stages  Describe the buying-process stages that people go through when making travel decisions. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 2
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase The Traveler’s Buying Process © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia The Traveler’s Buying Process Attention Attitudes, Evaluation, Intention Purchase, Knowledge and and Interest, Preference, and Trial, and Adoption Comprehension and Liking and Desire Conviction Awareness Action © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 3
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Attention and Awareness  The individual may be unaware of the destination.  The destination has to be brought to the awareness or attention of the potential traveler.  A prime function is communications that get the potential traveler’s attention.  Individuals make some decisions, although they have little information about the destination:  Will it meet my needs and wants?  Is it possible for me to go? © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Knowledge and Comprehension  The customer’s attention has been caught:  Beginning of the search for more information  Buyers unfamiliar with the destination need simplified information  The task is to make the potential traveler “goal directed” (desire to seek more information).  The emphasis is on information and sufficient information must be provided to the potential traveler. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 4
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Attitudes, Liking, and Interest  Buyer develops an attitude, a liking, or an interest in or towards the destination.  Positive attitudes should be reinforced.  Negative attitudes should be corrected.  Attitudes are hard to change:  Incoming information is generally adapted to fit the old attitude.  Amount of interest determines the amount of effort put into the comprehension of a particular message. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Evaluation, Preference, and Desire  Customer develops a preference for a certain destination area.  Decoy effect:  The target (intended sale) and the decoy (not intended for sale)  The presence of the decoy should make the target more appealing © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 5
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Evaluation, Preference, and Desire: The Decoy Effect © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Intention and Conviction  The buyer is convinced.  The intention to purchase precedes the actual purchase. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 6
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Purchase, Trial, and Action  Barriers to travel likely to be the lack of time or money.  A vacation is an experience good so it cannot be sampled to remove perceived barriers. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Adoption  The traveler becomes a repeat purchaser.  The first travel experience is important because repeat purchases are common, but not after a bad experience.  Cognitive dissonance:  The feeling of anxiety that the decision made was not the best decision  Can be allayed if the customer is reassured (soon after purchasing) that her decision was a good one © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 7
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Learning Objectives 2 and 3: Communication Strategies and Promotional Techniques at Different Buying Process Stages  Explain the effectiveness of different communication strategies at each stage of the buying process.  Identify which promotional techniques work best at each stage of the buying process. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Attention and Awareness  Mass media advertising is very effective at this stage.  The Internet and social network services (SNSs) can also be effective, especially through recommendations received in the social media. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 8
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Knowledge and Comprehension  Advertising is again important at this stage.  Once more, the Internet and social network services (SNSs) are now playing a more influential role through travel blogs, micro-blogs, and information on traveler review sites like TripAdvisor.com.  Traditional hard-copy vacation guides or planners may also be influential. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Attitudes, Liking, and Interest  This can be encouraged when people see information, media and other items that support the conclusions they have made from their information searching.  The Internet and social network services (SNSs) can be a key here in forming attitudes, liking, and interests in certain vacation destinations by discussing and sharing opinions with like-minded people. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 9
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Evaluation, Preference, and Desire  Most effective advertising at this point:  Testimonials  Comparison advertisements.  These testimonials can also be found on social network services and on the Web.  Traveler review sites can also play a role in helping potential travelers decide on their final preferences. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Intention and Conviction  All promotions that are supportive of the potential traveler’s decision to go to a particular destination will be effective at this stage.  Sales promotions that provide an added incentive to make the purchase can also be instrumental (e.g., early-bird specials). © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 10
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Purchase, Trial, and Action  Marketers need to use promotions that help people overcome perceived or real barriers to travel.  Personal selling can be highly effective at this point.  Again, special sales promotions that offer added value or overcome people’s time constraints can work well. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Adoption  Promotions that reassure travelers that they have made good decisions work well at this final stage.  Again testimonials are effective, whether these come through the media or the Internet/SNSs.  Keeping in touch with travelers through e-mail, SNSs, and other means is also very important. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 11
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Buying-Communication Processes Interaction  The type and amount of information sought varies by the tourist’s experience level and motivations.  Marketers should try to present the buyer with the best solution to the problem…with the lowest risk.  To measure a change in buyer attitude, it’s necessary to do a survey both before and after the campaign. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Buying Process Feedback  Each stage in the process is a prerequisite for the next: Each higher stage tends to reinforce the lower stages Satisfying the visitor reinforces each stage  More travel experience makes for fewer reservations about travel  Most travelers begin to plan trips only 30 days before departure:  Destination marketing may be wasted on buyers who plan in so short a time © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 12
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Learning Objective 4: Destination Choices and Selection Models Describe some of the models that have been suggested to explain how travelers choose destination areas. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Information Search Behavior Theoretical Approaches (Bieger and Laesser, 2004)  Psychological, motivational, individual characteristics approach: Push and pull forces.  Cost/benefit or economics approach: Seeking information to reduce risk.  Process approach: Focus on the process used to search for information about destinations. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 13
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Destination Choice Model (Moscardo et al.)  Traveler and socio-psychological variable  Destination marketing variables and external inputs  Images of destination areas  Destination choice  Destination areas  This model may be overly simplified. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Destination Choice Model (Moscardo et al.) © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 14
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Learning Objective 5: Vacation Sub-Decisions  Describe the series of sub-decisions that make up how a vacation decision is actually made. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Vacation Sub-Decisions  Where to stay, how long to stay, what to do?  Over the lifetime of the marriage, the decision power swaps from one spouse to the other.  Vacation decision making is becoming a joint affair, instead of the domain of just one spouse.  Vacation dates are usually determined by job and school dates. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 15
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Family Vacation Decision Making © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Influence of Children  Children affect:  Whether to go on vacation  What dates to go  Where to go  Where to stay  What to do  Children usually perceive that the final decision rests with both parents © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 16
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase Learning Objective 6: Vacation Sub-Decisions  Explain the influence of family life-cycle stages on vacation sub-decisions. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Influence of Family Life Cycle on Vacation Sub-Decisions  The order of vacation sub-decisions and who makes them varies by family life cycle stage.  Married less than 14 years: Joint decision making; where to go followed by whether to go.  Married 14-20 years: Husband dominates decision making; whether to go followed by where to go.  Married 20-30 years: Wife dominated decision making.  Close to retirement: Husband dominated.  Married over 40 years: Wife dominated decision making. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 17
    • The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 13Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Travel Purchase THE TOURISM SYSTEM Chapter 13 Chapter Summary Highlights  Before making travel bookings, people go through a buying process consisting of a series of stages.  Tourism marketers can help “lead” potential visitors through this process by the kinds of messages they design.  There is also a process that people use to select destination areas for travel.  The perceived activities and benefits offered by alternative destinations may play a key role in determining destination choice.  The travel decisions and decision-making processes that people use are not static over time.  The decision to travel is actually composed of a series of sub-decisions, in which several people’s input affects the decision. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 18