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Review for class 2

Review for class 2

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  • Northern Europe, mention also fine artwork there, called northern ren. but name deceptive—nothing ren. about it, not this kind of classical revivaL, NOT THE INTERESTS OF THE ITALIAN ARTISTS, SO WE WILL FOCUS ON ITALY, SIMPLY BECAUSE AS WONDERFUL AS THESE PAINTINGS ARE IT IS IN ITALY THAT THE MOST INFLUENTIAL ART WILL BE BORN
  • Northern Europe, mention also fine artwork there, called northern ren. but name deceptive—nothing ren. about it, not this kind of classical revivaL, NOT THE INTERESTS OF THE ITALIAN ARTISTS, SO WE WILL FOCUS ON ITALY, SIMPLY BECAUSE AS WONDERFUL AS THESE PAINTINGS ARE IT IS IN ITALY THAT THE MOST INFLUENTIAL ART WILL BE BORN
  • But to consider rogier in terms of macabre motifs not really fair or representative, because he as an overall painter extraordinary, and every inch as good as van eyck
  • It’s so far from italian renaissance classical revival, the renaissance in the name totally inappropriate
  • It’s so far from italian renaissance classical revival, the renaissance in the name totally inappropriate
  • It’s so far from italian renaissance classical revival, the renaissance in the name totally inappropriate
  • unicrons = virgin===can only be captured by virgins
  • inked; wiping ink from plate, jim dine
  • humans initially in balance, fall throws them into vice, out of balance, but animals always vicious from creation.
  • humans initially in balance, fall throws them into vice, out of balance, but animals always vicious from creation.
  • no intercessors, sola scriptura, salvation through grace, gives it for free, you just have to accept it, threatens church hierarchy-- jusification = means by which soul brought into a saving relationship with god, just need faith, no money donations, works, etc., just faith
  • given good terms, even a clothoing allowance, so came in with a good rep., even given right to his own logo, a winded snake
  • given good terms, even a clothoing allowance, so came in with a good rep., even given right to his own logo, a winded snake
  • pope here some kind of snail
  • pope here some kind of snail
  • pope here some kind of snail
  • pope here some kind of snail
  • pope here some kind of snail
  • Not just all prop—cranach also develops some subjs in painting which clue us in to what prots believed besides just that the cath church bad. these all rare or unheard of in art pre-cranach
  • Not just all prop—cranach also develops some subjs in painting which clue us in to what prots believed besides just that the cath church bad. these all rare or unheard of in art pre-cranach
  • Not just all prop—cranach also develops some subjs in painting which clue us in to what prots believed besides just that the cath church bad. these all rare or unheard of in art pre-cranach

