An overview of Bell Bajao’s recognition, media impact, community mobilisation impact, leadership development, partnerships, research findings, involvement with policy makers, challenges and success stories.
Awards and Recognition•The Bell Bejao campaign has till date won 25 awards including two Silver Lions( Advertising and film) at Cannes.•The social media efforts have translated into 2 case studies for India Social andTactical Technology Collective and has been honoured as one of the thirty youthicons of South Asia by Kindle Magazine.•Bell- Bajao has been adapted in the following countries: Pakistan, Vietnam, Chinaand released in Atlanta and Mexico
Media impact•The traditional mass media campaign reached out to more than 130 million and 110million in two phases (Television Audience Monitoring, Mindshare).•Breakthrough was able to leverage INR 30 million worth of media engagement wherebypopular soap operas and game shows on TV carried the message on domestic violence andradio jockeys talked and promoted the issue in their programmes.•Press publicity worth INR 20 million was generated which included coverage, articles,opinion pieces and editorials on the issue.•Social /online media strategies generated a huge amount of response and were used to createstate and regional level networks among youth, youth-based organisations and community-based organisations. oThe website registered more than a million visits over the period. oThe Bell Bajao! blog continues to remain an interactive and dynamic space and receives atleast 2 posts a week from users and has an archive of over 1000 blogs. oThe new media gave the campaign international exposure and it has since been successfully replicated in China and Pakistan. oBreakthrough will be carrying out complete programmes in Nepal and Bangladesh with pilot interventions.
Media impact•There is an increase in engagement of youth in urban and peri-urban areas throughsocial media and media advocacy. Till date, the Bell Bajao! website (www.bellbajao.org) on an average has over 25,000 visitors per month, around 3799likes on Facebook profile and cause page, over 2700 followers on Twitter.•There is an increase in the media coverage post the sensitization of journalists in TV,radio and print, both at the national and regional level, which is estimated to beworth INR 20 million.•Media engagements with leading television channels have resulted in message onDV being incorporated in popular soap operas and game show. Radio jockeys havetalked about the issue during the video van movement. The endorsement was of thevalue of INR8.5 million.
Community Mobilization impactThe video van travelled across 11 districts of 2 intervention states and 2 metros ofDelhi and Mumbai, over 200 days, covering approximately 25000 kms andreaching out to over 7.5 million people from 2008-11.The impact created- oAlmost 40% have acknowledged that violence is wrong. o47% of respondents have mentioned the need for community action against violence. o36% of the respondents agreed on the need for counselling the perpetrator while 38% agreed on counselling the perpetrator and victim together. oPartners reported a 10-15% increase in case load and there was a subsequent demand in increase for redressal services. Source: Video van report
Leadership developmentDirect and Indirect reach- more than 25000oResearch findings indicate that more than 65% of respondents have attributed their increasedknowledge to NGO and NGO workers. (CMS, 2010). For instance, 400 marginalised youths in theKoppal district in Karnataka are now building awareness especially among men and boys onlinkage between maternal mortality and domestic violence, which was not previously recognisedin the community.oThere is an increase of 10-15% case load and a demand for redressal services, as reported bylocal partners. The partners on the ground have been able to provide immediate follow-up andeffective response to someone seeking support, which has strengthened the creation of anenabling environment for protection of rights.oBreakthrough has supported the institutionalisation within community-based organisation forwomen to become change agents and defined ways to access rights and reduce violence.Breakthrough has facilitated the setting up of a Nari Adalat (Women’s Court) in Tumkur,Karnataka to facilitate community mediation for cases of domestic violence and supported bylocal administration including the office of the Mayor and Police Commissioner.
