GIANLORENZO BERNINI (Self Portrait, age 25)  Born December 7, 1598  Naples, Italy
BERNINI 1609: Gianlorezno carves  a portrait bust that is so  impressive that the Pope  asks that the boy be  brought to h...
BERNINI 1623: Maffeo Barberini  assumes the papacy as  Pope Urban VIII Pope Urban VIII  by Bernini (for the Pope’s tomb in...
BERNINI “ Ecstatic Baroque” (“High Baroque”)  “ Catholic Restoration”
BERNINI Mary Magdelene, 1661
BERNINI St. Jerome, 1661
BERNINI Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 1645-52 (Cornaro  Chapel, Sta. Maria  della Vittoria, Rome)
BERNINI Death of the Blessed Lucdovica Albertoni, 1674 (Altieri Chapel, San Francisco a Ripa, Rome)
“ ECSTATIC BAROQUE” Ecstasy of St. Margaret of  Cortona by Gionvanni Lanfranco
BERNINI Bernini: received over 30  commissions from Urban VIII, and several official  posts including, at the age  of 30, ...
BERNINI: ST. PETER’S
BERNINI: ST. PETER’S    Baldacchino  Baldacchino: begun in 1624  (when Bernini was 25).  Ninety-five foot bronze  canopy ...
BERNINI: ST. PETER’S--Baldacchino (1624-33)
BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Crossing (Saints and relics)
BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Cathedra Petri    Cathedra Petri  (“Peter’s Chair”): visible upon entering the  church and framed by...
Cathedra Petri: a  hollow reliquary— encased by Bernini  within is an old wooden  chair believed to have  been used by St....
BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Interior (tombs) Tomb of Pope  Urban VIII
BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Interior (tombs) Tomb of Pope  Alexander VII  (1678-79)
BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Piazza St. Peter’s (1656-67)  Piazza St. Peter’s:  creates a large,  open space where  250,000 people...
BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Constantine in Scala Regia  Scala Regia   (Royal Staircase)  Scala Regia: private  entrance used by ...
BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Constantine in Scala Regia
BERNINI: ARCHITECTURE—Projects in Rome (Fountains)  Fountain of  the Four Rivers  (Piazza Navona; 1651): allegories  of th...
BERNINI: PORTRAIT SCULPTURE, SCULPTED BUSTS Francesco d’Este,  Duke of Modena 1650s: flowing hair,  billowing robe or  clo...
DUTCH GENRE PAINTING Woman Holding a  Balance by Vermeer, c. 1664
DUTCH GENRE PAINTING Feast of St. Nicholas by Jan Steen Still Life by William Claesz. Heda
DUTCH STILL LIFE: MORALIZING MEANINGS  Still Life by Willem Claesz. Heda (1636) Lemon: looks   but has a bitter  taste; m...
Life of Man by Jan Steen (c.1665) Boy blowing bubbles and  skull: vanitas, insignificance  of worldly pursuits, desires  ...
DUTCH GENRE PAINTING: MORALIZING MEANINGS  Sleeping Sportsman  by Gabriel Metsu  (c.1660) “ Vogelen” (birds):  slang for s...
DUTCH GENRE PAINTING: MORALIZING MEANINGS  The Morning Toilet  by Jan Steen (1663) Candle and open jewel box: “Neither doe...
DUTCH STILL LIFE: MORALIZING MEANINGS  Still Life by Willem Claesz. Heda (1636) Lemon: looks   but has a bitter  taste; m...
DUTCH STILL LIFE: MORALIZING MEANINGS  Vanitas Still Lifes by Harmen Steenwijck (c.1640s)  Transience     Withered branch...
--In a 20+ year career as a  painter, may not have  painted more than 50 works. --Born and baptized in Delft in  1632  --F...
--Married in 1653; his wife’s mother, Maria Thins, had an small but impressive art collection. --Apparently had a patron n...
VERMEER: KNOWN DOCUMENTATION OF HIS LIFE --Various loan certificates  survive. --Vermeer took over his father’s  house and...
VERMEER: KNOWN DOCUMENTATION OF HIS LIFE --His widow petitions for  bankruptcy; various paintings  seized to cover debts, ...
VERMEER: MORALIZING MEANINGS Maidservant Pouring Milk: domestic virtue?—women at  chores Nurturing?—milk
VERMEER: MORALIZING MEANINGS Lady Weighing Gold  Scales: vanitas      The Last Judgment  Christ in judgment   The Saved...
