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  • Northern Europe, mention also fine artwork there, called northern ren. but name deceptive—nothing ren. about it, not this kind of classical revivaL, NOT THE INTERESTS OF THE ITALIAN ARTISTS, SO WE WILL FOCUS ON ITALY, SIMPLY BECAUSE AS WONDERFUL AS THESE PAINTINGS ARE IT IS IN ITALY THAT THE MOST INFLUENTIAL ART WILL BE BORN
  • Northern Europe, mention also fine artwork there, called northern ren. but name deceptive—nothing ren. about it, not this kind of classical revivaL, NOT THE INTERESTS OF THE ITALIAN ARTISTS, SO WE WILL FOCUS ON ITALY, SIMPLY BECAUSE AS WONDERFUL AS THESE PAINTINGS ARE IT IS IN ITALY THAT THE MOST INFLUENTIAL ART WILL BE BORN
  • But to consider rogier in terms of macabre motifs not really fair or representative, because he as an overall painter extraordinary, and every inch as good as van eyck
  • It’s so far from italian renaissance classical revival, the renaissance in the name totally inappropriate
  • It’s so far from italian renaissance classical revival, the renaissance in the name totally inappropriate
  • It’s so far from italian renaissance classical revival, the renaissance in the name totally inappropriate
  • unicrons = virgin===can only be captured by virgins
  • inked; wiping ink from plate, jim dine
  • humans initially in balance, fall throws them into vice, out of balance, but animals always vicious from creation.
  • humans initially in balance, fall throws them into vice, out of balance, but animals always vicious from creation.
  • pope here some kind of snail
  • pope here some kind of snail
  • pope here some kind of snail
  • pope here some kind of snail
  • so pretty heady stuff, from hard fisted propaganda campaign to theology, the protestants really on the offensive—what are the catholics doing, what is their response? Not much, some bad propaganda, maybe draw a beard on luther. really caught with their pants down, like they can’t believe its real, and it deosn’t take long before they have lost half of europe, and at home in italy, where church itself lives, how are italian aritsts responding, not, mannerism
  • so pretty heady stuff, from hard fisted propaganda campaign to theology, the protestants really on the offensive—what are the catholics doing, what is their response? Not much, some bad propaganda, maybe draw a beard on luther. really caught with their pants down, like they can’t believe its real, and it deosn’t take long before they have lost half of europe, and at home in italy, where church itself lives, how are italian aritsts responding, not, mannerism
  • so pretty heady stuff, from hard fisted propaganda campaign to theology, the protestants really on the offensive—what are the catholics doing, what is their response? Not much, some bad propaganda, maybe draw a beard on luther. really caught with their pants down, like they can’t believe its real, and it deosn’t take long before they have lost half of europe, and at home in italy, where church itself lives, how are italian aritsts responding, not, mannerism
  • so pretty heady stuff, from hard fisted propaganda campaign to theology, the protestants really on the offensive—what are the catholics doing, what is their response? Not much, some bad propaganda, maybe draw a beard on luther. really caught with their pants down, like they can’t believe its real, and it deosn’t take long before they have lost half of europe, and at home in italy, where church itself lives, how are italian aritsts responding, not, mannerism
  • so pretty heady stuff, from hard fisted propaganda campaign to theology, the protestants really on the offensive—what are the catholics doing, what is their response? Not much, some bad propaganda, maybe draw a beard on luther. really caught with their pants down, like they can’t believe its real, and it deosn’t take long before they have lost half of europe, and at home in italy, where church itself lives, how are italian aritsts responding, not, mannerism
  • so pretty heady stuff, from hard fisted propaganda campaign to theology, the protestants really on the offensive—what are the catholics doing, what is their response? Not much, some bad propaganda, maybe draw a beard on luther. really caught with their pants down, like they can’t believe its real, and it deosn’t take long before they have lost half of europe, and at home in italy, where church itself lives, how are italian aritsts responding, not, mannerism
  • so pretty heady stuff, from hard fisted propaganda campaign to theology, the protestants really on the offensive—what are the catholics doing, what is their response? Not much, some bad propaganda, maybe draw a beard on luther. really caught with their pants down, like they can’t believe its real, and it deosn’t take long before they have lost half of europe, and at home in italy, where church itself lives, how are italian aritsts responding, not, mannerism
  • book: diagoluges of the errors of history painitng