PartnershipsPartnerships have been developed by Breakthrough at the:•National level- Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD)•State level- Mahila Kalyan Vibhag, State bodies of National Institute of PublicCooperation and Child Development•District level: Protection Officers, District Megistrate•Local level- NGOs, CBOs, Gram panchyat oThe support received probono from MWCD and is estimated to be worth INR 150 million. oAdvertising Agency, Ogilvy gave probono support worth INR 15 million for the creative of the PSA. oSupport was also received from Mindshare to track media using Television Audience Monitoring (TAM). oAll the media channels which aired the campaign offered discounted rates. oWe have partnered with over 100 CBOs/NGOs to implement the project at various levels.
Partnerships•Partnership with the Government of India, Ministry of Women & Child Development hasresulted in Breakthrough training approximately 500 Protection Officers (PO), Police, serviceproviders and Civil Society Organisations in both UP and Karnataka on gender, human rightsand Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 (PWDVA) through a partnershipwith National Commission for Women (NCW).•Breakthrough has trained 150 Master Trainers in Karnataka state as part of the SarvaShiksha Abhiyan which is the Government of India’s flagship programme for universaleducation for all. Breakthrough curriculum on gender, sexuality and rights has beenincorporated in all 27 districts of the state and reached around 50,000 adoloscent girls.•Grassroots organisations like the Family Planning Association of India (FPAI) from UP hasnow incorporated gender and women’s rights into their core approach and methodology.CARDTS has incorporated gender policy into their organization mandate.•Breakthrough advocacy strategy includes inviting partners to a common platform as well asleveraging existing networks like the Aman Network (a national network of organisationswith 36 partners working on DV and providing redressal services).
Involvement with policy makersBreakthrough will also continue to work with policy makers in order to establish gender as apriority concern and ensuring equitable development of men and women. A recentdevelopment has been adoption of the Breakthrough curriculum on gender by the Lal BahadurShastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA), Mussoorie, the premier traininginstitute for senior Civil Servants. Government officials are also being trained through NationalInstitute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD) across India and StateInstitute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (SIPCCD) for effective implementationof the PWDVA.
Research FindingsBreakthrough initiated the “Bell Bajao”, campaign in 2008-11 urging people,specifically men and boys to take action against domestic violence. Thecampaign has been sustained over 4 years. During this period, baseline,midline and endline research to track results and impact was done by theCentre for Media Studies (CMS) and International Centre for Research onWomen (ICRW).
What is domestic violence and its types FORMS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCEAny Form of ViolenceEconomic DeprivationSexual AbusePhysical AbuseVerbal Abuse•There is an increase in knowledge about the kinds of violence, specially sexualviolence and economic deprivation in both the states, but more so in UP speciallyamong the exposed groups•Sexual violence-13% exposed vs 8% non exposed•Economic deprivation -12% exposed vs 6.2% non exposed Source; International Centre for Research on Women( ICRW), 2009-2011
Knowledge on PWDV Act 2005 and its benefits Have heard about Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 - Yes1816 16.514 14.812 13.110864 4.5 3.42 2.20 Male Female Total Baseline End line CMS, 2007-2010 ICRW, 2009-2011 There is an improvement in knowledge about PWDV Act among males and females and post Bell Bajao intervention. It was observed that when this law was passed, many organizations promoted it through various media but the momentum soon vained off and was not sustained. Breakthrough efforts have sustained.
Knowledge on PWDV Act 2005 and its benefits• There is an improvement in knowledge about Protection of Women against Domestic Violence Act, 2005 (PWDVA) and it has sustained over the project period among both males and females. – Data over a period of time, 2008-2011, has shown that the knowledge has increased from Baseline (3.4%) to Endline (15%). – The Baseline survey carried out in 2009 by ICRW showed a tremendous growth in knowledge on the law which can be attributed to many organizations promoting it simultaneously through various media, but the momentum soon waned off. The Breakthrough intervention has managed to continue to work on the issue in the same area on sustained basis. – Those who are exposed to the intervention are showing far more increase in knowledge about the law than the non exposed groups.
