Week 3 Review Done Spr
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  • no patrons for car’s early works, sell on street
  • alcehmy—one of his compounds apparently killed someone; wear boy’’s underpants around neck as an ascot
  • so startsdoing paintings for del monte, and often kind of sxual ones involving young boys—allegories of music were typical, but her young boys instead of usual girls as muses—music considered sensual, erotic—old saying
  • lizards poisonous, so deadly bite of love. anyway, here developing in these works a highly realizistic and dramatic style, and also a very dark paletter, will be transferred over with more prudent results to his religious paintins
  • realism,low class
  • FIRST BECOMES PROMINENT,BRINGS HIS NEW STYLE TO PUBLIC AWARENESS NEAR TURN OF CENTURY, CONTARELLI CHAPEL. HAS BEEN LIVING IN PALACE OF DEL MONTE
  • FIRST BECOMES PROMINENT,BRINGS HIS NEW STYLE TO PUBLIC AWARENESS NEAR TURN OF CENTURY, CONTARELLI CHAPEL. HAS BEEN LIVING IN PALACE OF DEL MONTE
  • supposed to be ethiopia, but not very ethiopian, retold in pseudo contemp stories
  • this done a little later, maybe 1602 adds it, they must not have liked the first one becaue maybe too close to angel or something, kind of untraditional to showangel interacting that physically, maybe want something more conservativr, notice in other has a halo, in first does not, so that’s a conservative touch that on his own by that time car would not have probably included.
  • him, blinded on the ground by the heavenly light, the horse and servant oblvious
  • while saul is psychological, peter is all physical, hard physical baroque realism
  • very counter ref, very humbel, really promotes virgin, moved maybe too humble, too baroque realism
  • very counter ref, very humbel, really promotes virgin, moved maybe too humble, too baroque realism
  • very counter ref, very humbel, really promotes virgin, moved maybe too humble, too baroque realism
  • very counter ref, very humbel, really promotes virgin, moved maybe too humble, too baroque realism
  • leaves naples, decides he wants to be a knight, maybe to save his soul or something, or maybe he is just crazy, hard to understand his motives. presitge? maybe he thinks as a knight can get a pardon for his crimes in rome? used to be on rhodes, now on malta, would fight muslims. latter day crusading order. they did fight off a potential turkish invasion there at great odds. religious knights. many young nobles would become knights, and knighthood was a noble thing, and he is not a noble, plus religious order, dedicated to j the b, have to take a vow of poverty, obedience and chastity. he goes to malta at their invitation, starts doing portraits of them, here the grand master, no doubt they are happy to have best painter in europe sitting there on their island working for them.
  • leaves naples, decides he wants to be a knight, maybe to save his soul or something, or maybe he is just crazy, hard to understand his motives. presitge? maybe he thinks as a knight can get a pardon for his crimes in rome? used to be on rhodes, now on malta, would fight muslims. latter day crusading order. they did fight off a potential turkish invasion there at great odds. religious knights. many young nobles would become knights, and knighthood was a noble thing, and he is not a noble, plus religious order, dedicated to j the b, have to take a vow of poverty, obedience and chastity. he goes to malta at their invitation, starts doing portraits of them, here the grand master, no doubt they are happy to have best painter in europe sitting there on their island working for them.
  • his largest painting—almost 20 feet wide, in cathedral in malta. guy points down to the charger. actually experimenting with a new style, still a drama,but more of the whole tense feeling of it, not the drama of the shooting blood.
