Chapter 11 Why Do People Take Vacations?

1,504 views
1,389 views

Published on

PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

Published in: Travel
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,504
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
141
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 11 Why Do People Take Vacations?

  1. 1. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Chapter 11 Why Do People Take Vacations? © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Contents  Explores the underlying reasons behind why people travel.  Examines people’s personal drives or motivations for traveling. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 1
  2. 2. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Purpose Based upon an understanding of what motivates people to travel, students will be able to suggest vacation products and communications that will appeal to tourists’ needs and wants. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Learning Objective 1: Motivation and Travel as a Need- Want Satisfier Realize that the key to understanding why people travel is to view travel as a satisfier of needs and wants. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 2
  3. 3. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Why do people take vactions? Importance of Motivation Five Classes of Tourist Motives (Bansal and Eiselt, 2004)  Climate/atmosphere/environment  Relaxation/having a good time  Adventure/something new/novelty/curiosity/a desire to experience something firsthand  Personal reasons, including VFR and prestige  Educational, including seeing other cultures, how others live, particular sights © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Importance of Motivation Ideal American Vacation: 8 Motivational Groups (Cook and Hopkins, 2007)  Experientials  Family focused  Casual travelers  Trail blazers  Reconnectors  Affluentials  Back to basics  Quintessential travelers © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 3
  4. 4. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Importance of Motivation  Leisure tourists can be divided into many categories  Tourists seek balance:  Familiarity-strangeness  Stimulation-tranquility  Structure-independence © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia The Importance of Motivation Approaches to Motivational Understanding Insufficient  Visitors themselves may be unaware of the true reasons behind their travel behavior.  A person may not wish to divulge the real reason or motivation behind the trip.  Such motivational lists focus on selling the product, the stated reason for the trip, rather than on satisfying the needs of the market. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 4
  5. 5. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? The Importance of Motivation Push and Pull Factors (Dann, 1977)  Push factors: internal to the individual:  Create the desire for travel  Aimed at satisfying various psychological needs  Pull factors: external to the individual:  Stress benefits of particular destinations  Determine where, when, and how the person vacations  Push factors must be present before pull factors can be effective  Vary by culture © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia The Importance of Motivation Push and Pull Factors (You, O’Leary, Morrison, Hong, 2000)  Most important pull factors (UK travelers): Safety; seeing people from a number of ethnic backgrounds or nationalities; standards of hygiene and cleanliness)  Most important pull factors (Japanese travelers): Outstanding scenery; historical or archaeological buildings and places; nice weather).  UK travelers placed more importance on these push factors than Japanese: Knowledge enhancement about places, people, and things; getting away from the demands of home; being together as a family; escaping from the ordinary; finding thrills and excitement. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 5
  6. 6. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Learning Objective 2: Role of Marketers in Motivating Travel Explain, and give appropriate examples of, the role of travel marketers in motivating people to take vacations. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Travel as a Need/Want Satisfier A Model of Buyer Behavior  Vacation travel satisfies needs and wants  Viewing travel this way is essential  A model of buyer behavior:  Internal stimuli causes the buyer to seek to travel  External stimuli inform the buyer about her choices  Travel is likely if the buyer decides the destination fits her needs and wants © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 6
  7. 7. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? A Model of Buyer Behavior © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Needs, Wants and Motives  The buyer experiences certain needs  If the buyer is aware of the needs and seeks to satisfy them, then they are wants  A buyer may have needs and wants, but nothing will happen until he is motivated  An objective must present itself  Motives can be specific or general © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 7
  8. 8. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Needs, Wants, and Motives awareness Needs Wants creates Marketing Motivation satisfy suggest Objectives © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Maslow’s Need Theory and Travel Motivations  Survival  Safety  Belonging/love  Esteem  Self-actualization  Before the last can be satisfied, the first need must be met © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 8
