REMBRANDT VAN RIJN --Born in Leiden, 1606 --Originally studied under van Swanenburgh --At the age of 17 or 18, went to Amsterdam to study under Lastman, a more capable master
The Money Changer by Rembrandt (1627) Chiaroscuro, “Tenebrism”
Portrait of Jan Six (Burgomaster of Amsterdam) Early success: becomes the leading painter in Amsterdam, including portraits for leading citizens and important groups; commission for the House of Orange. REMBRANDT: PORTRAITURE
Silverpoint drawing of Saskia van Uylenburgh by Rembrandt (1633) “ This was drawn after my wife, when she was 21 years old, the third day after our betrothal—the 8 th of June, 1633.” REMBRANDT: SASKIA
Saskia van Uylenburgh -Cousin of an art dealer with whom Rembrandt lived and rented studio space when he moved to Amsterdam. -From a well-connected family, she brought him a large dowry and an entrée into social circles which benefited his career. -Frequently served as Rembrandt’s model. REMBRANDT: SASKIA
REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) “ The Militia Company of Captain Banning Cocq” A group portrait for the Kloveniers militia
REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) 18 members involved in the commission, but Rembrandt paints 30+
REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Powder boy Extra figures: adds visual interest, and also provides active figures
REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Banning Cocq: gesturing, speaking; as if ordering the men to march out
REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Glove: challenge
REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Musketry: The musket was the special weapon of the Kloveniers militia
REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Laurel leaves: victory
REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Chicken, tied by its claws
REMBRANDT: THE NIGHTWATCH (1642) Insignia of the Kloveniers militia
Saskia: dies in 1642. Holding a joint estate with Rembrandt, her will stipulated that her half did not go to him, but to Titus when he married or came of age, Rembrandt got only any interest off of her half until that time. Further, if he were to remarry, her half was to go to one of her sisters, and Titus’s share would be forfeit, as Rembrandt’s stake in the interest.
Rembrandt—Financial Insolvency: -Had taken a large loan in 1639 to buy the house; after 15 years had only managed to pay off about a quarter of what he owed, and had also been ignoring taxes and interest. -Selling the house would have caused potential difficulties due to the terms of Saskia’s will, since they had owned it jointly and thus it was part of Titus’s inheritance. -Forced in 1656 to apply for a cessation of goods, whereby his possessions were auctioned off by his creditors, including his paintings, drawings, and prints.
Self-Portrait, 1660 Rembrandt in the 1660s: -Moves to a small rented house with Titus, Hendrickje, and his daughter Cornelia. -Obliged to turn over future sales of art to his creditors, he sets up a dummy corporation with Titus and Hendrickje as “art dealers” and Rembrandt as a salaried “ advisor.” -Again starts to receive important commissions, including the Syndics of the Draper’s Guild and Julius Civilis.
Self-Portrait, 1660 Both Titus and Hendrickje die in 1663, leaving Cornelia as his only surviving family.