  • according to golden legend, urusula refused to be wife of pagan king of the huns and he had her shot at close range, here the bow string still sways
  • could have been attacked by any number of people, people sent by the knights, friends of guy he murdered, or any of a number of people he had pissed off
  • could have been attacked by any number of people, people sent by the knights, friends of guy he murdered, or any of a number of people he had pissed off
  • AMONG THOSE INFLUENCED BY THE BAR REALISM OF CAR IS A YOUNG PAINTER IN SEVILLE, VELAZ, WHO WILL GROW INTO THE GREAT NAME OF SPAN ART AND ONE OF THE GREAT NAMES IN THE HISTORY OF ART—here are some early works, one relig, one not, a kind of kitchen piece called a bodegon
  • AMONG THOSE INFLUENCED BY THE BAR REALISM OF CAR IS A YOUNG PAINTER IN SEVILLE, VELAZ, WHO WILL GROW INTO THE GREAT NAME OF SPAN ART AND ONE OF THE GREAT NAMES IN THE HISTORY OF ART—here are some early works, one relig, one not, a kind of kitchen piece called a bodegon
  • AMONG THOSE INFLUENCED BY THE BAR REALISM OF CAR IS A YOUNG PAINTER IN SEVILLE, VELAZ, WHO WILL GROW INTO THE GREAT NAME OF SPAN ART AND ONE OF THE GREAT NAMES IN THE HISTORY OF ART—here are some early works, one relig, one not, a kind of kitchen piece called a bodegon
  • these seem to bear a debt to some of the early caravaggios, both religious and not, realism, low class characters, everyday scenes, car even turns religious scenes into what seem like ordinary scenes, still life elements
  • these were also a chance for him to really show off his ability to paint natural objects, tour de force of naturalism
  • LAST COMM FROM A SEVILLE MONASTERY, HIS STYLE GOING OUT OF STYLE
  • like san cot sense of quietude, darkness that seems to point to a produndity beyond the physical objects themselves, table has a presence to it like an altar. formally strong, lemon on left in saucer points eye to baskedt, and then leaves archup and over point to cup—there is also a passage from deutoronomy that has been associated with this, pick up the fruit from the ground.
  • HIS MAIN POINT OF ENTRÉE WAS GASPAR DE GUZMAN, COUNT-DUKE OLIVARES, WHO HAD BECOME THE HEAD OF THE KING’S GOVT AND HAD RESIDED IN SEVILLE AND STILL HAD LOCAL TIES. PROBABLY NOT JUST OUT OF TE GOODNESS OF HIS HEART THAT OLIVARES HELPS VELAZ GET IN, BECAUSE HE WAS A SHWRED GUY WHO PROBABLY RECOGNIZED EVEN WHILE THE KING WAS AT A YOUNG AGE THAT HE WOULD HAVE A SINCERE PASSION FOR ART LIKE PHILIP II, SO FINDING HIM A GREAT YOUNG PAINTER WOULD SCORE POINTS.—v later repays that debt in part with this sensational portrait of him, one of the really fine equest ports., and by the way, there is an alternate version of it that you might someday see
  • decorating court meeting place for french and spanish to sign peace treaty, end long war, comes back to madrid, takes sick and dies, and his funeral was attended by dignataries, nobles, churchmen, as fitting a person of his rank—after all, he did get that knighthood right before he dies. and there is a legend, whether true or not we can’t know, but this story persists, that he finished this painting before the knighthood. if so, that red cross on his chest is not appropriate, because mark of order of santiago, would only have been allowed to have that after he was knighted, and if so, not original part of painting, so legend that after he died, philip himself, out of respect and debt to his servant and friend, picked up a brush himself and painted it on.