  9. 9. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Fakeye and Crompton’s Travel Motives  Escape from personal, physical, and social problems  Social contacts  Physical self and intellectual enrichment  Family togetherness and curiosity  Temperature, exploration, and security © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Beach and Ragheb’s Components of Motivation  Intellectual component:  Exploring, learning, thought Social component:  Relationships, friendship Competence-mastery component:  Mastery, achievement, competition Stimulus-avoidance component:  Solitude, rest, relaxation © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 9
  10. 10. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Vacations: Active, Passive and Health-oriented  Active vacationers relieves tension through physical activity.  Passive vacationers relax by lying on beaches and decompressing.  Health-oriented vacationers are interested in being safe and taking care of the body and mind:  Sun – can cause cancer  Sex – spread of HIV makes known sex-tourism spots like Thailand less appealing © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia VFR (Visiting Friends and Relatives)  First-generation travelers:  Spend less, stay with friends or relatives  Later-generation travelers:  Less likely to stay with friends, relatives  Spend more to maintain the creature comforts they are used to in their home countries  More likely to take tours and want to “journey to their roots” © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 10
  11. 11. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Self-esteem and Self-actualization  Self-esteem depends on accomplishments and the esteem received from others.  Self-actualization:  Considered the end goal of leisure  Leisure time offers the chance for introspection  Visiting unfamiliar cultures brings the self to the fore  Visiting the wilderness does the same © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia The Need to Escape  Considered by some authors as the primary force behind the decision to travel.  Buyers want to escape, but they also desire psychological rewards.  Promoting getaway/escape vacations would be a good way to trigger the desire to travel. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 11
  12. 12. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Product-Driven vs. Consumer-Driven Approaches: Yukon Example (Cameron, 1992) PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES DRIVEN  Wilderness History BENEFITS Get away Learn Connect with nature VALUES Discover yourself CONSUMER  Explore and grow DRIVEN © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Iso-Ahola’s Escaping and Seeking Dimensions of Leisure Motivation Seeking personal rewards Escaping Seeking interpersonal interpersonal environments environments Escaping personal environments © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 12
  13. 13. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Pearce’s Travel Career Ladder  As a person’s travel career progresses, she moves through these five stages:  Relaxation  Stimulation  Relationship  Self-esteem and development  Fulfillment © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Pearce’s Travel Career Ladder © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 13
  14. 14. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Why Travel?  The buyer will take the vacation if he perceives that it will satisfy a need important to him.  The buyer will also travel if he has learned that it will satisfy a particular need.  Must be within limits of individual’s external environment. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Learning Objective 4: Influence of Past Vacation Experiences on Future Vacation Decisions Describe how past vacation experiences influence future vacation decisions. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 14
  15. 15. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Tourist’s Learning Process  The tourist learns from vacations what types of traveling are most satisfying to her.  There is a low upper limit on alternate destinations:  Tourists who have traveled internationally generally have more alternate destinations  The more satisfied a tourist is, the fewer alternate destinations they will consider for their next trip  Tourists also learn the qualities that satisfy them, and seek them when planning future trips.  However, the things that satisfy a tourist can change over time. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia Tourist’s Learning Process © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 15
  16. 16. The Tourism System 6th edition Chapter 11Kendall Hunt Publishing Company Why Do People Take Vacations? Consistency Versus Complexity  People generally seek to maintain consistency in their lives.  Complexity, however, adds satisfying change.  Too much consistency can lead to boredom.  Tourists tend to balance consistency with complexity for an experience that is comfortable and exhilarating. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism Malaysia THE TOURISM SYSTEM Chapter 11 Chapter Summary Highlights  People are motivated to satisfy needs that may be innate or learned.  Marketing’s task is to make people aware of their needs and present them with an objective, the purchase or attainment of which will help satisfy that need.  Individuals will purchase a vacation to satisfy a need or needs if they perceive that the vacation will satisfy needs considered important, or if they have learned that a vacation will satisfy those needs under the constraints of external factors such as time, money, and social pressure. © 2013 Photos courtesy of Tourism MalaysiaRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 16

×