  • book: diagoluges of the errors of history painitng
  • book: diagoluges of the errors of history painitng
  • WHAT HAPPENS WITH EG. CRAZY CAREER, SO MANY STOPS AND STARTS, AND AFTER BLOWING AT ESCORIAL, NOW ALMOST 40, STUCK IN SPAIN, AND BLOWING IT WITH CATH IN TOLEDO, YOU WOULD THINK THAT IS THE LAST WE WILL HEAR FROM HIM, AND YET AMAZINGLY HE FROM HERE, WITHOUT ROYAL SUPPORT, WITH OUT THE CATH, BLAZE A CAREER AS ONE OF HISTORY’S FINEST RELIG PAINTERS. BACK TO TOLEDO, HARDLY EVER WORKS ANYWHERE AGAIN. BECOMES HIS CITY, STILL IS TO THIS DAY, AND IF HAD HAD THIS CONSCIOUSNESS OF RELIGIOSITY AT ESC MAYBE TURNED OUT DIFFERENTLY
  • Transcript

    • 1. ““NORTHERN RENAISSANCE”:NORTHERN RENAISSANCE”: Northern Europe (especiallyNorthern Europe (especially modern day Holland, Belgium,modern day Holland, Belgium, and Germany)and Germany) The Arnolfini Wedding PortraitThe Arnolfini Wedding Portrait by Jan van Eyckby Jan van Eyck EnglandEngland  FranceFrance   GermanyGermany Flanders:Flanders: (Holland(Holland  and Belgium)and Belgium)
    • 2. Jan van Eyck:Jan van Eyck: --1395-1441--1395-1441 --Sometimes credited with--Sometimes credited with ““inventing” oil painting,inventing” oil painting, although it is probably morealthough it is probably more appropriate to say that he isappropriate to say that he is one of the peopleone of the people responsible for perfectingresponsible for perfecting the oil painting techniquethe oil painting technique --Considered the foremost--Considered the foremost Flemish painterFlemish painter --His brother, Hubert, was also--His brother, Hubert, was also a painter, but he died young;a painter, but he died young; Jan probably worked withJan probably worked with his brother at one time.his brother at one time. The Arnolfini Wedding PortraitThe Arnolfini Wedding Portrait by Jan van Eyckby Jan van Eyck
    • 3. The Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van EyckThe Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck --Finished in 1432--Finished in 1432 --In the Cathedral of--In the Cathedral of St. Bavo, GhentSt. Bavo, Ghent --An inscription says it--An inscription says it was “started by Hubertwas “started by Hubert van Eyck, first in art,van Eyck, first in art, and finished by hisand finished by his brother Jan, second inbrother Jan, second in art.”art.”
    • 4. Deposition and Portrait of a WomanDeposition and Portrait of a Woman by Rogier van der Weydenby Rogier van der Weyden Rogier van der Weyden:Rogier van der Weyden: --1400-1464; painted primarily in Tournai and Brussels--1400-1464; painted primarily in Tournai and Brussels --Considered, along with Jan van Eyck, to be the most--Considered, along with Jan van Eyck, to be the most influential of the Flemish paintersinfluential of the Flemish painters
    • 5. The Isenheim Altarpiece by Matthias GrunewaldThe Isenheim Altarpiece by Matthias Grunewald Matthias Grunewald:Matthias Grunewald: --German painter, c.1470-1528--German painter, c.1470-1528 --Famous for an expressive--Famous for an expressive style descended fromstyle descended from German gothicGerman gothic
    • 6. The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus BoschThe Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch Hieronymus Bosch:Hieronymus Bosch: --1450-1516; Flemish--1450-1516; Flemish painter whose name ispainter whose name is taken from the city oftaken from the city of s’Hertogensboschs’Hertogensbosch where he lived (his realwhere he lived (his real name is Jerome vanname is Jerome van Aken)Aken) --Famous for his strange--Famous for his strange and grotesque motifs,and grotesque motifs, derived from folkloricderived from folkloric sourcessources
    • 7. Pieter Bruegel:Pieter Bruegel: --1525-1569; painted in Antwerp--1525-1569; painted in Antwerp and Brusselsand Brussels --Heavily influenced by Bosch,--Heavily influenced by Bosch, but also famous for hisbut also famous for his pioneering work in landscapepioneering work in landscape and depictions of peasants,and depictions of peasants, as well as moralizing andas well as moralizing and satirical messagessatirical messages
    • 8.  GermanyGermany PRINTED IMAGESPRINTED IMAGES
    • 9. BOIS PROTAT:BOIS PROTAT: Oldest survivingOldest surviving block for printingblock for printing (c. 1380; for printing(c. 1380; for printing on cloth altar cover)on cloth altar cover) PRINTED IMAGES:PRINTED IMAGES: Begins in Europe in 1300s; firstBegins in Europe in 1300s; first technique to create mass multiples.technique to create mass multiples. PRINTED TEXT:PRINTED TEXT: Invention attributed to JohannesInvention attributed to Johannes Guttenberg, c.1455; familiar withGuttenberg, c.1455; familiar with metals due to training as ametals due to training as a goldsmith, and developed a methodgoldsmith, and developed a method to mold metal letters which could beto mold metal letters which could be arranged, inked, and printed.arranged, inked, and printed.