Changing attitudesThe lasting effectiveness of the Bell Bajao! campaign seen over 4 years is that DV isnot seen as a private issue and that communities can intervene.•CMS findings have shown that around 89% of the respondents (out of which 91%are men and 87% women) wanted community to intervene in case of a husbandabusing his wife physically, mentally or emotionally.•In 2011, the ICRW exposed vs not exposed groups findings have shown a positivetrend among the exposed in both the states where respondents have mentionedthat community should intervene and women should take legal action in case ofviolence. The data also reflected an increase in opting for lodging FIR/court case orpolice and decrease in percentage of remaining silent if one is facing violence.
Changing attitudesIf a husband abuses his wife (physical/verbal/emotional) the community should intervene Male Female Total Significance level Yes Yes YesBaseline 80.1 73.6 76.9 .000End line 90.6 87.3 88.9 CMS, 2007-2010 The conventional perception that abusing a wife falls within the domain of a family and not an external concern, is weaning away.
Changing attitudesIndicators of Attitudes Karnataka Uttar Pradesh In case of Domestic Not Expose Violence Not exposed Exposed exposed d Community should intervene 74 77 53.4 62.5Women should take legal action 61 69 65 76 Go to Court/lawyer 25 28.4 24 27 Remain silent 26 23 25 13 ICRW, 2009-2011
Changing attitudes•The number of women see no reason to feel ashamed if they seek legalrecourse which has increased from 74% to 82%. (CMS, 2010)•There is a significant decrease in justification of violence in both statesfor cases of she does not cook food properly, denies sex or doessomething without husbands permission. (ICRW, 2011)
What are the barriers in intervening Options suggested: domestic violence 1.It is nobody’s business 2.Women should remain silent 3.Male family member should intervene 4.Other family member should intervene ICRW, 2009-2011 In case of domestic violence Karnataka Uttar Pradesh Not exposed Exposed Not exposed Exposed Community should intervene 74.2 77.2 53.4 62.5 * Women should take legal action* 61.2 68.7 65.8 75.7Significant differences were seen in the perception of the respondents supporting the fact that womenshould take legal action in both states but the need for community intervention was highlightedsignificantly only in UP
Decision makingIndicator Baseline EndlineWhether to have sex 80.2% 86.6%Decision about having number of children 79.3% 88.5%Adopting family planning methods 72.7% 83.9%Whether to use condom 43.9% 74.2%A significant improvement has been seen in joint decision making from the baseline toendline, which demonstrates that equality between men and women has actuallyimproved. A majority agreed that the decision on whether to have sex, adopting familyplanning methods, using condoms and number of children to have were taken by bothhusband and wife and obtaining health care for self as well as for spouse. (CMS, 2010).
Call for actionThere is an increase in the public dialogue on issue around DV, right toresidence, and safe sex.Domestic Violence: 31.5% in the baseline to 54% in the endline.Safe sex: 23% in the baseline to to 32.5% in the endline.Rights of HIV positive people from 5.3% to 9%Stigma and discrimination faced by HIV positive people from 6.3% to12.5%.
Call for actionIncreased knowledge has translated into increased call for action, where around 53%from exposed groups in UP have mentioned that they have taken action to stopviolence than 41% from non-exposed group. Similarly, in Karnataka around 55% arefrom exposed groups and 48% from non-exposed groups (ICRW, 2011).The need to take action when faced with a situation of violence for self or any other isamply demonstrated by a number of case stories from the ground.The stories shared by people are creative variations on the Bell Bajao! concept andinclude a variety of excuses for interruption ranging from snakes, runaway dog, askingfor tea leaves to false phone-calls and asking for directions, especially by young peoplelike Anamika, Sarita, Pinky and Hina.