Transcript

  • 1. “ NORTHERN RENAISSANCE”: Northern Europe (especially modern day Holland, Belgium, and Germany) The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait by Jan van Eyck England  France   Germany Flanders: (Holland  and Belgium)
  • 2. Jan van Eyck: --1395-1441 --Sometimes credited with “ inventing” oil painting, although it is probably more appropriate to say that he is one of the people responsible for perfecting the oil painting technique --Considered the foremost Flemish painter --His brother, Hubert, was also a painter, but he died young; Jan probably worked with his brother at one time. The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait by Jan van Eyck
  • 3. The Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck --Finished in 1432 --In the Cathedral of St. Bavo, Ghent --An inscription says it was “started by Hubert van Eyck, first in art, and finished by his brother Jan, second in art.”
  • 4. Deposition and Portrait of a Woman by Rogier van der Weyden Rogier van der Weyden: --1400-1464; painted primarily in Tournai and Brussels --Considered, along with Jan van Eyck, to be the most influential of the Flemish painters
  • 5. The Isenheim Altarpiece by Matthias Grunewald Matthias Grunewald: --German painter, c.1470-1528 --Famous for an expressive style descended from German gothic
  • 6. The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch Hieronymus Bosch: --1450-1516; Flemish painter whose name is taken from the city of s’Hertogensbosch where he lived (his real name is Jerome van Aken) --Famous for his strange and grotesque motifs, derived from folkloric sources
  • 7. Pieter Bruegel: --1525-1569; painted in Antwerp and Brussels --Heavily influenced by Bosch, but also famous for his pioneering work in landscape and depictions of peasants, as well as moralizing and satirical messages
  • 8.  Germany PRINTED IMAGES
  • 9. BOIS PROTAT: Oldest surviving block for printing (c. 1380; for printing on cloth altar cover) PRINTED IMAGES: Begins in Europe in 1300s; first technique to create mass multiples. PRINTED TEXT: Invention attributed to Johannes Guttenberg, c.1455; familiar with metals due to training as a goldsmith, and developed a method to mold metal letters which could be arranged, inked, and printed.
  • 10. Impact of printing: First medium to create mass multiples, and first medium aimed at a middle or lower class market. “ Those needing inspiration and a reminder of our Faith should buy a print—it costs but a penny—and contemplate it.” --Geiler von Keysersberg
  • 11. Impact of printing: First medium in which the subject, style, means of production are entirely of the artist’s choosing, rather than a patron’s. Subject matter of interest to the artist and the popular market; leads to experimentation.
  • 12. Impact of printing: Prints travel—disseminate ideas.
  • 13. Andrea Mantegna, Italy Albrecht Dürer, Germany
  • 14. Impact of printing: Disseminate ideas— propaganda
  • 15. Page from the Passional Christi und Antichristi by Lucas Cranach (1521)
  • 16. Characteristics of earliest printed images: --woodcut --typically religious subject matter --crude in style; untrained artists --colored to mimic style of illuminated manuscripts and panel painting
  • 17. WOODCUT: RELIEF PRINTING Background/negative space carved away so that lines to be inked and printed stand above the block
  • 18. WOODCUT: RELIEF PRINTING
    • Lines to be
    • inked and
    • printed
    • stand above
    • background
  • 19. ENGRAVING: --starts to become popular by mid-1400s --metal plate rather than wood plate; greater precision and detail --more skilled artists: some training, often in metalwork, is necessary --prints are more expensive: aimed at a higher class, sophisticated audience with more disposable income, and a greater variety of subject matter emerge --uncolored: the lines carry detail enough without added coloring
  • 20. ENGRAVING: INTAGLIO PRINTING The lines to be inked and printed are incised into metal plate; printed under pressure to force paper into lines
  • 21. ENGRAVING: MARTIN SCHONGAUER (Germany, 1400s) Death of the Virgin Angel
  • 22. ALBRECHT DÜRER (1471-1528, Nuremberg, Germany) --The most famous of the German renaissance era artists and the most famous printmaker who ever lived. --His father was a goldsmith who had emigrated from Hungary --He was trained in Nuremberg in the studio of Michael Wolgemut, who was a painter, but also among the most important early German printmakers --His godfather was Anton Koberger, a famous book printer Self Portrait at Age 26 (1498)
  • 23. ALBRECHT DÜRER (1471-1528, Nuremberg, Germany) --When he finished his apprenticeship, tried to travel to Colmar to meet Schongauer, but he was already dead --Traveled instead to Italy in 1494, and was there again 1505-1507, mostly in Venice --In 1512 entered the service of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I --On his death, even the harshest Italian critic (Vasari, who hated non- Italian artists) called him “ a truly great artist.” Self Portrait at Age 26 (1498)
  • 24. Rhino: woodcut
  • 25. Samson: woodcut Samson block (“Formschneider:” cuts the wood block)
  • 26. APOCALYPSE (1498; 15 woodcuts with facing text )
  • 27. FALL OF MAN (ADAM AND EVE): Engraving (1504)
  • 28. Modeled after classical Apollo  Modeled after  classical Venus Bodily humors cat: choleric rabbit: sanguine ox: phlegmatic elk: melancholic
  • 29. Modeled after classical Apollo  Modeled after the Apollo Belvedere; interest in classical antiquity, Italian Renaissance innovations
  • 30. “ Master Engravings” (1513-1514)
  • 31. PROTESTANT REFORMATION: 1517 Martin Luther Wittenberg, Germany Transubstantiation Justification through Faith alone Saints as Intercessors Indulgences Albrecht of Brandenburg 95 Theses Electors of Saxony Protestant Propaganda Albrecht of Brandenburg by Dürer Martin Luther by Cranach
  • 32. Iconoclasm Second Commandment Calvinists: Switzerland, Holland Huguenots: France Martin Luther: images PROTESTANT REFORMATION: 1517 Dutch (Calvinist) Church Interior by P. Sanraedan (17 th Century)
  • 33. LUCAS CRANACH (the Elder) Self Portrait (1550) --Born 1472 in Kronach --Father a painter --In 1490s reputedly goes on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the entourage of Electors of Saxony --By the early 1500s working in Vienna --Early member of the “ Danube School”
  • 34. LUCAS CRANACH (the Elder) Self Portrait (1550) --1505 appointed as a court artist to the Saxon electors, moves to Wittenberg --1510 named registrar of taxes; 1519 treasurer of the town council; 1537 burgomaster --Runs a large and successful artist’s studio, as well as a bookstore, printing press, and paper mill --Protestant supporter; dies in exile, 1553
  • 35. CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Luther and Philip Melancthon by Cranach Passional Christi: --13 pages of text and paired images, comparing the example of Christ with the actions of the Pope as a perversion of Christ’s teachings. --Cranach provides the illustrations; text written by Philip Melancthon. Luther said the pictures made the book “good for laymen.” --Printed in 1521; goes through 21 editions, and some of the prints are also releases as single-leaf images.
  • 36. CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Luther: Compared to the example of Christ, the Pope is “a new and strange kind of likeness.” The Pope has so turned upside- down the life and work of Christ as to define himself as “a Counter-Christ, whom the Scriptures call Anti-Christ.” Luther and Philip Melancthon by Cranach
  • 37. CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ driving money changers from temple Pope selling indulgences 
  • 38. CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ disavows secular authority Pope demands secular authority  Arrogant bishops who assume temporal rule should be considered as false teachers (2 Peter 2)
  • 39. CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ washing the feet of others Pope having his feet kissed “ It is indeed an un-Christian thing . . . for (the Pope) a sinful man to let his feet be kissed by one who is a hundred times better than himself.” — Luther
  • 40. CRANACH: PASSIONAL CHRISTI UND ANTICHRISTI Christ ascends to Heaven Pope driven down into Hell
  • 41. CRANACH: PROTESTANT-THEMED PAINTINGS The difference between the Law and the Gospel is “ the height of knowledge of Christendom.” Anyone who considers himself Christian should be able to state the difference, and those who cannot are equivalent to Heathens or Jews. --Luther The Law and the Gospels c.1535
  • 42. CRANACH: PROTESTANT-THEMED PAINTINGS Law —both the Old and New Testament are bodies of laws. But if we uphold the Law out of fear and compulsion, our nature is still wicked—at heart we are still sinners, and still desire sin. Living under the Law man is condemned. The Law and the Gospels c.1535
  • 43. CRANACH: PROTESTANT-THEMED PAINTINGS Gospels —the life of Christ and his example, in which we find the very word of Salvation; man cannot uphold the Law without accepting the Gospels. The Gospels represent Faith and provide God’s free gift of Salvation—through them, sin is remitted and man delights in upholding the Law. The Law and the Gospels c.1535