VERMEER: MORALIZING MEANINGS St. Michael with  scales judging  souls   By Hans Memling (15 th  century) Takes place of  ...
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Week 4 Review Done Spr

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  • father warned when gian only 8 that he would soon surpass him
  • around time bernini doing these precocious sculptures, his old protector and tutor, barberini, becomes pope—a great patron, conneusuer, intellectual, will bring about his own kind of renaissance in rome, with bernini now as his point man.
  • the style that will prosper right up bernini’s alley with his penchant for dramatic, visceral, flamboyant scenes, kind of like a christinaized version of this same style, in arch, sculpture and painting, sometimes called ecstatic baroque
  • will evolve quickly and by an early age under those guys supervision some of not only his own finest masterpieces, but some of the finest masterpieces anyone has ever produced in stone, ironically many of pagan themes not christian, but guys like borghese big admirers and collectors of ancient art also
  • will evolve quickly and by an early age under those guys supervision some of not only his own finest masterpieces, but some of the finest masterpieces anyone has ever produced in stone, ironically many of pagan themes not christian, but guys like borghese big admirers and collectors of ancient art also
  • and the most famous of all—the most ecstatic, perhaps most simply ecstatic statue ever carved. tough, having sex with god, and combo, like installation
  • even when working on a secular tomb, this sense of intense ecstasy, as if the agonies of the death bed themselves has been turned into an ecstatic glimpse of paradise
  • infl. on bernini, esp.the pose of teresa
  • pope encouraged him to study architecture. really changes face of both st. peter’s and rome.
  • 600 foot nave
  • baladachino sometimes called world’s first baroque monument
  • baladachino sometimes called world’s first baroque monument
  • relics no longer encased, now in a chapel and displayed only during lent
  • baladachino sometimes called world’s first baroque monument
  • baladachino sometimes called world’s first baroque monument
  • very late, one of last works—problem, not orig intended for st. peter’s, and when they decided to put it there, gave him a very awkward placement, rightover a door, wound up coming upwith a very novel solution, sculpts around the door to kind of turn it into something that looks like the door of a tomb,, with a skeleton with an hour glass as a momento mori
  • very late, one of last works—problem, not orig intended for st. peter’s, and when they decided to put it there, gave him a very awkward placement, rightover a door, wound up coming upwith a very novel solution, sculpts around the door to kind of turn it into something that looks like the door of a tomb,, with a skeleton with an hour glass as a momento mori
  • comes up with an ingenious plan that has become one of the most recognizable landmarks in the world—serves notjust to create a space to congregate. but also enhances façade of church—plan of two enveloping arms.
  • center piece is this old eg obelisk—so this peter symbolism, although thismay have actually been justa justification to add an element that would not only provide a focal point, but one that was seemed tall and elegant in a piazza which was deliberately broad and squat.
  • center piece is this old eg obelisk—so this peter symbolism, although thismay have actually been justa justification to add an element that would not only provide a focal point, but one that was seemed tall and elegant in a piazza which was deliberately broad and squat.
  • on left are some of the originals
  • this is an innovation in look he comes up with in 1650s, to make it more dramatic, very popular
  • saw that dutch genre is deceptive, beneath veneer of everyday life, often moralizing meanings, and same can be said for vermeer—so good at the look, so slick and efficient a painter that not nearly as obvious, but often moralizing
  • saw that dutch genre is deceptive, beneath veneer of everyday life, often moralizing meanings, and same can be said for vermeer—so good at the look, so slick and efficient a painter that not nearly as obvious, but often moralizing
  • at least a general meaning, in these all flowers that would bloom at different times, so an artificial not natural construction, of transcience, all thigns will decay, even without more hidden meanings
  • homo bulla-man is a bubble
  • at least a general meaning, in these all flowers that would bloom at different times, so an artificial not natural construction, of transcience, all thigns will decay, even without more hidden meanings
  • at least a general meaning, in these all flowers that would bloom at different times, so an artificial not natural construction, of transcience, all thigns will decay, even without more hidden meanings