Success stories•“My sister( Asha Rani) told me about the Bell Bajao campaign after returning from atraining conducted by Breakthrough . I loved the idea. One day , I heard noises of acouple in my neighbourhood. I instantly remembered Bell Bajao and I screamed“Snake Snake”…listening to my voice, the husband stopped beating his wife andstarted looking for the snake. I felt so happy that I had stopped violence”. Rajan,brother of Asha Rani, Tumkur, Karnataka, India•“One day I heard noises of fighting from one of the houses in my neighbourhood. Igathered courage to knock on the door of that house and told the woman thatsomebody had called her on our phone and it was on hold and that she need to takethe call urgently. When the woman came to the house I pretended that there was anetwork problem and that the caller must have disconnected the call. So I managedto stop violence. ”. Anuradha, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.•“One day I heard noises of fighting from one of the houses in my neighbourhood. Iwent up to the house and knocked the door. I told the woman that her mother in lawwas calling her and she was standing near the shop to buy something. When thewoman reached the shop and saw no one, I told her that her mother in law musthave left after waiting for awhile. ” Mohini, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.
Success stories“ I belong to the lower middle class family and presently pursuing Bachelors of Arts,1st year (under graduate course). One day in my neighbourhood, I heard sounds of aman beating his wife. I thought of an excuse and I let my dog loose. However, the dogentered another house, but I went ahead and rung the doorbell of that particularhouse. I went inside the house and pretended to search for my dog. Then I went nextdoor to fetch my dog. Since then I have not hear any sound of violence from thathouse. ” Pinky, kanpur, Uttar Pradesh“I’m Sarita, 2nd year student of Bachelors of Art (under graduate course). I haveattended a Breakthrough training and saw the Bell Bajao campaign. One day I heardnoises of fighting from one of the houses in my neighbourhood. I gathered courage toknock on the door of that house and ask for tea leaves. ” Sarita, Kanpur, UttarPradesh
Stories of changeA notable trend which has been observed in the MSCT research is a change, which is uniqueand ranges from a small subtle shift in the attitude or ability of an individual to a significantand visible impact on a situation where a person, a family or a community have demandedand secured their rights / justice.•Manjula from Tumkur, Karnataka, learnt from a Breakthrough workshop that it was fine forher to smile, laugh and play with her children and be happy.•Hareesh, a young boy from Tumkur, always wanted to try his hand at cooking but did not dueto preconceived notions of gender roles but after attending a Breakthrough workshop herevisited notions of gender roles leading him to not only cook meals but serve it to his friends.•The ‘Water Story” reflects the collective action taken by women in the community in a village inTumkur district. Led by Jayamma, women Self Help Groups demanded and got clean water andwater tanks from the local Panchayat.•For Giriraj Meti of Yelamgeri in Koppal, Karnataka, change began with himself with a changein his attitude, perception, own behaviour towards his own family. This has been followed by hisactive intervention in the lives of neighbours and the community, touching on issues of girl childeducation and child marriage. He and his friends have started Thaythana Rakshana Vedike(TRV) a village level forum on safe motherhood..
Success stories•Rajwati of Kumhrava village in UP got help from a Rights Advocate to deal with herin-laws, particularly her abusive brother-in-law and husband. The advocate spoke toall members of the family and appraised them of the fact that the abuse of Rajwati wasunder a scanner and violating legal provisions that protect women from DV.•Kalawati, a young widow in UP lost her job as a cook in the nearby school canteen.She was shunned by her community as she was HIV positive. Anita, a Breakthroughtrainer conducted a continuous dialogue with the school authorities, teachers, villagehead and the community around the issue. As a result of this multi point intervention,Kalawati was reinstated back into her job and was able to support herself and her twodaughters.•In a village of Karnataka, a mother along with support from the community womenwas able to deal with the abuse her daughter was facing in her marital home. Thecommunity took collective action to negotiate peace and safety for the daughter in hermarriage.