    • 10. Impact of printing:Impact of printing: First medium to create mass multiples, andFirst medium to create mass multiples, and first medium aimed at a middle or lowerfirst medium aimed at a middle or lower class market.class market. ““Those needing inspiration and a reminderThose needing inspiration and a reminder of our Faith should buy a print—it costsof our Faith should buy a print—it costs but a penny—and contemplate it.”but a penny—and contemplate it.” --Geiler von Keysersberg--Geiler von Keysersberg
    • 11. Impact of printing:Impact of printing: First medium in which the subject, style,First medium in which the subject, style, means of production are entirely of themeans of production are entirely of the artist’s choosing, rather than a patron’s.artist’s choosing, rather than a patron’s. Subject matter of interest to the artist andSubject matter of interest to the artist and the popular market; leads tothe popular market; leads to experimentation.experimentation.
    • 12. Impact of printing:Impact of printing: Prints travel—disseminate ideas.Prints travel—disseminate ideas.
    • 13. Andrea Mantegna, ItalyAndrea Mantegna, Italy Albrecht Dürer, GermanyAlbrecht Dürer, Germany
    • 14. Impact of printing:Impact of printing: Disseminate ideas—Disseminate ideas—propagandapropaganda
    • 15. Page from the Passional Christi undPage from the Passional Christi und Antichristi by Lucas Cranach (1521)Antichristi by Lucas Cranach (1521)
    • 16. Characteristics of earliest printed images:Characteristics of earliest printed images: --woodcut--woodcut --typically religious subject matter--typically religious subject matter --crude in style; untrained artists--crude in style; untrained artists --colored to mimic style of illuminated--colored to mimic style of illuminated manuscripts and panel paintingmanuscripts and panel painting
    • 17. WOODCUT: RELIEF PRINTINGWOODCUT: RELIEF PRINTING Background/negative spaceBackground/negative space carved away so that linescarved away so that lines to be inked and printedto be inked and printed stand above the blockstand above the block
    • 18. WOODCUT: RELIEF PRINTINGWOODCUT: RELIEF PRINTING  Lines to beLines to be inked andinked and printedprinted stand abovestand above backgroundbackground
    • 19. ENGRAVING:ENGRAVING: --starts to become popular--starts to become popular by mid-1400sby mid-1400s --metal plate rather than--metal plate rather than wood plate; greaterwood plate; greater precision and detailprecision and detail --more skilled artists: some--more skilled artists: some training, often in metalwork,training, often in metalwork, is necessaryis necessary --prints are more expensive:--prints are more expensive: aimed at a higheraimed at a higher class, sophisticatedclass, sophisticated audience with moreaudience with more disposable income, anddisposable income, and a greater variety of subjecta greater variety of subject matter emergematter emerge --uncolored: the lines carry--uncolored: the lines carry detail enough without addeddetail enough without added coloringcoloring
    • 20. ENGRAVING: INTAGLIO PRINTINGENGRAVING: INTAGLIO PRINTING The lines to be inked andThe lines to be inked and printed are incised intoprinted are incised into metal plate; printedmetal plate; printed under pressure tounder pressure to force paper into linesforce paper into lines
    • 21. ENGRAVING: MARTIN SCHONGAUER (Germany, 1400s)ENGRAVING: MARTIN SCHONGAUER (Germany, 1400s) Death of the VirginDeath of the Virgin AngelAngel
    • 22. ALBRECHT DÜRER (1471-1528, Nuremberg, Germany)ALBRECHT DÜRER (1471-1528, Nuremberg, Germany) --The most famous of the--The most famous of the German renaissance eraGerman renaissance era artists and the mostartists and the most famous printmaker whofamous printmaker who ever lived.ever lived. --His father was a goldsmith--His father was a goldsmith who had emigrated fromwho had emigrated from HungaryHungary --He was trained in--He was trained in Nuremberg in the studio ofNuremberg in the studio of Michael Wolgemut, whoMichael Wolgemut, who was a painter, but alsowas a painter, but also among the most importantamong the most important early German printmakersearly German printmakers --His godfather was Anton--His godfather was Anton Koberger, a famous bookKoberger, a famous book printerprinter Self Portrait at Age 26 (1498)Self Portrait at Age 26 (1498)
