NERO: --He commits suicide in 68 AD. --The Senate declares him an enemy of the state and Galba, a Roman governor in Spain, marches on Rome. --Nero commits suicide and Galba becomes emperor --Galba is assassinated and two other emperors quickly come and go --The eastern armies declare their general, Vespasian, as emperor.
The Arch of Constantine Carved for the arch: a less classical style Spolia—recycled from earlier monuments: classical style
Early Christian Art CATACOMBS Originally just beyond the borders of Rome (it was technically illegal to bury bodies within the city limits). Begun as sites for the burial of pagan Romans. Later, large numbers of Christians (amongst whom burial was by far the most popular treatment for the deceased) were buried in them.
CUBICULI: small rooms or chambers; often for family burials. Frequently decorated with wall paintings. LOCULI: wall niches in long passageways for individual burials. Early Christian Art: Catacombs
Roman fourth-style wall painting Christian catacomb painting
Early Christian Art: Catacombs Simple subject matter (Orantes: man’s relationship with God)
Simple subject matter (Christ as the Good Shepherd) Early Christian Art: Catacombs
Christian “Good Shepherd” Roman pastoral painting Early Christian Art: Catacombs
Early Christian Art: Catacombs Old Testament Scenes Old Testament: Moses draws water from a rock; saves Israelites New Testament: Baptism Both = Salvation through water
Parting of the Red Sea, Christian catacombs Parting of the Red Sea, Dura-Europos Synagogue
Early Christian Art: Catacombs Old Testament Scenes Adam and Eve (Book of Genesis)
Jonah is swallowed (dead) for three days and rises Christ is dead for three days and rises Early Christian Art: Catacombs Old Testament Scenes
NAVE APSE Early Christian Architecture BASILICA CHURCHES TRANSEPT (Crossing)
ATTRIBUTES: unique characteristics with identify particular Christian saints ST. PETER: KEYS (the keys to the kingdom)
ST. MARY MAGDALENE: OINTMENT JAR (annointed Christ’s feet)
ST. ANDREW: X-SHAPED CROSS (crucified on a cross in this shape)
Ravenna --In 395 the Empire was split according to the will of Emperor Theodosius I; Arcadius was given the east, Honorius the west. --Due to incursions by Visigoths, Honorius moved his capital to Ravenna in 402, which remained the western capital of the Empire until 751. --Due to its political importance and favorable position for trade, it became the most prosperous city in the west.