Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Chapter 1 The Destination Mix

8,416

Published on

PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

PowerPoint slides for The Tourism System 7th ed. by Robert C. Mill and Alastair M. Morrison, published by Kendall/Hunt, 2012.

Published in: Travel
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
8,416
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,206
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix PART 1 DESTINATION Part 1. Destination: Planning, Developing, and Controlling Tourism An identification of the procedures that destination areas follow to set policies, plan, control, develop, and cater to tourism, with an emphasis on sustainable tourism development. Part 2. Marketing: Part 4. Travel: Strategy, Planning, Promotion, and The Characteristics of Travel Distribution An examination of the process by which A description and analysis of major travel destination areas and tourism businesses segments, travel flows, and modes of market services and facilities to potential transportation used. customers with an emphasis on the effective use of promotion and distribution channels. Part 3. Demand: The Factors Influencing the Market A consumer behavior approach to market demand emphasizing the internal and external influences on travelers including needs, motivation, and perception; the alternatives to travel; the marketing by tourism organizations; and the process by which travelers make buying decisions. 1 © 2013 Chapter 1 Destination Mix © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 1
  • 2. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Contents  Explores the destination mix concept and its component elements.  Explains the relationships among the destination mix elements.  Identifies the strengths and deficiencies of a tourism destination area. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Purpose Students will be able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of a tourism destination. © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 2
  • 3. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Learning Objective 1: Interdependencies in the Destination Mix Explain the interdependencies between the five destination mix elements. © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint The Destination Mix  The destination mix consists of five elements:  Attractions  Facilities  Infrastructure  Transportation  Hospitality resources  Attractions are the central aspect of tourism. They generate demand for all other elements. All elements must be present for a destination to be successful. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 3
  • 4. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Learning Objective 2: Destination Mix Element Structure Identify the important elements of attractions, facilities, infrastructure, transportation, and hospitality required for a tourism destination. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Attractions  Draw people to them  Can be developed almost anywhere  Primary attractiveness of a destination Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 4
  • 5. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Attractions: Scope  Primary Destination  #1 motivation for tourist visits  Aims at satisfying visitors over a span of several days  Secondary or Stopover Destination  Attracts visitors for a shorter span of days  Interesting stop on way to primary destination  Destinations can be both primary and secondary at the same time, for different segments of the market Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Attractions : Ownership  Government:  Owns 85% of U.S. outdoor recreation lands  Primary motivation not always tourism  Non-profit:  Preserve attractions, can mean great things for tourism  May back out if the venture becomes too commercialized  Private:  For-profit  Short-run profit maximization may be detrimental to the long-term success of the destination Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 5
  • 6. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Attractions : Permanency  Site attractions  Long duration  Cannot be moved  Event attractions  Shorter duration  Can be moved  Cost less to develop than site attractions Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Attractions: Drawing Power  From how far away can the attraction draw visitors?  Designations:  Local  State/Province/Territory  Regional  National  International Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 6
  • 7. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Attractions: Natural Resources  Landscape and scenery:  What is the human imprint? Is it detrimental?  Visitor’s viewpoint: natural resources are free of charge  Variety can be more attractive than sheer impressiveness:  Varied landscape (Great Britain) may draw more visitors that a single great feature (the Alps) cannot Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Attractions: Climate  Though climate is a big seller, the destination must be accessible as well  The destination should offer something that visitors cannot get at home  Visitors like to be kept informed of the bad weather conditions that they have left  Recreational facilities:  The destination should have a variety of options, not just a single option Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 7
  • 8. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Attractions : Culture  Today’s way of life is tomorrow’s culture  To be attractive, the destination must advertise its culture as radically different from the visitor’s home culture  To U.S. tourists, historical culture is extremely appealing:  The Amish (“Pennsylvania Dutch”)  Western ranch country (“Cowboys”)  Colonial Williamsburg Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Attractions: Historical Resources  War:  Battlefields, monuments (“dark tourism”)  Religion:  Churches, shrines, pilgrimages  Habitation:  Houses of famous historical or cultural figures, or dwellings that replicate historical living conditions  Film-induced tourism: Lord of the Rings in NZ  Government:  Seats of government, museums Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 8
  • 9. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Attractions : Ethnicity  Abroad:  First-generation travelers:  Stay with friends, family. Spend less  Non-first-generation travelers:  Often wish to visit the “home country”  Spend more on creature comforts  At home:  Ethnic festivals  Attractions of the home state:  Friends, family, sentimental value Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Attractions: Accessibility  Some destinations owe popularity to high accessibility (Brighton in UK vis-à-vis London)  Measured in:  Time  Cost  Frequency  Comfort Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 9
  • 10. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Development and Design of Attractions  Services and facilities:  Tend to grow up around the attraction  If an area is already developed, it may affect the placement of a new attraction  Attraction clustering:  Visitors desire to do more in one place  Destination more likely to satisfy more people  Destinations arrived at by boat, plane or train are more likely to develop clusters of attractions Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Development and Design of Events  Reasons for staging events:  Celebrate holidays, seasons, historic events  Make money  Provide cultural or educational experiences  Generate community pride  Objectives must be set and agreed upon:  Ranking helps to resolve subsequent conflicts  Helps identify the most important objectives Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 10
  • 11. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Facilities  Tend to support rather than induce growth  If the level of services is lacking, the destination will not be considered by the visitor  Facilities can be the attraction:  Example: a resort hotel that draws visitors and satisfies their needs  Burj Al Arab Hotel in Dubai Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Facilities : Lodging  Sleeping accommodations:  Anywhere from a five-star hotel to a campground  Almost half of U.S. visitors stay at a friends’ or relatives’ places  Mode of transportation affects lodging:  Wagons – inns a day apart  Automobiles – the appearance of the motel  Planes, trains etc. – clusters of hotels around stations and airports Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 11