    • 23. ALBRECHT DÜRER (1471-1528, Nuremberg, Germany)ALBRECHT DÜRER (1471-1528, Nuremberg, Germany) --When he finished his--When he finished his apprenticeship, tried toapprenticeship, tried to travel to Colmar to meettravel to Colmar to meet Schongauer, but he wasSchongauer, but he was already deadalready dead --Traveled instead to Italy--Traveled instead to Italy in 1494, and was therein 1494, and was there again 1505-1507, mostlyagain 1505-1507, mostly in Venicein Venice --In 1512 entered the service--In 1512 entered the service of the Holy Romanof the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian IEmperor Maximilian I --On his death, even the--On his death, even the harshest Italian criticharshest Italian critic (Vasari, who hated non-(Vasari, who hated non- Italian artists) called himItalian artists) called him ““a truly great artist.”a truly great artist.” Self Portrait at Age 26 (1498)Self Portrait at Age 26 (1498)
    • 24. Rhino: woodcutRhino: woodcut
    • 25. Samson: woodcutSamson: woodcut Samson blockSamson block (“Formschneider:” cuts(“Formschneider:” cuts the wood block)the wood block)
    • 26. APOCALYPSE (1498; 15 woodcuts with facing text )APOCALYPSE (1498; 15 woodcuts with facing text )
    • 27. FALL OF MANFALL OF MAN (ADAM AND EVE):(ADAM AND EVE): Engraving (1504)Engraving (1504)
    • 28. Modeled afterModeled after classical Apolloclassical Apollo  Modeled afterModeled after  classical Venusclassical Venus Bodily humorsBodily humors cat: cholericcat: choleric rabbit: sanguinerabbit: sanguine ox: phlegmaticox: phlegmatic elk: melancholicelk: melancholic
    • 29. Modeled afterModeled after classical Apolloclassical Apollo  Modeled after theModeled after the Apollo Belvedere;Apollo Belvedere; interest in classicalinterest in classical antiquity, Italianantiquity, Italian RenaissanceRenaissance innovationsinnovations
    • 30. ““Master Engravings” (1513-1514)Master Engravings” (1513-1514)
    • 31. CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTICRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Passional Christi:Passional Christi: --13 pages of text and paired--13 pages of text and paired images, comparing theimages, comparing the example of Christ with theexample of Christ with the actions of the Pope as aactions of the Pope as a perversion of Christ’sperversion of Christ’s teachings.teachings. --Cranach provides the--Cranach provides the illustrations; text written byillustrations; text written by Philip Melancthon.Philip Melancthon. Luther said the picturesLuther said the pictures made the book “good formade the book “good for laymen.”laymen.” --Printed in 1521; goes through--Printed in 1521; goes through 21 editions, and some of the21 editions, and some of the prints are also releases asprints are also releases as single-leaf images.single-leaf images.
    • 32. CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTICRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ driving moneyChrist driving money changers from templechangers from temple Pope sellingPope selling indulgencesindulgences 
    • 33. CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTICRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ disavowsChrist disavows secular authoritysecular authority Pope demandsPope demands secular authoritysecular authority  Arrogant bishopsArrogant bishops who assumewho assume temporal ruletemporal rule should beshould be considered asconsidered as false teachersfalse teachers (2 Peter 2)(2 Peter 2)
    • 34. CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTICRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ washing theChrist washing the feet of othersfeet of others Pope having hisPope having his feet kissedfeet kissed ““It is indeed anIt is indeed an un-Christianun-Christian thing . . . forthing . . . for (the Pope) a(the Pope) a sinful man tosinful man to let his feet belet his feet be kissed by onekissed by one who is awho is a hundred timeshundred times better thanbetter than himself.”himself.” ——LutherLuther
    • 35. MANNERISM:MANNERISM: The Madonna with theThe Madonna with the Long Neck by Parmigianino,Long Neck by Parmigianino, Italy, c.1535Italy, c.1535 Other key manneristOther key mannerist painters include:painters include: Giulio RomanoGiulio Romano PontormoPontormo Rosso FiorentinoRosso Fiorentino BronzinoBronzino
    • 36. MANNERISM: PONTORMOMANNERISM: PONTORMO Pontormo (1494-1557):Pontormo (1494-1557): --Born Jacopo Carrucci--Born Jacopo Carrucci in the city of Pontormo.in the city of Pontormo. --May have studied--May have studied under Leonardo daunder Leonardo da Vinci before enteringVinci before entering Andrea del Sarto’sAndrea del Sarto’s workshop.workshop. --One of the first--One of the first Florentine artists toFlorentine artists to turn away from theturn away from the High Renaissance andHigh Renaissance and towards Mannerism.towards Mannerism.