  • and this forms the backdrop for his most famous painting—some of you may choose this as assignment, so I won’t go too deep into it, but I will outline the basic parameters and some of the meaning which have been derived—one of the most complex paintings ever conceived, esp. in relation to the viewer, so let’s start by talking about some of the main characters

Week 3 Review Done Spr Presentation Transcript

  • 1. --Born near Milan in 1571 as Michelangelo Merisi --Known as Caravaggio because that city, a small farming community east of Milan, was the family home --His father died in 1577, leaving him to be raised by his mother --Apprenticed to the painter Simone Peterzano in Milan in 1584; Peterzano claimed to have studied under Titian in Venice --Unknown if Caravaggio completed his apprenticeship, and no art work from this period is attributed to him CARAVAGGIO Caravaggio by Ottavio Leoni by Simone Peterzano
  • 2. --In late 1580s left Milan; he may have fled the city because he killed someone, and there are notations indicating that he had spent a year in a Milanese prison --In the early 1590s, his mother died and her property was sold; Caravaggio took his part of the inheritance and went to Rome CARAVAGGIO Caravaggio by Ottavio Leoni by Simone Peterzano
  • 3. --Worked for minor painters who sold small devotional images and portraits on the streets --Went to work for Giuseppe Cesari (the Cavalier d’Arpino), a well-known artist who had worked for Pope Clement VIII --It was noted that Cesari employed Caravaggio to paint fruits and flowers; unknown whether he participated in Cesari’s papal commissions CARAVAGGIO: EARLY DAYS IN ROME Still life (1590s)
  • 4. CARAVAGGIO: EARLY WORKS—Cardinal del Monte Cardsharps (c.1594-95) --Sold through a dealer to Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte --Del Monte was from a powerful, wealthy, and influential family. He was a known connoisseur of the arts and practitioner of alchemy. His public reputation was good, but in fact he was known to cavort with women of ill-repute, and was also a homosexual pedophile. --Del Monte becomes Caravaggio’s first important patron
  • 5. Concert of Youths (c.1595) “ Love is always in the company of music.” Cupid (wings)  Grapes: wine CARAVAGGIO: EARLY WORKS—Cardinal del Monte  Unused violin and sheet music: invitation to the viewer to join them 
  • 6. CARAVAGGIO: EARLY WORKS—Cardinal del Monte Boy Bitten by a Lizard (c.1596) Rose  behind ear: solici- tation  Cherries: sexual connotations
    • Lizard (biting
    • the boy’s finger)
  • 7. CARAVAGGIO: BAROQUE REALISM Supper at Emmaus (c.1600) Baroque Realism: --High degree of realism in textures, forms, effects, characterizations --Lack of idealization of figures; appear as lower- class or common types --Penchant for drama --Dark and shallow spaces penetrated by a hard, exterior spotlight --Frequently austere, somber --Even mystical events given a visceral, physical reality --Interest in the psychology of an event --Lack of traditional symbolism
  • 8. CARAVAGGIO: CONTARELLI CHAPEL --Cardinal Matteu Cointrel (Contarelli) died in 1585; left money to decorate a chapel in San Luigi dei Francesi (St. Louis of France), the French national church in Rome. --The will stipulated that the work was to be finished under the supervision of a member of the Crescenzi family, and a contract had been signed for paintings involving St. Matthew (the cardinal’s patron saint) with the artist Girolamo Muziano. --Muziano never completed the work; a contract was signed with a Flemish sculptor, but his works were not considered satisfactory.
  • 9. CARAVAGGIO: CONTARELLI CHAPEL --In 1591, a contract was signed with Giuseppe Cesari (Cavalier d’Arpino). He completed the vault with prophets and scenes involving St. Matthew. Drawings were made for the side walls but the artist was increasingly involved in papal and other commissions, and by 1599 had completed nothing more in the chapel. --The priests of San Luigi became annoyed at the delays and asked the pope to intercede. He put the work under Vatican jurisdiction and, with the influence of Del Monte, Caravaggio in 1599 signed a contract to complete the paintings. By Giuseppe Cesari
  • 10. CARAVAGGIO: CONTARELLI CHAPEL The Martyrdom of St. Matthew
  • 11. CARAVAGGIO: CERASI CHAPEL --In 1600 (a papal jubilee year), Caravaggio received another important commission for a private chapel, from Tiberio Ceraso (the papal treasurer), in Santa Maria del Popolo --Commission obtained through the influence of Vincenzo Giustiniani. who had been superseding Del Monte as Caravaggio’s most important patron and protector --The commission also involved Annibale Carraci, who painted the vault and altar
  • 12. CARAVAGGIO: CERASI CHAPEL The Conversion of Saul (Paul)
  • 13. CARAVAGGIO: CERASI CHAPEL The Crucifixion of Peter
  • 14. CARAVAGGIO: VIOLENCE, LEGAL PROBLEMS --May have left Milan and the north for Rome because he killed someone; apparently spent a year in prison in Milan. --In Rome, initially stayed with a priest named Monsigner Pucci, but he had to leave after he beat the priest up because he didn’t like the salad he was fed. --Part of a street gang in Rome, but was protected from legal charges by his patrons. The gang’s motto was “without hope or fear” and they were led by a notorious felon. The gang was famous for street fights, duels in brothels, and singing bawdy songs at old ladies.