  • 12. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Facilities : Food and Beverages  Much of tourist spending is on food and beverages  Menus may be designed to incorporate local foods to lower costs and increase visitor interest  Note: food may also be an attraction! Example: seafood at Jimbaran Beach in Bali Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Facilities : Support Industries  Catch-all category which includes duty-free shops, laundries, guides, festival areas, recreational facilites  Tend to be small businesses  To help develop support industries:  Enforce zoning and operating regulations  Control ownership of facilities by leasing them to individual entrepreneurs Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 12
  • 13. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Infrastructure  Water  Sewerage/drainage  Power  Health care  Communication  Security Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Transportation  Modes: how can you get there?  Road, sea, air, rail  Ways: how do you travel there?  Roadways, seaways, airways, railways  Highway and motorway systems  Terminals  Coordination between air, rail and buses essential  Technology  Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) help coordinate ground transportation Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 13
  • 14. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Hospitality Resources  The “general feeling of welcome” a visitor experiences  Hospitality training:  Attitude toward self  Attitude toward others  Attitude toward subject matter Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Teaching Specific Resources  Training people to adopt certain behaviors may affect their attitudes  Special sessions where employees act out hospitable behaviors may help them on the job Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 14
  • 15. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Community Awareness Programs  Benefits of tourism need to be made relevant to members of the community  Community needs to be made comfortable with tourism activities  Members of the community need to understand the visitor Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Authenticity and Cultural Commodification  Authenticity is a Western concept associated with past and contrasting with modernity  When local culture is turned into an attraction for tourists, it becomes a commodity  Cultural commodification can lead to a loss of authenticity  “Keeping the old ways” may mean lack of community economic development  But tourism can make people more proud of their culture Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 15
  • 16. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Learning Objective 3: Destination Competitiveness Identify the crucial elements that make a destination competitive. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Competitive Destinations: Definition  “What makes a tourism destination truly competitive is its ability to increase tourism expenditure, to increasingly attract visitors while providing them with satisfying, memorable experiences, and to do so in a profitable way, while enhancing the well-being of destination residents and preserving the natural capital of the destination for future generations” (Ritchie and Crouch) Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 16
  • 17. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix FutureBrand: Country Brand Index (CBI)  Attractions  Authenticity  Culture  Ethos  Geography  Infrastructure  Governance  Economy Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Destination Competiveness Models (Dwyer et al.):  Destination management  Nature-based resources  Heritage resources  Quality service  Efficient public services  Tourism shopping  Government commitment  Location and access  E-business  Nightlife  Visa requirements  Amusement/theme parks Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 17
  • 18. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Destination Competitiveness Models (Pine & Gilmore):  Active participation  Passive participation  Absorption  Immersion Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Destination Competitiveness Models (Ontario):  Product:  Distinctive core attractions  Quality and critical mass  Satisfaction and value  Accessibility  Accommodation base  Performance:  Visitation  Occupancy and yield  Critical acclaim  Futurity:  Destination marketing  Product renewal  Managing within carrying capacities Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 18
  • 19. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix World Economic Forum Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) (replaced Competitiveness Monitor)  Sub-index A: T&T regulatory framework  Sub-index B: T&T business environment and infrastructure  Sub-index C: T&T human, cultural, and natural resources  See: http://gcr.weforum.org/ttci2011/ Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Destination Competitiveness Models (Ritchie & Crouch)  TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS = f  Destination Appeal  Destination Management  Destination Organization  Destination Information  Destination Efficiency Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 19
  • 20. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Destination Competitiveness Attributes (Crouch)  Physiography and climate  Mix of activities  Culture and history  Tourism superstructure  Safety and security  Cost/value  Accessibility  Special events  Awareness/image Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Destination Management  A measure of how effective the marketing and management efforts are to maximize the positive attributes of the destination while minimizing the negatives or barriers. Destination Organization  A function of various internal organizational actions and the creation of strategic alliances aimed at improving the destination’s attractiveness to tourists. Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 20
  • 21. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Determinants of destination attractiveness (Crouch & Ritchie)  Natural features  Climate  Culture and social characteristics  General infrastructure  Basic services infrastructure  Tourism superstructure  Access and transportation facilities  Attitudes about tourists  Cost/price levels  Economic and social ties  Uniqueness Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint Deterrents to visitation of a destination (Crouch & Ritchie)  Security and safety (political instability; high crime rate)  Health and medical concerns (poor sanitation; lack of reliable medical services)  Laws and regulations (visa requirements; currency controls)  Cultural distance (inability to communicate; restrictions on behavior) Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 21
  • 22. The Tourism System 7th edition Chapter 1Kendall Hunt Publishing Company The Destination Mix Benchmarking (to gain competitive advantage)  Performance measurement (complaints; satisfaction levels; repeat visitor percentage, etc.)  Destination benchmarking:  Internal (against prior performance)  External (against similar destinations)  Generic (against accepted international standards)  New Ideas:  To improve visitor satisfaction that will result in a competitive advantage Copyright - VisitScotland/ScottishViewpoint © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish Viewpoint THE TOURISM SYSTEM Chapter 1 Chapter Summary Highlights  To be a successful tourist destination, there must be a blend of certain elements.  Attractions are the most important of these elements as they are needed to bring people in.  Destinations must also have adequate facilities, infrastructure, and transportation to make visitors comfortable and safe.  Hospitality on the part of local people helps ensure a satisfied customer who will want to return.  Competitiveness of a tourism destination is a function of the market segments targeted and the product mix at the destination (destination mix). © 2013 Photos: Copyright - VisitScotland/Scottish ViewpointRobert C Mill and Alastair M Morrison © 2013 22

×