    • 37. MANNERISM: ROSSO FIORENTINOMANNERISM: ROSSO FIORENTINO Rosso FiorentionRosso Fiorention (1494-1540):(1494-1540): --Born in Florence--Born in Florence --Studied under--Studied under Andrea del Sarto,Andrea del Sarto, but refused anybut refused any permanent master.permanent master. --Moved to France--Moved to France and painted thereand painted there for Francois I.for Francois I. --Noted for his--Noted for his strange quirks,strange quirks, including a petincluding a pet baboon; supposedlybaboon; supposedly committed suicidecommitted suicide after accusing aafter accusing a friend of theft falsely.friend of theft falsely.
    • 38. MANNERISM: BRONZINOMANNERISM: BRONZINO Agnolo Bronzino (1503-Agnolo Bronzino (1503- 1572):1572): --Born in Firenze.--Born in Firenze. --Studied under Pontormo--Studied under Pontormo and painted in Florence.and painted in Florence. --Painted for Duke Cosimo--Painted for Duke Cosimo I de Medici.I de Medici.
    • 39. MANNERISM: PARMIGIANINOMANNERISM: PARMIGIANINO Parmigianino (1503-Parmigianino (1503- 1540):1540): --Born Girolamo--Born Girolamo Francesco Mazzola inFrancesco Mazzola in Parma.Parma. --Worked in Rome,--Worked in Rome, Bologna, and Parma.Bologna, and Parma. --Accused of growing--Accused of growing increasingly eccentric,increasingly eccentric, becoming obsessedbecoming obsessed with alchemy andwith alchemy and allowing his beard toallowing his beard to grow long andgrow long and disordered.disordered.
    • 40. MANNERISM:MANNERISM: --Emphasis on artistic--Emphasis on artistic virtuosity; sprezzaturavirtuosity; sprezzatura --Deliberately difficult, to--Deliberately difficult, to the point illegibility; if itthe point illegibility; if it is too easy, it lacks classis too easy, it lacks class --Grazia (grace): emphasis--Grazia (grace): emphasis on eleganceon elegance --Taste for bizarre and--Taste for bizarre and novel, often includingnovel, often including eroticerotic --Abstraction—art--Abstraction—art placing aestheticplacing aesthetic concerns over worldlyconcerns over worldly concerns and religiousconcerns and religious valuesvalues
    • 41. COUNCIL OF TRENTCOUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-63):(1545-63): Catholic response toCatholic response to the Protestant Reformation.the Protestant Reformation. Counter-ReformationCounter-Reformation Calls for reform of artCalls for reform of art within the Church, aswithin the Church, as the Mannerist style wasthe Mannerist style was considered inappropriate.considered inappropriate.
    • 42. Giulio de’Fabriano (1564;Giulio de’Fabriano (1564; Dialogues of the Errors ofDialogues of the Errors of History Painting): criticizesHistory Painting): criticizes contemporary Catholiccontemporary Catholic artists for showing a lack ofartists for showing a lack of piety and devotion andpiety and devotion and paying no attention topaying no attention to subject matter; rather, hesubject matter; rather, he claims, they interested onlyclaims, they interested only in “the charms of art.” Saysin “the charms of art.” Says true beauty is in clarity, andtrue beauty is in clarity, and both in style and subjectboth in style and subject matter art should strivematter art should strive for beauty through clarity.for beauty through clarity.
    • 43. Archbishop Paleotti ofArchbishop Paleotti of Bologna (Discourse onBologna (Discourse on Sacred and ProfaneSacred and Profane Images): art should be clearImages): art should be clear and easy to understand—and easy to understand— ““books for the illiterate.”books for the illiterate.” Desires an new art that willDesires an new art that will ““incite devotion and stingincite devotion and sting the heart.”the heart.”
    • 44. Some points of ChurchSome points of Church decrees on the reform ofdecrees on the reform of art:art: --No “seductive charms;”--No “seductive charms;” no eroticism,no eroticism, lasciviousnesslasciviousness --The main function of art--The main function of art must be to incite devotionmust be to incite devotion and inspire the heart of theand inspire the heart of the worshipperworshipper --Art should instruct the--Art should instruct the worshipper in tenets of theworshipper in tenets of the FaithFaith
    • 45. EL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZEL GRECO: THE BURIAL OF COUNT ORGAZ

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