  • 15. CARAVAGGIO: VIOLENCE, LEGAL PROBLEMS --Known for expert swordsmanship (and tennis playing). --Arrested frequently for charges of violence and concealed weapons. --Used even prostitutes as models for religious figures. --Described by one by biographer as spending half his time painting and the other half out on the street with a sword looking for someone to fight—said he was impossible to get along with. --Arrested and tried for libel (he wrote scandalous verses about another painter), but released.
  • 16. CARAVAGGIO: VIOLENCE, LEGAL PROBLEMS --Arrested for beating up a waiter in a restaurant with a plate of hot artichokes, but released. --Arrested for throwing rocks at the police. --Assaulted a rival painter, slashed his paintings, and stuck his head through the hole in one of the canvases and started screaming obscenities at him. --Fled to Genoa in contempt of court after beating up another man after an argument about a prostitute; a pardon was arranged but upon his return was evicted from his apartment for throwing rocks at his landlady.
  • 17. CARAVAGGIO: VIOLENCE, LEGAL PROBLEMS --In 1606, kills a man named Rancuccio during an argument over a tennis match. --In contempt of court, he flees Rome for Naples as a wanted man.
  • 18. 1607: Goes to Malta; wants to join the Knights of St. John CARAVAGGIO: ON THE RUN Alof de Wignacourt (Grand Master) with a Page (1607) 
  • 19. CARAVAGGIO: MALTA AND THE KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN Alof de Wignacourt (1607) --Realizing the prestige that Caravaggio’s paintings could potentially bring his order, Alof de Wignacourt start campaigning for his admittance. He even asks for and receives papal permission to overlook the murder. --After a 12-month novitiate, Caravaggio is accepted into the order. Most knights, who were from noble families, were expected to pay a hefty initiation fee. Caravaggio cannot do this, but instead paints for them an altarpiece of the order’s patron, John the Baptist.
  • 20. CARAVAGGIO: MALTA AND THE KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN --Caravaggio runs afoul of, perhaps assaults, one of the leading knights. --He is stripped of his knighthood and thrown in a dungeon. --He escapes the dungeon and, in disguise, escapes the island of Malta. --Goes to Sicily.
  • 21. CARAVAGGIO: SICILY --While painting the Lazarus, forces workmen to dig up a corpse so he can use it as a model, and forces them to hold it in pose while he paints. When he unveils the painting it is criticized, and he reportedly takes out a dagger and slashes it to pieces, claiming it was not properly appreciated. He then paints a second version. --A teacher sees him watching young boys on a playground; the artist claims he is taking notes for a painting, but the teacher asks him to leave. Caravaggio bashes him over the head with a rock. --Decides to return to Naples.
  • 22. CARAVAGGIO: LAST DAYS --In Naples, attacked by 4 men; badly wounded, and his face reportedly so maimed as to be unrecognizable. --Wants to return to Rome and the protection of his friends and patrons. --Cardinal Fernandino Gonzago, a friend of Giustiniani and del Monte, arranges a pardon on the murder charge. --Goes by boat to Port’Ercole, intending to go on from there to Rome; detained by the captain of the guard there, who wanted to confirm his pardon and safe conduct pass. --Since his ship had departed, and his paintings were on board, he tried to catch up with it by crossing a swamp.
