Greek Art
Greek Art: GEOMETRIC PERIOD
Greek Sculpture KOUROS: Male KORE: Female
ARCHAIC PERIOD: ARCHAIC SMILE Greek Sculpture: KORE Figures
Greek Sculpture: KOUROS Figures (Severe style) CONTRAPPOSTO POSE
Classical Greek Sculpture
Pediment Sculptures: Temple of Zeus at Olympia Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs ETHOS: Self-discipline; rational, intell...
SYMMETRIA: harmony;  commensurability of the parts “ The Canon” Module The Doryphoros by Polykleitos
“ Man is the measure of all things.”—Protagoras (Greece; 400s BC) The Doryphoros by Polykleitos
Greek idealism: generic  (the perfectibility of human  nature) The Doryphoros by Polykleitos
RHYTHMOS: pattern of events  Discus Thrower (Discobolus) by Myron
LARGE-SCALE BRONZE CASTING The simple lost-wax casting technique  was inadequate for complex, life-sized  figures, and a m...
LARGE-SCALE BRONZE CASTING 1. A full-size clay model of statue  fashioned out of clay. 2. A clay mold was then created aro...
3. The pieces of the mold for each body  were reassembled, and wax was applied to the insides of these molds; when removed...
4. Clay molded around exterior of the wax models for each  part, and liquid clay was poured inside them to make  hardened ...
5. Assembly heated so that wax melts out.  LAYER OF WAX MELTED   OUT, LEAVING AN EMPTY  SPACE     METAL PINS  HOLD THE  ...
6. Molten bronze poured into the hollow channel.     MOLTEN  BRONZE
6. Molten bronze poured into the hollow channel. 7. When the bronze hardens, the outer layer of clay and as  much of the i...
Inlays added:  Lips: copper      Nipples:  copper     Eyes: stone     Teeth: silver
Greek Architecture The Parthenon, Athens, c.440 BC
Greek Architecture: Architectural Orders DORIC ORDER IONIC ORDER No base      Base Plain  capital      Capital with vo...
Ionic: Volutes Corinthian: Acanthus leaves Greek Architecture: Architectural Orders
Greek Architecture: Athens--Acropolis ACROPOLIS: “ Acro Polis” (High City)
Athena Promachos Salamis Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis PROPYLAEIA by MNISIKLES
Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE (Victory) by KALLIKRATES  Nike Figures
Parthenon   Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON by IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES
Parthenon (Athens): 8 by 17 L = 2W+1: 17 = 2(8)+1 Greek Architecture: Temple Plans
VITRUVIUS  If the platform is straight: The human eye perceives it  like this: _____________ (slight dip—a few inches—in t...
  Because the columns  on the corners are  seen against a lighter  back ground  (sunlight), to the  human eye they will ...
Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON: Visual tension, organic (?)
Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON: Frieze Frieze   Parthenon frieze: PANATHENAIC PROCESSION “ Pan Athena...
Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON: Panathenaic Procession
Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON: Panathenaic Procession
Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON: Panathenaic Procession Peplos  
   Erectheion Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE ERECTHEION
Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE ERECTHEION: Caryatids
PRAXITELES SKOPAS LYSIPPOS Greek Sculpture: 300s BC
Bust of Alexander the Great  (after an original by Lysippos)
“ Hellenistic:” In the style of the Greeks (spread of Greek  culture to non-Greek lands)
Mosaic (from Pella, Macedonia) TESSERAE: The individual chips in a mosaic
Ephesus
Pergamon: Acropolis—ALTAR OF ZEUS  Giants: Primeval, cthonic monsters “ Gigantomachy”
Pergamon: ASCLEPION  Asclepius: Healing god
SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>Still standing </li></ul>
SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. HANGING GARDENS </li>...
SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. HANGING GARDENS </li>...
SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. HANGING GARDENS </li>...
Destroyed—Christians, 401 AD SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD:  TEMPLE of ARTEMIS at EPHESUS
SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. HANGING GARDENS </li>...
SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. HANGING GARDENS </li>...
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Review 4 greek and hellenistic

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  • .
