“ NORTHERN RENAISSANCE”: Northern Europe (especially modern day Holland, Belgium, and Germany) The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait by Jan van Eyck England France Germany Flanders: (Holland and Belgium)
Jan van Eyck: --1395-1441 --Sometimes credited with “ inventing” oil painting, although it is probably more appropriate to say that he is one of the people responsible for perfecting the oil painting technique --Considered the foremost Flemish painter --His brother, Hubert, was also a painter, but he died young; Jan probably worked with his brother at one time. The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait by Jan van Eyck
The Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck --Finished in 1432 --In the Cathedral of St. Bavo, Ghent --An inscription says it was “started by Hubert van Eyck, first in art, and finished by his brother Jan, second in art.”
Deposition and Portrait of a Woman by Rogier van der Weyden Rogier van der Weyden: --1400-1464; painted primarily in Tournai and Brussels --Considered, along with Jan van Eyck, to be the most influential of the Flemish painters
The Isenheim Altarpiece by Matthias Grunewald Matthias Grunewald: --German painter, c.1470-1528 --Famous for an expressive style descended from German gothic
The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch Hieronymus Bosch: --1450-1516; Flemish painter whose name is taken from the city of s’Hertogensbosch where he lived (his real name is Jerome van Aken) --Famous for his strange and grotesque motifs, derived from folkloric sources
Pieter Bruegel: --1525-1569; painted in Antwerp and Brussels --Heavily influenced by Bosch, but also famous for his pioneering work in landscape and depictions of peasants, as well as moralizing and satirical messages
BOIS PROTAT: Oldest surviving block for printing (c. 1380; for printing on cloth altar cover) PRINTED IMAGES: Begins in Europe in 1300s; first technique to create mass multiples. PRINTED TEXT: Invention attributed to Johannes Guttenberg, c.1455; familiar with metals due to training as a goldsmith, and developed a method to mold metal letters which could be arranged, inked, and printed.
Impact of printing: First medium to create mass multiples, and first medium aimed at a middle or lower class market. “ Those needing inspiration and a reminder of our Faith should buy a print—it costs but a penny—and contemplate it.” --Geiler von Keysersberg
Impact of printing: First medium in which the subject, style, means of production are entirely of the artist’s choosing, rather than a patron’s. Subject matter of interest to the artist and the popular market; leads to experimentation.
Impact of printing: Prints travel—disseminate ideas.
Andrea Mantegna, Italy Albrecht Dürer, Germany
Impact of printing: Disseminate ideas— propaganda
Page from the Passional Christi und Antichristi by Lucas Cranach (1521)
Characteristics of earliest printed images: --woodcut --typically religious subject matter --crude in style; untrained artists --colored to mimic style of illuminated manuscripts and panel painting
WOODCUT: RELIEF PRINTING Background/negative space carved away so that lines to be inked and printed stand above the block
ENGRAVING: --starts to become popular by mid-1400s --metal plate rather than wood plate; greater precision and detail --more skilled artists: some training, often in metalwork, is necessary --prints are more expensive: aimed at a higher class, sophisticated audience with more disposable income, and a greater variety of subject matter emerge --uncolored: the lines carry detail enough without added coloring
ENGRAVING: INTAGLIO PRINTING The lines to be inked and printed are incised into metal plate; printed under pressure to force paper into lines
ENGRAVING: MARTIN SCHONGAUER (Germany, 1400s) Death of the Virgin Angel
ALBRECHT DÜRER (1471-1528, Nuremberg, Germany) --The most famous of the German renaissance era artists and the most famous printmaker who ever lived. --His father was a goldsmith who had emigrated from Hungary --He was trained in Nuremberg in the studio of Michael Wolgemut, who was a painter, but also among the most important early German printmakers --His godfather was Anton Koberger, a famous book printer Self Portrait at Age 26 (1498)
ALBRECHT DÜRER (1471-1528, Nuremberg, Germany) --When he finished his apprenticeship, tried to travel to Colmar to meet Schongauer, but he was already dead --Traveled instead to Italy in 1494, and was there again 1505-1507, mostly in Venice --In 1512 entered the service of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I --On his death, even the harshest Italian critic (Vasari, who hated non- Italian artists) called him “ a truly great artist.” Self Portrait at Age 26 (1498)
CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Passional Christi: --13 pages of text and paired images, comparing the example of Christ with the actions of the Pope as a perversion of Christ’s teachings. --Cranach provides the illustrations; text written by Philip Melancthon. Luther said the pictures made the book “good for laymen.” --Printed in 1521; goes through 21 editions, and some of the prints are also releases as single-leaf images.
CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ driving money changers from temple Pope selling indulgences
CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ disavows secular authority Pope demands secular authority Arrogant bishops who assume temporal rule should be considered as false teachers (2 Peter 2)
CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ washing the feet of others Pope having his feet kissed “ It is indeed an un-Christian thing . . . for (the Pope) a sinful man to let his feet be kissed by one who is a hundred times better than himself.” — Luther
MANNERISM: The Madonna with the Long Neck by Parmigianino, Italy, c.1535 Other key mannerist painters include: Giulio Romano Pontormo Rosso Fiorentino Bronzino
MANNERISM: PONTORMO Pontormo (1494-1557): --Born Jacopo Carrucci in the city of Pontormo. --May have studied under Leonardo da Vinci before entering Andrea del Sarto’s workshop. --One of the first Florentine artists to turn away from the High Renaissance and towards Mannerism.
MANNERISM: ROSSO FIORENTINO Rosso Fiorention (1494-1540): --Born in Florence --Studied under Andrea del Sarto, but refused any permanent master. --Moved to France and painted there for Francois I. --Noted for his strange quirks, including a pet baboon; supposedly committed suicide after accusing a friend of theft falsely.
MANNERISM: BRONZINO Agnolo Bronzino (1503- 1572): --Born in Firenze. --Studied under Pontormo and painted in Florence. --Painted for Duke Cosimo I de Medici.
MANNERISM: PARMIGIANINO Parmigianino (1503- 1540): --Born Girolamo Francesco Mazzola in Parma. --Worked in Rome, Bologna, and Parma. --Accused of growing increasingly eccentric, becoming obsessed with alchemy and allowing his beard to grow long and disordered.
MANNERISM: --Emphasis on artistic virtuosity; sprezzatura --Deliberately difficult, to the point illegibility; if it is too easy, it lacks class --Grazia (grace): emphasis on elegance --Taste for bizarre and novel, often including erotic --Abstraction—art placing aesthetic concerns over worldly concerns and religious values
COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-63): Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation. Counter-Reformation Calls for reform of art within the Church, as the Mannerist style was considered inappropriate.
Giulio de’Fabriano (1564; Dialogues of the Errors of History Painting): criticizes contemporary Catholic artists for showing a lack of piety and devotion and paying no attention to subject matter; rather, he claims, they interested only in “the charms of art.” Says true beauty is in clarity, and both in style and subject matter art should strive for beauty through clarity.
Archbishop Paleotti of Bologna (Discourse on Sacred and Profane Images): art should be clear and easy to understand— “ books for the illiterate.” Desires an new art that will “ incite devotion and sting the heart.”
Some points of Church decrees on the reform of art: --No “seductive charms;” no eroticism, lasciviousness --The main function of art must be to incite devotion and inspire the heart of the worshipper --Art should instruct the worshipper in tenets of the Faith