Stories of change•Leena D’Silva who ‘got a bus stop’, Jayamma and the women of Gubbi in Tumkur who got theirclean water, Kamini who organised action in her slum community against the menace posed by thelocal drunkard, Kalavathi of Koppal, now working as a community motivator with the Gender andHealth Equity project (GHE) engaging with doctors and other professionals on equal terms –are allexamples of stories that reflect impact and improvement in the status of women as activeparticipants in the citizenship process.•Hanumantha, a young farmer, stereotypical male, with little to no sensitivity or empathy forwomen, their lives and their concerns has worked on a campaign for safe motherhood after beingexposed to Breakthrough training. Other stories showing similar change are those of Giriraj,Kumaranayak, Mariswamy, Suresh, Allah Bakshi and many others. (MSCT)
Challenges•Individual level:Research findings for both states in the first phase have shown a positive change inthe attitude of men towards a woman seeking legal action in case of violence.However, in the second phase there is a regression (CMS & ICRW). Both sets ofdata throw light on a specific indicator on shame “If a woman is facing domesticviolence and she is taking legal action, she is bringing shame to the family”. •In Phase 1, UP recorded a decrease from 54% to 26% and Karnataka from 35% to 8%, in Phase 2, there is a sharp increase in sense of shame, specially among males in both states. In Dakshin Kannada and Gulberga, Karnataka, it has increased from 28% to 71% and 48% to 82% respectively and in UP, specially in Varanasi, it has increased from 19% to 62%. This dramatic shift can be attributed to men feeling threatened and further emphasizes the need to work with men and boys in a sustained manner.
Challenges•Community level:There are encouraging signs and some communities have taken initiative, forinstance the formation of Nari Adalat in Koppal, which demonstrate howcommunities have started thinking for themselves and taking ownership of thecampaign. However, to be more sustainable at the community level, the effectivechange makers will have to be identified and linkages built among all thestakeholders.Greater advocacy and push is required for individual and collective action throughformation of stronger networks at the community level.
Challenges•Organisational level:While Breakthrough has trained a large number of individuals at the grass rootlevel and individual capacities have been built, for the work to have optimumimpact, we realise that unless the methodology and approach is adopted at anorganisational level, replication and sustainability will be difficult.Some organisations like Sahbhagi Shikshan Kendra in Varanasi have incorporatedthe Breakthrough methodology in their mandate but for a majority oforganisations addressing gender issues are not part of their mandate. At times,organisations are also constrained financially to carry out the activities.
Challenges•Institutional level:Breakthrough has been successful in putting gender issues on the Governmentagenda. It has developed partnerships with various ministries and has built theircapacities around the issue. However, implementation and creating an effectiveservice delivery mechanism continues to be a challenge and follow-through oncourt awards and judgements and compensation pose another set of issues. Thesegaps are key areas that require investment and focused attention, energy andresources to improve the actual ‘delivery’ of justice into the hands of the personfighting for it.
Ongoing and Future plansBreakthrough has been able to secure grants for continuation of the activities of the MDG3project. The learning’s from the MDG3 project on issue of DV/VAW and the differentstrategies/methodology are now being extended with pilot intervention to our neighbouringcountries. •A grant from FLOW will support the programme in Nepal. •Grants from the United Nations Trust Fund (UNTF) and Oxfam Novib will support Bangladesh. We will carry out capacity building of NGOs in Pakistan, Cambodia, Myanmar and Afghanistan on the Breakthrough methodology to run campaigns and scale up the issue. •We will be launching a campaign against Early Marriage in Bihar and Jharkhand and this is being supported by grants from the OAK Foundation and Ford Foundations. •We have been able to secure a research grant from UNFPA for the project on Sex Selective Elimination. •Proposals are in the pipeline to build on the ground implementation projects for sex selection. Continuous efforts are being made for raising funds for more programmes and geographies. Implementation Partners have been identified in China (Half the Sky), Malaysia (Women’s aid Organisation) and Denmark (LOKK) who have evinced interest in the Bell Bajao! campaign and are raising funds for implementation of the same.
Research and DevelopmentBreakthrough is developing a simple, participatory and user friendly onlineknowledge sharing platform with toolkits and modules for two distinct groups. •The first group is peer NGOs/CBOs who can strengthen their programmes on VAW •The second group will be individuals who will become change agents and take positive action.Efforts are on to raise funds for taking the 360 degree learnings from the ground anddeveloping a web based and mobile curriculum application.