  • GREEK ARCH==PARTH MOST FAMOUS, BUT IT LIKE SCULPTURE ALSO UNDERGOES AN EVOLUTION
  • So that is how they do it, standard orders, standard set of rules, and now that we know that, we will see that the most famous building project in Greece is one that was in fact famous because it broke the rules—acrop, parth—finally do decide to rebuild
  • PROPYLAEIA BY MNISIKLES, ENTRANCEWAY ITSELF DESIGNED TO LOOK LIKE A TEMPLE, BUT PROP==PROMACHOS STATUE, SALAMIS. REMIND YOU OF ATHENS ROLE IN SAVING GREEC,E AND AFFIRMING IT IS OK TO STEAL THIS MONEY—DELIAN LEAGUE
  • BIG DEAL ALWAYS BEEN PARTH, IN ITS DECEPTIVE WAY PERHAPS MOST SUBTLE REFINED AND COMPLEX BUILDING EVER
  • SAME FORM, DIFF NUMBERS, BUT THAT’S OK, THAT IS JUST ONE THING OF MANY DIFF ABOUT PARTH—AS WE WILL SEE, IN ITS OWN SUBTLE WAY PERHAPS THE MOST SOPHISTICATED BUILDING EVER CREATED
  • WHY—TAKE INTO ACCOUNT VIEWERS EXP==VETRVIUS, STYLOBATE WILL SEEM TO SINK TO EYE—AND CDOLUMNS VS OPEN SKY SEEM TO SHRIVEL
  • BUT ALSO ANOTHER REASON, NOT JUST DISCERNIBLE VISUAL EXPERIENCE, BUT SUBLIMINAL ONE, SOME OF THESE ADJUSTMENTS NOT EVEN CONSCIOULSY NOTICABLE TO NAKED EYE, BUT TO MAKE IT SEEM LESS STATIC, MORE ORGANIC, AND TO CREATE A VISUAL TENSION, SLIGHT, ALTHO NOT OVERTLY NOTICEABLE ALTERATIONS, TO CREATE TENSION, KEEP YOUR ATTENTION, MAKE YOU LOOK AT IT. AND IMPORTANT, THEY WANT YOU TO LOOK AT IT, IT HAS MESSAGES TO TELL—CONCERNED ENOUGH ABOUT YOU READING IT THAT THEY FORCE YOU AROUND BACK TO ENTER, SO HAVE TO LOOK AT ENTIRETY
  • IMPORTANT PROCESEXXION, IMPORATNAT STATUE OF ATHENA PARTHENOS, TO GIVE HER A NEW PEPLOS, ROBE—BUT LIKE GREEK ART, NOT JUST ANY, SPECIFIC ONE, BUT A KIND OF GENERIC, PERFECT ONE, AND AGAIN, RENDERED IN VERY SOPHISTICATED WAY THAT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT VIEWERS EXP
  • UNFOLDING PEPLOS
  • SO AGAIN, THREE FAMOUS NAMES IN SCULPTURE EMERGE, PRAX, SKOPAS, LYS—AND LYS ALSO IMPORTANT BECAUSE PERSONAL SCULPTOR TO THIS MAN, ALEX THE GREAT
  • Review 4 greek and hellenistic

    1. 1. Greek Art
    2. 2. Greek Art: GEOMETRIC PERIOD
    3. 3. Greek Sculpture KOUROS: Male KORE: Female
    4. 4. ARCHAIC PERIOD: ARCHAIC SMILE Greek Sculpture: KORE Figures
    5. 5. Greek Sculpture: KOUROS Figures (Severe style) CONTRAPPOSTO POSE
    6. 6. Classical Greek Sculpture
    7. 7. Pediment Sculptures: Temple of Zeus at Olympia Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs ETHOS: Self-discipline; rational, intelligent, and controlled behavior; civilized. PATHOS: Spontaneous emotional reaction; irrational; anarchic.
    8. 8. SYMMETRIA: harmony; commensurability of the parts “ The Canon” Module The Doryphoros by Polykleitos
    9. 9. “ Man is the measure of all things.”—Protagoras (Greece; 400s BC) The Doryphoros by Polykleitos
    10. 10. Greek idealism: generic (the perfectibility of human nature) The Doryphoros by Polykleitos
    11. 11. RHYTHMOS: pattern of events Discus Thrower (Discobolus) by Myron
    12. 12. LARGE-SCALE BRONZE CASTING The simple lost-wax casting technique was inadequate for complex, life-sized figures, and a more sophisticated version was adopted, involving several steps. 1. A full-size clay model of statue fashioned out of clay.
    13. 13. LARGE-SCALE BRONZE CASTING 1. A full-size clay model of statue fashioned out of clay. 2. A clay mold was then created around the clay original; it was removed in sections, resulting in a several piece mold.
    14. 14. 3. The pieces of the mold for each body were reassembled, and wax was applied to the insides of these molds; when removed the result was a hollow wax model in the shape of the original clay sculpture. Since this clay model would be used in casting, final refinements and adjustments were made to it.