  • 23. CARAVAGGIO: LAST DAYS --Crosses 100 kilometers of swamp land but misses his ship. --In crossing the swamp, he had contracted an unknown disease and severe fever. --July 18, 1610: in a small town south of Rome died from the disease he had contracted in the swamp.
  • 24. DIEGO DE VELAZQUEZ Y SILVA (VELAZQUEZ) John the Evangelist (1618) Old Woman Frying Eggs (c.1620)
  • 25. VELAZQUEZ: SEVILLE  Seville --An important commercial center in southern Spain; by 1600, it was one of Europe’s largest cities, with a population of over 100,000 --The only official Spanish port for shipping with the New World; a cosmopolitan city which attracted residents from all over Europe --As its commercial prestige grew, it also became a leading art center
  • 26. Old Woman Frying Eggs (c.1620) VELAZQUEZ --Born 1599 in Seville, died 1660 in Madrid. --Little known about his early life; evidence suggests both sets of his grandparents may have belonged to a lower order of nobility. --Apprenticed to Pacheco in 1610, and admitted into the painter’s guild in 1617. --Married Pacheco’s daughter Juana in 1618
  • 27. VELAZQUEZ: EARLY GENRE PAINTINGS Velazquez Early Caravaggio
  • 28. VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES Old Woman Frying Eggs (c.1620) --From “bodega,” which at the time referred to a cheap inn or eating place --genre subjects involving food with still-life elements and lower class figures; typically kitchen, cooking, or eating scenes --Popular form of genre painting in 17 th -century Spain --The word became expanded and is sometimes used to refer to Spanish still-life painting in general
  • 29. VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES—Religious content  
  • 30. VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES—Religious content The Kitchen Maid with the Supper at Emmaus (c.1618)
  • 31. VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES—Religious content The Kitchen Maid with the Supper at Emmaus (c.1618) Recognition of Christ  (faith)  Lack of recognition, absorbed in worldly cares (lack of faith)
  • 32. VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES—Religious content Kitchen Scene with Christ in the House of Mary and Martha (c.1620)
  • 33. VELAZQUEZ: BODEGONES—Religious content Kitchen Scene with Christ in the House of Mary and Martha (c.1620)  Reminding her, per the example of Christ in the house of Mary and Martha, not to be so preoccupied with worldly duties that she forgets spiritual ones
  • 34. SPANISH STILL LIFE PAINTING—Religious interpretations Symbolic of Christ’s Passion? Darkness: creates a contemplative context to explore covert meanings? Carrots: nails from the cross; discolored like rusted metal? Cardoon: scourge; tinged red as if tainted by blood? Sanchez Cotan: orders as Carthusian in 1603
  • 35. Still Life with Lemons by Zurbaran (1633): Marian meanings  Roses: symbol of the Immaculate Conception  Lemons: fidelity and love  Orange blossoms: purity SPANISH STILL LIFE PAINTING—Religious interpretations
  • 36. VELAZQUEZ: MADRID --Had gone to Madrid in 1622, trying to catch the attention of the new king, Philip IV; he was not successful --Returned to Madrid with the same objective in 1623, but with the backing of Seville natives who had assumed prominent positions in the king’s court --In October 1623 he is put on the payroll as a royal painter and moves permanently to Madrid  Madrid
  • 37. THE COUNT-DUKE OLIVARES (GASPAR DE GUZMAN) Equestrian Portrait of the Count-Duke Olivares by Velazquez (1634)
  • 38. Las Meninas (1658-60) Velazequez: dies in 1660 VELAZQUEZ: IN QUEST OF NOBILITY—Las Meninas
  • 39. VELAZQUEZ: IN QUEST OF NOBILITY—Las Meninas Las Meninas (1658-60)  The red cross: symbol of the Order of Santiago