  • from time of birth until wedding, no mentionof him—re dues paid, only matter of what would have been a few hundred dollars to register, so either he really didn’t much care, or he was in very bad financial straits—no master for vermeer known, nothing about training or apprenticeship, commissions, sales, or early career
  • from time of birth until wedding, no mentionof him—re dues paid, only matter of what would have been a few hundred dollars to register, so either he really didn’t much care, or he was in very bad financial straits—no master for vermeer known, nothing about training or apprenticeship, commissions, sales, or early career
  • TOTAL KNOWN LIFE’S WORK BETWEEN 30 AND 40 PAINTINGS from time of birth until wedding, no mentionof him—re dues paid, only matter of what would have been a few hundred dollars to register, so either he really didn’t much care, or he was in very bad financial straits—no master for vermeer known, nothing about training or apprenticeship, commissions, sales, or early career
  • TOTAL KNOWN LIFE’S WORK BETWEEN 30 AND 40 PAINTINGS from time of birth until wedding, no mentionof him—re dues paid, only matter of what would have been a few hundred dollars to register, so either he really didn’t much care, or he was in very bad financial straits—no master for vermeer known, nothing about training or apprenticeship, commissions, sales, or early career
  • and tranquility of the scene itself lends meaning of a kind of perfect moral balance
  • saw that dutch genre is deceptive, beneath veneer of everyday life, often moralizing meanings, and same can be said for vermeer—so good at the look, so slick and efficient a painter that not nearly as obvious, but often moralizing
  • saw that dutch genre is deceptive, beneath veneer of everyday life, often moralizing meanings, and same can be said for vermeer—so good at the look, so slick and efficient a painter that not nearly as obvious, but often moralizing
  • Week 4 Review Done Spr

    1. 1. GIANLORENZO BERNINI (Self Portrait, age 25) Born December 7, 1598 Naples, Italy
    2. 2. BERNINI 1609: Gianlorezno carves a portrait bust that is so impressive that the Pope asks that the boy be brought to him. He asks the boy to sketch a head of St. Paul, and is so awed by the boy’s talent that he decides the child’s education and training are matters of utmost importance. He entrusts the child to a noted patron, Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, with the hope that the boy will become “ the Michelangelo of our century.” Pope Paul V by Guido Reni
    3. 3. BERNINI 1623: Maffeo Barberini assumes the papacy as Pope Urban VIII Pope Urban VIII by Bernini (for the Pope’s tomb in St. Peter’s)
    4. 4. BERNINI “ Ecstatic Baroque” (“High Baroque”) “ Catholic Restoration”
    5. 5. BERNINI Mary Magdelene, 1661
    6. 6. BERNINI St. Jerome, 1661
    7. 7. BERNINI Ecstasy of St. Teresa, 1645-52 (Cornaro Chapel, Sta. Maria della Vittoria, Rome)
    8. 8. BERNINI Death of the Blessed Lucdovica Albertoni, 1674 (Altieri Chapel, San Francisco a Ripa, Rome)
    9. 9. “ ECSTATIC BAROQUE” Ecstasy of St. Margaret of Cortona by Gionvanni Lanfranco
    10. 10. BERNINI Bernini: received over 30 commissions from Urban VIII, and several official posts including, at the age of 30, Architect of St. Peter’s.
    11. 11. BERNINI: ST. PETER’S
    12. 12. BERNINI: ST. PETER’S  Baldacchino Baldacchino: begun in 1624 (when Bernini was 25). Ninety-five foot bronze canopy directly under the dome over the crossing and directly over supposed burial site of St. Peter at the crossing of the basilica
    13. 13. BERNINI: ST. PETER’S--Baldacchino (1624-33)
    14. 14. BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Crossing (Saints and relics)
    15. 15. BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Cathedra Petri  Cathedra Petri (“Peter’s Chair”): visible upon entering the church and framed by the columns of the Baldacchino.
    16. 16. Cathedra Petri: a hollow reliquary— encased by Bernini within is an old wooden chair believed to have been used by St. Peter, making it the first papal throne (in fact, tests of the wood it dates only from the 8 th or 9 th century). BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Cathedra Petri (1657-66)
    17. 17. BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Interior (tombs) Tomb of Pope Urban VIII
    18. 18. BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Interior (tombs) Tomb of Pope Alexander VII (1678-79)
    19. 19. BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Piazza St. Peter’s (1656-67) Piazza St. Peter’s: creates a large, open space where 250,000 people can gather to receive the pope’s blessing from either the basilica or the Vatican Palace directly to the north.
    20. 20. BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Constantine in Scala Regia Scala Regia  (Royal Staircase) Scala Regia: private entrance used by the pope to go between St. Peter’s and the Vatican. Bernini redesigned the steps so they would be less steep and more regular, and sculpted a statue of Constantine placed in the passage way leading directly into the church.