    15. 15. 4. Clay molded around exterior of the wax models for each part, and liquid clay was poured inside them to make hardened cores. Metal pins inserted to connect the clay outer layer to the clay core. OUTER LAYER OF CLAY  (INVESTMENT) HOLLOW WAX MODEL OF HEAD   CLAY CORE  METAL PINS (CHAPLETS)
    16. 16. 5. Assembly heated so that wax melts out. LAYER OF WAX MELTED  OUT, LEAVING AN EMPTY SPACE  METAL PINS HOLD THE CLAY CORE IN PLACE WITHIN THE OUTER LAYER OF CLAY, PRESERVING THE HOLLOW CHANNEL
    17. 17. 6. Molten bronze poured into the hollow channel.  MOLTEN BRONZE
    18. 18. 6. Molten bronze poured into the hollow channel. 7. When the bronze hardens, the outer layer of clay and as much of the inner core as possible are removed, leaving final bronze versions of the individual body parts, which were fitted together and soldered.  MOLTEN BRONZE
    19. 19. Inlays added: Lips: copper   Nipples: copper  Eyes: stone  Teeth: silver
    20. 20. Greek Architecture The Parthenon, Athens, c.440 BC
    21. 21. Greek Architecture: Architectural Orders DORIC ORDER IONIC ORDER No base   Base Plain capital   Capital with volutes
    22. 22. Ionic: Volutes Corinthian: Acanthus leaves Greek Architecture: Architectural Orders
    23. 23. Greek Architecture: Athens--Acropolis ACROPOLIS: “ Acro Polis” (High City)
    24. 24. Athena Promachos Salamis Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis PROPYLAEIA by MNISIKLES
    25. 25. Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE (Victory) by KALLIKRATES  Nike Figures
    26. 26. Parthenon  Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON by IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES
    27. 27. Parthenon (Athens): 8 by 17 L = 2W+1: 17 = 2(8)+1 Greek Architecture: Temple Plans
    28. 28. VITRUVIUS If the platform is straight: The human eye perceives it like this: _____________ (slight dip—a few inches—in the center) PARTHENON 
    29. 29.   Because the columns on the corners are seen against a lighter back ground (sunlight), to the human eye they will appear thinner. VITRUVIUS
    30. 30. Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON: Visual tension, organic (?)
    31. 31. Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON: Frieze Frieze  Parthenon frieze: PANATHENAIC PROCESSION “ Pan Athenaic” (all Athens)
    32. 32. Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON: Panathenaic Procession
    33. 33. Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON: Panathenaic Procession
    34. 34. Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE PARTHENON: Panathenaic Procession Peplos 
    35. 35.  Erectheion Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE ERECTHEION
    36. 36. Greek Architecture: Athens—Acropolis THE ERECTHEION: Caryatids
    37. 37. PRAXITELES SKOPAS LYSIPPOS Greek Sculpture: 300s BC
    38. 38. Bust of Alexander the Great (after an original by Lysippos)
    39. 39. “ Hellenistic:” In the style of the Greeks (spread of Greek culture to non-Greek lands)
    40. 40. Mosaic (from Pella, Macedonia) TESSERAE: The individual chips in a mosaic
    41. 41. Ephesus
    42. 42. Pergamon: Acropolis—ALTAR OF ZEUS Giants: Primeval, cthonic monsters “ Gigantomachy”
    43. 43. Pergamon: ASCLEPION Asclepius: Healing god
    44. 44. SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>Still standing </li></ul>
    45. 45. SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. HANGING GARDENS </li></ul><ul><li>of BABYLON </li></ul><ul><li>King Nebuchadnezzar II </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed—date unknown </li></ul><ul><li>No trace has ever been found </li></ul>
    46. 46. SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. HANGING GARDENS </li></ul><ul><li>of BABYLON </li></ul><ul><li>3. STATUE OF ZEUS </li></ul><ul><li>at OLYMPIA </li></ul><ul><li>Move to Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed in a fire—462 AD </li></ul>
    47. 47. SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. HANGING GARDENS </li></ul><ul><li>of BABYLON </li></ul><ul><li>3. STATUE OF ZEUS </li></ul><ul><li>at OLYMPIA </li></ul><ul><li>4. THE MAUSOLEUM </li></ul><ul><li>(of MAUSOLUS) </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed by 1522 AD </li></ul><ul><li>after the Knights of St. </li></ul><ul><li>John use the stones to </li></ul><ul><li>build their fortress. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Destroyed—Christians, 401 AD SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD: TEMPLE of ARTEMIS at EPHESUS
    49. 49. SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. HANGING GARDENS </li></ul><ul><li>of BABYLON </li></ul><ul><li>3. STATUE OF ZEUS </li></ul><ul><li>at OLYMPIA </li></ul><ul><li>4. THE MAUSOLEUM </li></ul><ul><li>(of MAUSOLUS) </li></ul><ul><li>5. TEMPLE of ARTEMIS </li></ul><ul><li>at EPHESUS </li></ul><ul><li>6. THE COLOSSUS of </li></ul><ul><li>RHODES </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed—sold as scrap by </li></ul><ul><li>Arab merchants 654 AD </li></ul>
    50. 50. SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD <ul><li>GREAT PYRAMID(S?) </li></ul><ul><li>of EGYPT </li></ul><ul><li>2. HANGING GARDENS </li></ul><ul><li>of BABYLON </li></ul><ul><li>3. STATUE OF ZEUS </li></ul><ul><li>at OLYMPIA </li></ul><ul><li>4. THE MAUSOLEUM </li></ul><ul><li>(of MAUSOLUS) </li></ul><ul><li>5. TEMPLE of ARTEMIS </li></ul><ul><li>at EPHESUS </li></ul><ul><li>6. THE COLOSSUS of </li></ul><ul><li>RHODES </li></ul><ul><li>7. THE LIGHTHOUSE of </li></ul><ul><li>ALEXANDRIA </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed by Sultan in 1480 AD; stone used for fortifications </li></ul>
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