    21. 21. BERNINI: ST. PETER’S—Constantine in Scala Regia
    22. 22. BERNINI: ARCHITECTURE—Projects in Rome (Fountains) Fountain of the Four Rivers (Piazza Navona; 1651): allegories of the four continents/ corners of the earth.
    23. 23. BERNINI: PORTRAIT SCULPTURE, SCULPTED BUSTS Francesco d’Este, Duke of Modena 1650s: flowing hair, billowing robe or cloak
    24. 24. DUTCH GENRE PAINTING Woman Holding a Balance by Vermeer, c. 1664
    25. 25. DUTCH GENRE PAINTING Feast of St. Nicholas by Jan Steen Still Life by William Claesz. Heda
    26. 26. DUTCH STILL LIFE: MORALIZING MEANINGS Still Life by Willem Claesz. Heda (1636) Lemon: looks  but has a bitter taste; metaphor for the deceptive nature of worldly pleasure.
    27. 27. Life of Man by Jan Steen (c.1665) Boy blowing bubbles and skull: vanitas, insignificance of worldly pursuits, desires  DUTCH GENRE PAINTING: MORALIZING MEANINGS
    28. 28. DUTCH GENRE PAINTING: MORALIZING MEANINGS Sleeping Sportsman by Gabriel Metsu (c.1660) “ Vogelen” (birds): slang for sex  
    29. 29. DUTCH GENRE PAINTING: MORALIZING MEANINGS The Morning Toilet by Jan Steen (1663) Candle and open jewel box: “Neither does one buy pearls in the dark, nor does one look for love at night.” (period cliché) “ Kous” (stocking): slang for vagina She is a prostitute; moral about illicit sex Putting on stocking  Candle and open jewel box 
    30. 30. DUTCH STILL LIFE: MORALIZING MEANINGS Still Life by Willem Claesz. Heda (1636) Lemon: looks  but has a bitter taste; metaphor for the deceptive nature of worldly pleasure.
    31. 31. DUTCH STILL LIFE: MORALIZING MEANINGS Vanitas Still Lifes by Harmen Steenwijck (c.1640s) Transience  Withered branch  Burned out pipes  Snuffed out candle  Over-turned glass History book 
    32. 32. --In a 20+ year career as a painter, may not have painted more than 50 works. --Born and baptized in Delft in 1632 --Father owned a tavern (in the same building as their home), designed and sold silk cloth, and was registered as a master art dealer --Registered with Guild of St. Luke in 1653, dues not fully paid until 1656. Periodically listed as a board member. Registry, Guild of St. Luke VERMEER: KNOWN DOCUMENTATION OF HIS LIFE
    33. 33. --Married in 1653; his wife’s mother, Maria Thins, had an small but impressive art collection. --Apparently had a patron named Van Ruijven, who had rights of first refusal on his works. Van Ruijven owned at least 20 Vermeers, dating from the 1650s to the 1670s. It is believed Van Ruijven kept Vermeer on a retainer—this is not specifically documented, but Van Ruijven’s cousin had exactly such an arrangement with Gerard Dou. Registry, Guild of St. Luke VERMEER: KNOWN DOCUMENTATION OF HIS LIFE
    34. 34. VERMEER: KNOWN DOCUMENTATION OF HIS LIFE --Various loan certificates survive. --Vermeer took over his father’s house and tavern, but had to rent them out in 1672 and move to a smaller house. --Dies in 1676, leaving 8 children and various debts; his widow is forced to give some of his paintings to a baker as a collateral for a bakery bill. Registry, Guild of St. Luke
    35. 35. VERMEER: KNOWN DOCUMENTATION OF HIS LIFE --His widow petitions for bankruptcy; various paintings seized to cover debts, including 26 by a merchant against a grocery bill. Notice of bankruptcy of Vermeer’s widow
    36. 36. VERMEER: MORALIZING MEANINGS Maidservant Pouring Milk: domestic virtue?—women at chores Nurturing?—milk
    37. 37. VERMEER: MORALIZING MEANINGS Lady Weighing Gold Scales: vanitas   The Last Judgment Christ in judgment  The Saved   The Damned
    38. 38. VERMEER: MORALIZING MEANINGS St. Michael with scales judging souls  By Hans Memling (15 th century) Takes place of  St. Michael, bridge between secular and sacred worlds: as you judge in this world, someday you will be judged

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